Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg


Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Charlotte
The Grand Duchess in 1942
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Reign 14 January 1919 - 12 November 1964 (&1000000000000004500000045 years, &10000000000000303000000303 days)
Predecessor Marie-Adélaïde
Successor Jean
Spouse Felix of Bourbon-Parma
Issue
Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Elizabeth, Duchess of Hohenberg
Adélaide, Countess of Donnersmarck
Gabriele, Countess of Holstein-Ledreborg
Prince Charles
Alix, Princess of Ligne
House House of Nassau-Weilburg
House of Bourbon-Parma
Father William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Mother Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal
Born 23 January 1896(1896-01-23)
Berg Castle, Luxembourg
Died 9 July 1985(1985-07-09) (aged 89)

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Charlotte Adelgonde Élise/Elisabeth Marie Wilhelmine vu Lëtzebuerg; Schloss Berg, 23 January 1896 – Schloss Fischbach, 9 July 1985) was the reigning Grand Duchess of Luxembourg from 1919 to 1964.

Contents

Biography

A private portrait in 1921

Early life and life as Grand Duchess

Charlotte was the second daughter of William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and his wife Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal. Her maternal grandparents were King Miguel of Portugal and Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.

When her older sister Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, who had succeeded their father, was forced to abdicate on 14 January 1919, Charlotte became the one who had to deal with the revolutionary tendencies in the country. Unlike her sister, she chose not to meddle with its politics.

In a referendum about the new constitution on 28 September 1919, 77.8% of the Luxembourgish people voted for the continuation of a Grand Ducal monarchy with Charlotte as head of state. In this constitution, the power of the monarch was severely restricted.

During the German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II, Charlotte, exiled in London, became an important symbol of national unity.

Marriage and children

On 6 November 1919 in Luxembourg, she married Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a first cousin on her mother's side. (Both Charlotte and Felix were grandchildren of King Miguel of Portugal through his daughters Maria Anna and Maria Antonia, respectively). With the marriage, their lineal descent was raised in style from Grand Ducal Highness to Royal Highness. The union produced six children:

Name Date of birth Date of death Spouses
Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg 5 January 1921 (1921-01-05) (age 90) Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium (1927–2005)
Elizabeth, Duchess of Hohenberg 22 December 1922 (1922-12-22) (age 88) Franz, Duke of Hohenberg (1927–1977)
Marie Adalaide, Countess Henckel von Donnersmarck 21 May 1924 28 February 2007(2007-02-28) (aged 82) Karl Josef Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck (1928–2008)
Marie Gabriele, Countess of Holstein-Ledreborg 2 August 1925 (1925-08-02) (age 86) Knud, Count of Holstein-Ledreborg (1919–2001)
Charles, Prince of Luxembourg 7 August 1927 26 July 1977(1977-07-26) (aged 49) Joan Douglas Dillon (1935-)
Alix, Princess of Ligne 24 August 1929 (1929-08-24) (age 82) Antoine, 13th Prince of Ligne (1925–2005)

Abdication and death

On 12 November 1964, she abdicated in favour of her son, Prince Jean, who then reigned until 2000.

Charlotte died on 9 July 1985, from cancer. She was interred in the Ducal Crypt of the Notre-Dame Cathedral in the city of Luxembourg.

Had she not abdicated, she would have reigned for a total of &1000000000000006600000066 years, &10000000000000173000000173 days.

She was the 366th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

Titles and styles

Monarchical styles of
Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg
Armoiries Luxembourg Bourbon avec ornements.svg
Reference style Her Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Ma'am
  • 23 January 1896 – 14 January 1919: Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Charlotte of Nassau-Weilburg
  • 14 January 1919 – 12 November 1964: Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
  • 12 November 1964 – 9 July 1985: Her Royal Highness Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, Princess of Nassau-Weilburg, Princess de Bourbon-Parma

Ancestry

References

External links

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Born: 23 January 1896 Died: 6 July 1985
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Marie-Adélaïde
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
1919–1964
Succeeded by
Jean
Royal titles
Preceded by
Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Luxembourg
Heir to the throne of Luxembourg
as heiress presumptive
1912–1919
Succeeded by
Princess Hilda of Luxembourg
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Marie-Adélaïde
— TITULAR —
Duke of Nassau
1919–1964
Reason for succession failure:
Duchy annexed by Prussia in 1866
Succeeded by
Jean

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