- Grammatical tense
Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.
Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.
There are languages (such as
isolating languages, like Chinese) in which tense is not used, but implied in temporal adverbs when needed, and some (such as Japanese) in which temporal information appears in the inflection of adjectives, lending them a verb-like quality. In some languages (such as Russian) a simple verb may indicate aspect and tense.
The number of tenses in a language may be controversial, since its verbs may indicate qualities of uncertainty, frequency, completion, duration, possibility, and even whether information derives from experience or hearsay.
Basic tenses in English
English has two tenses by which verbs are inflected, a non-past tense (
present tense) and a past tense(indicated by ablautor the suffix"-ed"). What is commonly called the future tense in English is indicated with a modal auxiliary, not verbal inflection.
The following chart shows how TAM (tense/aspect/mood) is expressed in English:
Since "will" is a modal auxiliary, it cannot occur with other modals, like "can", "may", and "must". Only aspects can be used in
Grammarians and linguists typically consider "will" to be a future marker and give English two non-inflected tenses, a
future tenseand a future-in-past tense, marked by "will" and "would" respectively. In general parlance, all combinations of aspects, moods, and tenses are often referred to as "tenses".
The more complex tenses in
Indo-European languagesare formed by combining a particular tense of the verb with certain verbal auxiliaries, the most common of which are various forms of "be", various forms of "have", and modal auxiliaries such as English "will". Romance and Germanic languages often add "to hold", "to stand", "to go", or "to come" as auxiliary verbs. For example, Spanish uses "estar" ("to be") with the present gerund to indicate the present continuous. Portuguese uses "ter" ("to have") with the past participle for the perfect aspect. Swedish uses "kommer att" ("come to") for the simple future. These constructions are often known as complex tenses or compound tenses (a more accurate technical term is periphrastic tenses).
:1 Oтивам and отида are two different verbs meaning "to go", which do not differ semantically, but grammatically. Their aspect is different, the first one is an incompletive verb and the second one is a completive verb.
:2 This only works with adverbs, as in "I was going when someone suddenly stopped me"; not just "I was going to their house". Otherwise, the corresponding simple tense is used.
:3 This is not a true future tense, but a
going-to future, as its exact meaning is "I am going to go".
:4 The use of the verb "tulla" "to come" to express a future tense is a
sveticismand is recommended against by the language regulator. Official Finnish has no future tense, and even the use of this "tulen"-construction is uncommon in unofficial contexts. Thus, the present tense is used. However, a telic object may implicitly communicate the time, which has no direct equivalent in English.
Tense, aspect, and mood
The distinction between grammatical tense, aspect, and mood is fuzzy and at times controversial. The English "continuous" temporal constructions express an aspect as well as a tense, and some therefore consider that aspect to be separate from tense in English. In Spanish the traditional verb tenses are also combinations of aspectual and temporal information.
Going even further, there's an ongoing dispute among modern English grammarians (see
English grammar) regarding whether "tense" can only refer to inflected forms. In Germanic languagesthere are very few tenses (often only two) formed strictly by inflection, and one school contends that all complex or periphrastic time-formations are aspects rather than tenses.
The abbreviation "TAM", "T/A/M" or "TMA" is sometimes found when dealing with verbal morphemes that combine tense, aspect and mood information.
In some languages, tense and other TAM information may be marked on a noun, rather than a verb. This is called
Classification of tenses
Tenses can be broadly classified as:
absolute tense: indicates time in relationship to the time of the utterance (i.e. "now"). For example, "I am sitting down", the tense is indicated in relation to the present moment.
relative tense: in relationship to some other time, other than the time of utterance, e.g. "While strolling through the shops, she saw a nice dress in the window". Here, the "saw" is relative to the time of the "strolling". The relationship between the time of "strolling" and the time of utterance is not clearly specified.
* absolute-relative: indicates time in relationship to some other event, whose time in turn is relative to the time of utterance. (Thus, in absolute-relative tense, the time of the verb is indirectly related to the time of the utterance; in absolute tense, it is directly related; in relative tense, its relationship to the time of utterance is left unspecified.) For example, "When I walked through the park, I saw a bird." Here, "saw" is present relative to the "walked", and "walked" is past relative to the time of the utterance, thus "saw" is in absolute-relative tense.
All of the following tenses may occur in either an absolute or a relative frame.
Tenses can be quite finely distinguished from one another, although no language will express simply all of these distinctions. As we will see, some of these tenses in fact involve elements of modality (e.g. predictive and not-yet tenses), but they are difficult to classify clearly as either tenses or moods.
Many languages define tense not just in terms of past/future/present, but also in terms of how far into the past or future they are. Thus they introduce concepts of closeness or remoteness, or tenses that are relevant to the measurement of time into days (hodiernal or
Some languages also distinguish not just between past, present, and future, but also nonpast, nonpresent, nonfuture. Each of these latter tenses incorporates two of the former, without specifying which.
Future tenses. Some languages have different future tenses to indicate how far into the future we are talking about. Some of these include:
**Near future tense: in the near future, soon
Hodiernal future tense: sometime today
Post-hodiernal future tense: sometime after today
Remote future tense: in the more distant future
Predictive future tense: a future tense which expresses a prediction rather than an intention, i.e., "I predict he will lose the election, although I want him to win". As such, it is really more of a mood than a tense. (Its tenseness rather than modality lies in the fact that you can predict the future, but not the past.)
Nonfuture tense: refers to either the present or the past, but does not clearly specify which. Contrasts with future.
Nonpast tense: refers to either the present or the future, but does not clearly specify which. Contrasts with past.
Not-yet tense: has not happened in present or past (nonfuture), but often with the implication that it is expected to happen in the future. (As such, is both a tense and a modality). In English, it is expressed with "not yet", hence its name.
Past tenses. Some languages have different past tenses to indicate how far into the past we are talking about.
Hesternal past tense: yesterday or early, but not remote
Hodiernal past tense: sometime earlier today
Immediate past tense: very recent past tense, e.g., in the last minute or two
Recent past tense: in the last few days/weeks/months (exact definition varies)
Remote past tense: more than a few days/weeks/months ago (exact definition varies)
Nonrecent past tense: not recent past tense, contrasting with recent past tense
Nonremote past tense: not remote past tense, contrasting with remote past tense
Prehesternal past tense: before hesternal past tense
Prehodiernal past tense: before hodiernal past tense
Preterite: past, conceived as a whole
Still tense: indicates a situation held to be the case, at or immediately before the utterance
future perfect tense: by some time in the future, before some time in the future
future-in-future tense: at some time in the future, will still be in the future
future-in-past tense: at some time in the past, will be in the future
future-perfect-in-past tense: by some time which is in the future of some time in the past, e.g., Sally went to work; by the time she should be home, the burglary would have been completed.
past perfect tense: at some time in the past, was already in the past
* Bybee, Joan L., Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca (1994) "The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World". University of Chicago Press.
* Comrie, Bernard (1985) "Tense". Cambridge University Press. [ISBN 0-521-28138-5]
* Downing, Angela, and Philip Locke (1992) "Viewpoints on Events: Tense, Aspect and Modality". In A. Downing and P. Locke, "A University Course in English Grammar", Prentice Hall International, 350--402.
* Guillaume, Gustave (1929) "Temps et verbe". Paris: Champion.
* Hopper, Paul J., ed. (1982) "Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics and Pragmatics". Amsterdam: Benjamins.
*Smith, Carlota (1997). The Parameter of Aspect. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
* Tedeschi, Philip, and Anne Zaenen, eds. (1981) "Tense and Aspect". (Syntax and Semantics 14). New York: Academic Press.
Sequence of tenses
* [http://users.skynet.be/bk244875/wiki/flowcharttenses.pdf Tenses Flowchart and worksheet (pdf-file)]
* [http://www.EnglishTensesWithCartoons.com 12 Verb Tenses Explained + Exercises ]
* [http://www.bcbsr.com/greek/gtense.html Greek tenses]
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