Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria


Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria
Maria Maddalena of Austria
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Tenure 17 February 1609 – 28 February 1621
Spouse Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Issue
Ferdinando II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cardinal Gian Carlo
Margherita, Duchess of Parma
Mattias, Governor of Siena
Prince Francesco
Anna, Archduchess of Austria
Leopold, Governor of Siena
Full name
Maria Magdalena
House House of Habsburg
House of Medici
Father Charles II, Archduke of Austria
Mother Maria Anna of Bavaria
Born 7 October 1589(1589-10-07)
Graz, Austria
Died 1 November 1631(1631-11-01) (aged 42)
Padua, Venice

Maria Maddalena of Austria (Maria Magdalena; 7 October 1589 – 1 November 1631) was Grand Duchess of Tuscany from her husband's accession in 1609 until his death in 1621. With him, she had eight children, including a duchess of Parma, a grand duke of Tuscany, and an archduchess of Further Austria. She was the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. During the minority of her son, Grand Duke Ferdinando, she and her mother-in-law acted as regents. She died on 1 November 1631 in Padua.

Contents

Biography

Born in Graz, she was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria.

Marriage

In 1608, Maria Maddalena was married to Cosimo de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany. Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici, the bridegroom's father, arranged the marriage as to assuage Spain's (where Maria Maddalena's sister was the incumbent queen) animosity towards Tuscany, which had been inflamed due to a string of Franco-Tuscan marriages.[1]

Regency

Cosimo and herself enjoyed a contented marriage. Together, they had eight children. Cosimo II died in 1621, leaving their ten-year old son Ferdinando as grand duke. Maria Maddalena and her mother-in-law, Christina of Lorraine, acted as regents until the boy came of age. Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. Maria Maddelana's temperament was analogous to Christina's. Together, they aligned Tuscany with the Papacy; re-doubled the Tuscan clergy; and allowed the trial of Galileo Galilei to occur.[2] Upon the death of the last Duke of Urbino, instead of claiming the duchy for Ferdinando, who was married his granddaughter, and heiress, Vittoria della Rovere, they permitted it to be annexed by Pope Urban VIII. In 1626, they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law later resurrected by Maria Maddalena's grandson, Cosimo III.[3] Harold Acton ascribes the decline of Tuscany to their regency.[3] The Dowager Grand Duchesses sent Ferdinando on a tour of Europe in 1627.[4]

The Grand Duchess died aged 41 after a visit to her brother Leopold in Innsbruck on the way back to Italy in Padua. Her son had been in power for a year.

Issue

  • Maria Cristina de' Medici (August 24, 1609 – August 9, 1632)
  • Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (July 14, 1610 – May 23, 1670), who married Vittoria della Rovere (February 7, 1622 – March 6, 1694), the daughter of Federico della Rovere, Duke of Urbino and Claudia de' Medici (sister of Cosimo II.)
  • Gian Carlo de' Medici (July 24, 1611 – January 23, 1663), made Cardinal in 1644.
  • Margherita de' Medici (May 31, 1612 – February 6, 1679), married on October 11, 1628 to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma
  • Mattias de' Medici (May 9, 1613 – October 14, 1667), appointed Governor of Siena
  • Francesco de' Medici (October 16, 1614 – July 25, 1634)
  • Anna de' Medici (July 21, 1616 – September 11, 1676) who married on June 10, 1646 to Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria (1628–1662)
  • Leopoldo de' Medici (November 6, 1617 – November 10, 1675), made Cardinal in 1667.

Ancestors

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and Styles

  • 7 October 1589 – 19 October 1608 Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria
  • 19 October 1608 – 17 February 1609 Her Royal Highness The Grand Princess of Tuscany
  • 17 February 1609 – 28 February 1621 Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Tuscany
  • 28 February 1621 – 1 November 1631 Her Royal Highness The Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany

Citations

  1. ^ Hale, p 151
  2. ^ Acton, p 111
  3. ^ a b Acton, p 192
  4. ^ Strathern, p 375

Bibliography

See also

Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria
Born: 7 October 1589 Died: 1 November 1631
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Christina of Lorraine
Grand Duchess consort of Tuscany
1609–1621
Vacant
Title next held by
Vittoria della Rovere



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