Member states of NATO

Member states of NATO
NATO members highlighted in blue
Timeline of countries becoming NATO members. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. Light blue marks new members.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an international alliance that consists of 28 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it should be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of two are North American countries (Canada and the United States) and 26 are European countries. All members have militias, although Iceland does not have a typical army (it does, however, have a military coast guard and a small unit of soldiers for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Member states by date of accession

Date Country Enlargement Notes
4 April 1949  Belgium Founders
 Denmark Unlike Denmark's EU membership, its NATO membership does include the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
 France France withdrew from the integrated military command in 1966 to pursue an independent defence system but returned to full membership on April 4, 2009.
 Iceland Iceland, the sole member that does not have its own standing army, joined on the condition that it would not be expected to establish one. However, its strategic geographic position in the Atlantic made it an invaluable member. It has a Coast Guard and has recently contributed a voluntary peacekeeping force, trained in Norway for NATO.
 United Kingdom
 United States
18 February 1952  Greece First Greece withdrew its forces from NATO’s military command structure from 1974 to 1980 as a result of Greco-Turkish tensions following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
9 May 1955  Germany Second Joined as West Germany; Saarland reunited with it in 1957 and the territories of Berlin and the former German Democratic Republic reunited with it on 3 October 1990. The GDR was a member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1956–1990.
30 May 1982  Spain Third
12 March 1999  Czech Republic Fourth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 Hungary Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Poland Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
29 March 2004  Bulgaria Fifth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Estonia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Latvia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Lithuania Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Romania Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Slovakia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 Slovenia Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned)
1 April 2009  Albania Sixth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1968.
 Croatia Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned)


Country Population
GDP (nominal)
(2010, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2010, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2010, % of GDP)
 Belgium 10,827,519 465,676 5,382 1.15
 Bulgaria 7,351,234 44,843 698 1.55
 Canada 34,447,000 1,574,051 20,164 1.28
 Croatia 4,425,747 59,917 1,060 1.77
 Czech Republic 10,515,818 192,152 2,529 1.31
 Denmark 5,560,628 310,760 4,588 1.47
 Estonia 1,340,122 19,220 336 1.75
 France 65,821,885 2,582,527 61,285 2.37
 Germany 81,802,000 3,315,643 46,848 1.41
 Greece 11,306,183 305,415 9,369 3.07
 Hungary 10,014,324 128,960 1,323 1.02
 Iceland 318,452 12,767 12 0.09
 Italy 60,605,053 2,055,114 38,198 1.86
 Latvia 2,229,500 23,385 268 1.15
 Lithuania 3,249,400 35,734 427 1.19
 Luxembourg 502,100 52,433 301 0.57
 Netherlands 16,667,700 783,293 11,604 1.48
 Norway 4,937,900 414,462 6,322 1.52
 Poland 38,092,000 468,539 8,380 1.78
 Portugal 10,636,888 229,336 5,213 2.27
 Romania 21,466,174 161,629 2,164 1.33
 Slovakia 5,435,273 86,262 1,010 1.17
 Slovenia 2,046,510 46,442 788 1.69
 Spain 46,148,605 1,409,946 15,803 1.12
 Turkey 73,722,988 741,853 15,634 2.1
 United Kingdom 62,008,048 2,247,455 57,424 2.55
 United States 311,328,000 14,657,800 687,105 4.6
Total 906,002,051 32,223,344 1,004,436 3.11


  1. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1949-04-04. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 

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