- Marie de' Medici
Marie de Médicis Portrait of Marie de Medicis by Peter Paul Rubens Queen consort of France and Navarre Tenure 17 December 1600 – 14 May 1610 Coronation 13 May 1610 Spouse Henry IV of France Issue Louis XIII of France
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
Christine, Duchess of Savoy
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England and Scotland
Full name Maria de' Medici House House of Bourbon
House of Medici
Father Francesco I, Grand Duke of Tuscany Mother Joanna of Austria Born 26 April 1575
Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Tuscany
Died 4 July 1642 (aged 67)
Burial Cologne Cathedral
Marie de Médicis (26 April 1575 – 4 July 1642), Italian Maria de' Medici, was queen consort of France, as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She herself was a member of the wealthy and powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until he came of age. She was famed for her ceaseless political intrigues at the court of France and extensive artistic patronage.
Born in Florence, Italy, Marie was the daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Johanna, Archduchess of Austria. Her maternal grandparents were Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. She was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora de' Medici survived to adulthood.
Uncommonly beautiful in her youth, she married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The proxy wedding ceremony in Florence was celebrated with lavish entertainments, including examples of the newly-invented musical genre of opera. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.
The marriage was not a successful one. The queen feuded with Henry's mistresses in language that shocked French courtiers. She quarrelled mostly with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former "official mistress", Gabrielle d'Estrées. When he failed to do so, and instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Although the king could have easily banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife Margaret of Valois, prompting Henry to allow her back into the realm.
Marie was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parlement of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues from the court.
The construction and furnishing of the Palais du Luxembourg, which she referred to as her "Palais Médicis", formed her major artistic project during her regency. The site was purchased in 1612 and construction began in 1615, to designs of Salomon de Brosse. Her court painter was Peter Paul Rubens.
During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political acumen, and her abilities scarcely improved after she assumed the regency. Extremely stubborn and of limited intelligence, she was soon entirely under the influence of her maid Leonora "Galigai" Dori. Dori conspired with her unscrupulous Italian husband, Concino Concini, who was created Marquis d'Ancre and a Marshal of France, even though he had never fought a battle.
The Concinis had Henry IV's able minister, the Duke of Sully, dismissed, and Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France by means of their influence. Half Habsburg herself, Marie abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French foreign policy. She lent support to Habsburg Spain by arranging the marriage of her daughter Elisabeth to the future Philip IV of Spain.
Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted. The queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented to buy them off on 15 May 1614. The opposition to the regency was led by Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General in 1614 and 1615, the last time they would meet in France until the opening events of the French Revolution.
In 1616 Marie's rule was strengthened by the addition to her councils of Armand Jean du Plessis (later Cardinal Richelieu), who had come to prominence at the meetings of the Estates General. However, her son Louis XIII, already several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority the next year. The king overturned the pro-Habsburg, pro-Spanish foreign policy pursued by his mother, ordered the assassination of Concini, exiled the queen to the Château de Blois and appointed Richelieu to his bishopric.
After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness", as she put it, Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston d'Orleans, which Louis's forces easily dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, who was allowed to hold a small court at Angers. She resumed her place in the royal council in 1621.
The portrait by Rubens (above right) was painted at this time. Marie rebuilt the Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) in Paris, with an extravagantly flattering cycle of paintings by Rubens as part of the luxurious decor, called The Marie de' Medici Cycle (detail from one painting on left).
After the death of his favourite, the duke of Luynes, Louis turned increasingly for guidance to Richelieu. Marie de Medici's attempts to displace Richelieu ultimately led to her attempted coup; for a single day, the "Day of the Dupes", in November 1630, she seemed to have succeeded; but the triumph of Richelieu was followed by her exile to Compiègne in 1630, from where she escaped to Brussels in 1631 and Amsterdam in 1638.
Her visit to Amsterdam was considered a diplomatic triumph by the Dutch, as her visit lent official recognition to the newly-formed Dutch Republic; accordingly she was accorded an elaborate ceremonial royal entry, of the sort the Republic avoided for its own rulers. Spectacular displays (by Claes Corneliszoon Moeyaert) and water pageants took place in the city’s harbor in celebration of her visit. There was a procession led by two mounted trumpeters, and a large temporary structure erected on an artificial island in the Amstel River was built especially for the festival. The structure was designed to display a series of dramatic tableaux in tribute to her once she set foot on the floating island and entered its pavilion. Afterwards she was offered an Indonesian rice table by the burgomaster Albert Burgh. He also sold her a famous rosary, captured in Brazil. The visit prompted Caspar Barlaeus to write his Medicea hospes ("The Medicean Guest") (1638).
Marie subsequently travelled to Cologne, where she died in 1642, scheming against Richelieu to the end.
Honoré de Balzac encapsulated the Romantic generation's negative view:
- "Marie de' Medici, all of whose actions were prejudicial to France, has escaped the shame which ought to cover her name. Marie de' Medici wasted the wealth amassed by Henry IV; she never purged herself of the charge of having known of the king's assassination; her intimate was d'Épernon, who did not ward off Ravaillac's blow, and who was proved to have known the murderer personally for a long time. Marie's conduct was such that she forced her son to banish her from France, where she was encouraging her other son, Gaston, to rebel; and the victory Richelieu at last won over her (on the Day of the Dupes) was due solely to the discovery the cardinal made, and imparted to Louis XIII, of secret documents relating to the death of Henry IV." – Essay Catherine de Medicis.
Name Birth Death Notes Louis XIII, King of France 27 September 1601 14 May 1643 Married Anne of Austria (1601–1666) in 1615. Had issue. Elisabeth, Queen of Spain 22 November 1602 6 October 1644 Married Philip IV, King of Spain (1605–1665) in 1615. Had issue. Christine, Duchess of Savoy 12 February 1606 27 December 1663 Married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (1587–1637) in 1619. Had issue. Nicholas Henri, Duke of Orléans 16 April 1607 17 November 1611 Died young. Gaston, Duke of Orleans 25 April 1608 2 February 1660 Married (1) Marie de Bourbon (1605–1627) in 1626. Had issue.
Married (2) Marguerite of Lorraine (1615–1672) in 1632. Had issue.
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England 25 November 1609 10 September 1669 Married Charles I, King of England (1600–1649) in 1625. Had issue.
Titles and styles
- 26 April 1575 – 17 December 1600 Her Highness Princess Maria
- 17 December 1600 - 14 May 1610 Her Most Christian Majesty The Queen
- 14 May 1610 - 20 October 1614 Her Most Christian Majesty The Queen regent
- 20 October 1614 - 4 July 1642 Her Most Christian Majesty The Queen mother
Ancestors of Marie de' Medici Giovanni de' Medici il Popolano Giovanni dalle Bande Nere Caterina Sforza Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Jacopo Salviati Maria Salviati Lucrezia de' Medici Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga Isabel de Zúñiga y Pimentel Eleanor of Toledo Luis Pimentel, 1st Marquis of Villafranca Maria Osorio, 2nd Marquise of Villafranca Juana Osorio, 1st Marquise of Villafranca Marie de Médici Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Philip I of Castile Mary of Burgundy Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Aragon Joanna of Castile Isabella I of Castile Archduchess Johanna of Austria Casimir IV Jagiellon Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria Anna of Bohemia and Hungary Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale Anna of Foix-Candale Infanta Catherine of Navarre
- Hübner, Helga & Regtmeier, Eva (2010) Maria de' Medici: eine Fremde; hrsg. v. Dirk Hoeges. (Dialoghi/Dialogues: Literatur und Kultur Italiens und Frankreichs; Band 14). Frankfurt: Peter Lang ISBN 978-3-631-60118-1
- ^ Leonie Frieda (14 March 2006). Catherine de Medici: Renaissance Queen of France. HarperCollins. pp. 386–. ISBN 9780060744939. http://books.google.com/books?id=cPbRwMidibEC&pg=PA386. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ THE AMERICAN CYCLOPEADIA. 1874. pp. 671–. http://books.google.com/books?id=l2kP_63gEXYC&pg=PA671. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Rubens cycle of paintings apotheosizing Marie de Medici Definitive statements of Baroque art.
- National Maritime Museum
- Drawing by Claes Cornelisz. Moeyaert the entrance of Maria de Medici in Amsterdam
- Festival Books
- "Maria de' Medici". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
French royalty Preceded by
Margaret of Valois
Queen consort of Navarre
Anne of Austria
Queen consort of France
Queens and Empresses of FranceAdelaide of Aquitaine (987–996) · Rozala of Italy (996) · Bertha of Burgundy (996–1000) · Constance of Arles (1003–1031) · Matilda of Frisia (1034–1044) · Anne of Kiev (1051–1060) · Bertha of Holland (1071–1092) · Bertrade de Montfort (1092–1108) · Adelaide of Maurienne (1115–1137) · Eleanor of Aquitaine (1137–1152) · Constance of Castile (1154–1160) · Adèle of Champagne (1164–1180) · Isabelle of Hainaut (1180–1190) · Ingeborg of Denmark (1193–1193; 1200-1223) · Agnes of Merania (1196–1200) · Blanche of Castile (1223–1226) · Margaret of Provence (1234–1270) · Isabella of Aragon (1270–1271) · Maria of Brabant (1274–1285) · Joan I of Navarre (1285–1305) · Margaret of Burgundy (1314–1315) · Clementia of Hungary (1315–1316) · Joan II of Burgundy (1316–1322) · Blanche of Burgundy (1322) · Marie of Luxembourg (1322–1324) · Jeanne d'Évreux (1325–1328) · Joan the Lame (1328–1348) · Blanche of Navarre (1350) · Joan I of Auvergne (1350–1360) · Jeanne de Bourbon (1364–1378) · Isabeau of Bavaria (1385–1422) · Marie of Anjou (1422–1461) · Charlotte of Savoy (1461–1483) · Anne of Brittany (1491–1498; 1498–1514) · Joan of France (1498) · Mary of England (1514-1515) · Claude of France (1515–1524) · Eleanor of Austria (1530–1547) · Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) · Mary, Queen of Scots (1559–1560) · Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria (1570–1574) · Louise of Lorraine (1575–1589) · Margaret of Valois (1589–1599) · Marie de' Medici (1600–1610) · Archduchess Anne of Austria (1615–1643) · Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1660–1683) · Marie Leszczyńska (1725–1768) · Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (1774–1792) · Princess Marie Joséphine of Savoy* (1795–1810) · Joséphine de Beauharnais (1804–1810) · Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria (1810–1814) · Princess Marie Thérèse of France* (1830) · Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily (1830–1848) · Eugénie de Montijo (1853–1870) *disputed 2nd Generation 3rd GenerationPrincess Maria Cristina · Margherita, Duchess of Parma · Anna, Archduchess of Further Austria · Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat 4th Generationnone 5th Generation 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationMaria Theresia, Queen of Saxony* · Princess Maria Anna* · Princess Maria Amalia* · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria* 9th GenerationPrincess Carolina Ferdinande* · Princess Maria Luisa* · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia* 10th GenerationPrincess Maria Carolina* · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria* · Princess Maria Maximiliana* · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani* · Princess Maria Theresia* · Princess Maria Cristina* · Princess Maria Anna* · Maria Luisa, Princess of Ysenburg and Büdingen* 11th GenerationPrincess Maria Antonietta* · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony* · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein* · Princess Margareta* · Princess Germana* · Princess Agnes* · Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria* · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha* · Princess Maria Antonietta* · Maria Immakulata, Duchess Robert of Württemberg* · Princess Henriette* 12th GenerationHelena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg* · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg* · Princess Dolores* · Maria Immaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri* · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio* · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez* · Princess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger* · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems* · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg* · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg* · Princess Maria Elisabeth* · Princess Agnes* 13th GenerationElisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun* · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno* · Marie Antoinette, Freifrau von Proff zu Irnich* · Princess Marie Christine* · Princess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso* · Princess Verena* · Princess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber* · Agnes, Freifrau Peter von Fürstenberg* · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski* · Alexandra, Freifrau Viktor von Baillou* · Maria Magdalena, Freifrau von Holzhausen* · Princess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer* · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein* · Princess Maria Margaretha* · Princess Ludovica* · Princess Allix* · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg* · Valerie, Margravine of Baden* · Alberta, Freifrau Alexander von Kottwitz-Erdödy* · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria* · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech* 14th GenerationPrincess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff* · Princess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks* · Princess Alicia* · Princess Maria Christina* · Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner* · Princess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner* · Princess Hedwig* · Princess Veronika* 15th GenerationPrincess Tatyana* · Princess Anabella* · Princess Tara* * also an archduchess of Austria
^did not have a royal or noble birth
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