- Margherita de' Medici
Margherita de' Medici Duchess of Parma and Piacenza Reign 11 October 1628 - 11 September 1646 Regent of Parma and Piacenza Reign 1646 - 1648 Co-Regent Francesco Farnese Spouse Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma Issue Ranuccio II, Duke of Parma
Full name Margherita de' Medici House House of Farnese
House of Medici
Father Cosimo II de' Medici Mother Maria Magdalena of Austria Born 31 May 1612
Palazzo Pitti, Florence
Died 6 February 1679(aged 66)
Religion Roman Catholicism
Margherita de' Medici (31 May 1612 – 6 February 1679) was Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635 and regent of the entire duchy in 1646 after the death of her husband.
Margherita's siblings included: Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cardinal Gian Carlo de' Medici, Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici and Anna, wife of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. Margherita's other siblings died in childhood or eary adulthood.
Her paternal grandparents were Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Christina of Lorraine. Ferdinando was a son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his first wife Eleanor of Toledo. Margherita's maternal grandparents were Charles II, Archduke of Austria and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. Maria Anna was the eldest daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Archduchess Anna of Austria. Anna was a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Hence Margherita is a descendent of the Holy Roman Emperors.
Margherita became engaged to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1620. They married in 1628 when he came of age. The marriage had been strongly desired by Odoardo's father, Ranuccio, who saw it as a means of strengthening the alliance between the Duchy of Parma and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, then ruled by the Medici family.
The marriage took place in Florence on October 11, 1628 in Florence. The wedding celebrations were accompanied by much spectacle and pagentry, including the performance of Marco da Gagliano's opera La Flora, composed especially for the occasion. To welcome the couple back to Parma, Mercury and Mars, with music by Claudio Monteverdi and text Claudio Achillini was performed in the Teatro Farnese.
The years in which the couple ruled over Parma were marked by the plague of 1630 and the contrast between the splendor of the court and the tax burden to which they had subjected their subjects. The tax money was used to improve Odoardo's armies. The Duke also had a pro-French policy.
According to portraiture and the sources of the time, Margherita was a beautiful woman, as well as amiable and well-educated. Unlike his predecessors, the duke was very devoted and loyal to her and there were never any sources that claimed Odoardo had illegitimate children.
On September 11, 1646, Odoardo died. Their eldest son, Ranuccio was not yet old enough to rule the Duchy alone so his mother, Margherita acted as regent until her son was old enough to govern alone.
Margherita outlived at least two of her children. She died in Parma on February 6, 1679.
- Caterina Farnese (2 October 1629) died at birth.
- Ranuccio II Farnese (17 September 1630 – 11 December 1694) married (1) Margaret Yolande of Savoy, (2) Isabella d'Este, (3) Maria d'Este.
- Alessandro Farnese (10 January 1635 - 18 February 1689), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands died unmarried.
- Onorato Farnese (24 January 1636 -2 November 1656) died unmarried.
- Caterina Farnese (3 September 1637 - 24 April 1684) a nun
- Maria Maddalena Farnese (15 July 1638 - 11 March 1693) died unmarried.
- Pietro Farnese (4 April 1639 - 4 March 1677) died unmarried.
- Ottavio Farnese (5 January 1641 - 4 August 1641) died in infancy.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and Styles
- 31 May 1612 – 11 October 1628 Her Highness Margherita de' Medici
- 11 October 1628 – 11 September 1646 Her Highness The Duchess of Parma
- 11 September 1646 – 6 February 1679 Her Highness The Dowager Duchess of Parma
- ^ Ancestors of Margherita de' Medici
- ^ Dario Busolini, «FARNESE, Caterina (in religione Teresa Margherita dell'Incarnazione) », Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Vol. 45, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana Treccani
2nd Generation 3rd GenerationPrincess Maria Cristina · Margherita, Duchess of Parma · Anna, Archduchess of Further Austria · Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat 4th Generationnone 5th Generation 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationMaria Theresia, Queen of Saxony* · Princess Maria Anna* · Princess Maria Amalia* · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria* 9th GenerationPrincess Carolina Ferdinande* · Princess Maria Luisa* · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia* 10th GenerationPrincess Maria Carolina* · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria* · Princess Maria Maximiliana* · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani* · Princess Maria Theresia* · Princess Maria Cristina* · Princess Maria Anna* · Maria Luisa, Princess of Ysenburg and Büdingen* 11th GenerationPrincess Maria Antonietta* · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony* · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein* · Princess Margareta* · Princess Germana* · Princess Agnes* · Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria* · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha* · Princess Maria Antonietta* · Maria Immakulata, Duchess Robert of Württemberg* · Princess Henriette* 12th GenerationHelena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg* · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg* · Princess Dolores* · Maria Immaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri* · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio* · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez* · Princess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger* · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems* · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg* · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg* · Princess Maria Elisabeth* · Princess Agnes* 13th GenerationElisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun* · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno* · Marie Antoinette, Freifrau von Proff zu Irnich* · Princess Marie Christine* · Princess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso* · Princess Verena* · Princess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber* · Agnes, Freifrau Peter von Fürstenberg* · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski* · Alexandra, Freifrau Viktor von Baillou* · Maria Magdalena, Freifrau von Holzhausen* · Princess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer* · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein* · Princess Maria Margaretha* · Princess Ludovica* · Princess Allix* · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg* · Valerie, Margravine of Baden* · Alberta, Freifrau Alexander von Kottwitz-Erdödy* · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria* · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech* 14th GenerationPrincess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff* · Princess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks* · Princess Alicia* · Princess Maria Christina* · Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner* · Princess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner* · Princess Hedwig* · Princess Veronika* 15th GenerationPrincess Tatyana* · Princess Anabella* · Princess Tara* * also an archduchess of Austria
^did not have a royal or noble birth
2nd Generation 3rd GenerationMargherita Aldobrandini* 4th GenerationMargherita de' Medici 5th Generationnone 6th Generation 7th Generationnone 8th Generationnone 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th GenerationLouise Marie Thérèse d'Artois 13th GenerationPrincess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies · Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal · Princess Maria Immacolata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies · Infanta Adelgundes of Portgual 14th GenerationArchduchess Maria Anna of Austria · Hedwig de La Rochefoucauld · Madeleine de Bourbon* · Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg · Princess Margaret of Denmark · Princess Maria Francesca of Savoy · Princess Margaret of Thurn and Taxis · Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium^! · Joan Douglas Dillon*^! 15th Generation 16th GenerationCountess Lydia of Holstein-Ledreborg · Constance de Ravinel* *did not have a royal or noble title by birth
^also princess of Luxembourg by marriage
!also princess of Nassau by marriageGerolama Orsini (1545-1547) · Margaret of Austria (1547-1586) · Margherita Aldobrandini (1600-1620) · Margherita de' Medici (1628-1646) · Princess Margherita Violante of Savoy (1660-1663) · Isabella d'Este (1664-1666) · Maria d'Este (1668-1686) · Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg (1695-1727) · Enrichetta d'Este (1727-1731) · Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735-1740) · Princess Louise Élisabeth of France (1748-1759) · Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria (1769-1802) · Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy (1847-1848) · Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois (1848-1854) · Princess Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies* (1869-1882) · Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal* (1884-1907) · Madeleine de Bourbon* (1974-1977) · Princess Irene of the Netherlands* (1977-1981) · Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel* (2010-)
- denotes titular Duchess
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