Chicago (band)


Chicago (band)
Chicago

Chicago in 2004 (L-R): Keith Howland, James Pankow, Bill Champlin, Walt Parazaider, Tris Imboden, Lee Loughnane, Robert Lamm (view blocked) and Jason Scheff.
Background information
Also known as The Big Thing, The Chicago Transit Authority
Origin Chicago, Illinois, United States
Genres Rock, jazz fusion, progressive rock, soft rock
Years active 1967–present
Labels Columbia, Full Moon, Rhino
Associated acts The Beach Boys, Doobie Brothers, Earth, Wind & Fire, Sons of Champlin, Toto
Website chicagotheband.com
Members
Robert Lamm
James Pankow
Lee Loughnane
Walter Parazaider
Jason Scheff
Tris Imboden
Keith Howland
Drew Hester
Lou Pardini
Past members
Danny Seraphine
Peter Cetera
Terry Kath
Laudir de Oliveira
Donnie Dacus
Chris Pinnick
Bill Champlin
Dawayne Bailey

Chicago is an American rock band formed in 1967 in Chicago, Illinois. The self-described "rock and roll band with horns" began as a politically charged, sometimes experimental, rock band and later moved to a predominantly softer sound, becoming famous for producing a number of hit ballads. They had a steady stream of hits throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Second only to The Beach Boys in terms of Billboard singles and albums chart success among American bands, Chicago is one of the longest running and most successful pop/rock and roll groups.[1]

Chicago re-teamed with producer Phil Ramone in October 2010 to begin work on a new album.[2][3]

According to Billboard, Chicago was the leading US singles charting group during the 1970s. They have sold over 38 million units in the US, with 22 gold, 18 platinum, and 8 multi-platinum albums.[4][5] Over the course of their career they have charted five No. 1 albums, and have had 21 top ten hits.

Contents

Biography

Beginnings

Chicago co-founder/drummer Danny Seraphine

The band was formed when a group of DePaul University students, together with Marvin Cantera and Andre Jugo (music students who had been playing local late-night clubs), recruited a couple of other students from the university and decided to meet in saxophonist Walter Parazaider's apartment. The five musicians consisted of Parazaider, guitarist Terry Kath, drummer Danny Seraphine, trombonist James Pankow, trumpet player Lee Loughnane. The last to arrive was keyboardist Robert Lamm, a music major from Chicago's Roosevelt University. The group of six called themselves The Big Thing, and continued playing top-40 hits, but realized that they were missing a tenor voice (Lamm and Kath both sang in the baritone range); the voice they were missing belonged to local bassist Peter Cetera.[6]

While gaining some success as a cover band, the group began working on original songs. In June 1968, they moved to Los Angeles, California under the guidance of their friend and manager James William Guercio, and signed with Columbia Records. After signing with Guercio, The Big Thing changed their name to Chicago Transit Authority.[1]

Their first record (released in April 1969), the eponymous The Chicago Transit Authority (sometimes informally referred to simply as CTA), was a double album — very rare for a first release — featuring jazzy instrumentals, extended jams featuring Latin percussion, and experimental, feedback-laden guitar abstraction. It sold over one million copies by 1970, and was awarded a platinum disc.[7] The album began to receive heavy airplay on the newly popular FM radio band; it included a number of pop-rock songs — "Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?", "Beginnings", and "Questions 67 and 68" — which would later be edited to an AM radio-friendly length, released as singles, and eventually become rock radio staples.

Soon after the album's release, the band's name was shortened to Chicago, when the actual Chicago Transit Authority threatened legal action.[8][9]

Chicago's greatest prominence

The band's popularity increased with the release of their second album, another double-LP set, which included several top-40 hits. This second album, titled Chicago (also known as Chicago II), was the group's breakthrough album. The centerpiece track was a 7-part, 13-minute suite composed by James Pankow called "Ballet for a Girl in Buchannon" (the structure of this suite was inspired by Pankow's love for classical music). The suite yielded two top ten hits: the crescendo-filled "Make Me Smile" (#9 U.S) and prom-ready ballad "Colour My World", both sung by Terry Kath. Among the other popular tracks on the album: Robert Lamm's dynamic but cryptic "25 or 6 to 4" (Chicago's first Top 5 hit, it was a reference to a songwriter trying to write at 25 or 26 minutes to 4 in the morning, and was sung by Peter Cetera with wah-wah guitar by Kath), the lengthy war-protest song "It Better End Soon", and, at the end, Cetera's 1969 moon landing-inspired "Where Do We Go from Here?" The double-LP album's inner cover includes—in addition to the playlist—the entire lyrics to "It Better End Soon", and two declarations: "This album should be experienced sequentially" (this would suggest that Chicago is a concept album), and, "With this album, we dedicate ourselves, our futures and our energies to the people of the revolution. And the revolution in all of its forms."

The band recorded and released LPs at a rate of at least one album per year from their third album in 1971 through the 1970s. During this period, the group's album titles invariably consisted of the band's name followed by a Roman numeral indicating the album's sequence in their canon, a naming pattern that lent an encyclopedic aura to the band's work. (The exceptions to this scheme were the band's fourth album, a live boxed set entitled Chicago at Carnegie Hall, their twelfth album Hot Streets, and the Arabic-numbered Chicago 13. While the live album itself did not bear a number, each of the four discs within the set was numbered Volumes I through IV.) The distinctive Chicago logo was designed by Nick Fasciano (bearing more than a passing resemblance to the Coca-Cola logo) and has graced every album cover (except #15, Greatest Hits Vol. 2) in one form or another—for example, as an American flag on III, a piece of wood on V, a U.S. dollar bill on VI, an embroidered patch on VIII, a chocolate bar on X, a fingerprint on XIV, a computer silicon chip on 16, and a mosaic on 18.

In 1971, Chicago released the ambitious quadruple-album live set, Chicago at Carnegie Hall Volumes I, II, III, and IV, consisting of live performances, mostly of music from their first three albums, from a week-long run at the famous venue; along with the James Gang and Led Zeppelin in 1969, Chicago was one of the few rock bands to play the historic concert hall since The Beatles performed there on February 12, 1964. The performances and sound quality were judged sub-par; in fact, trombonist James Pankow went on record to say that "the horn section sounded like kazoos." The packaging of the album also contained some rather strident political messaging about how "We [youth] can change The System," including massive wall posters and voter registration information. Nevertheless, Chicago at Carnegie Hall went on to become the best-selling box set by a rock act, and held that distinction for 15 years.

The group bounced back in 1972 with their first single-disc release, Chicago V, a diverse set that reached number one on both the Billboard pop and jazz albums charts and yielded the Robert Lamm-composed-and-sung radio hit and perennial fan favorite "Saturday in the Park", which mixed everyday life and political yearning in a more subtle way. It peaked at #3 on the Billboard Hot 100 in early 1972. Chicago would long open their concerts with the hit song. Another Lamm-composed hit song therein was "Dialogue (Part I & II)", which featured a musical "debate" between a political activist (sung by Kath) and a blasé college student (sung by Cetera).

In 1973, the group's manager, Guercio, produced and directed Electra Glide in Blue, a movie about an Arizona motorcycle policeman. The movie starred Robert Blake and featured Cetera, Kath, Loughnane, and Parazaider in supporting roles. The group also appeared prominently on the movie's soundtrack.

Other successful albums and singles followed in each of the succeeding years. 1973's Chicago VI topped the charts buoyed by the hits "Feelin' Stronger Every Day" (#10 U.S.) and "Just You 'N' Me" (#4 U.S.) and it was also the first of several albums to include Brazilian jazz percussionist Laudir de Oliveira. Chicago VII, the band's double-disc 1974 release, featured the Cetera-composed "Wishing You Were Here", (#11 U.S.) sung by Terry Kath and Cetera with background vocals by Cetera and The Beach Boys and some fusion jazz. Chicago VII also provided one of the group's enduring signature tunes, the anthemic "(I've Been) Searchin' So Long", which started with as a soft ballad and culminated in a hard-rock conclusion featuring Terry Kath's electric guitar soloing against the Chicago horn section and a soaring string arrangement by Jimmie Haskell. "Happy Man," another song from Chicago VII, was also a popular favorite on FM radio, was a big hit in South America and subsequently covered by Tony Orlando and Dawn on their album To Be With You. Their 1975 release, Chicago VIII, featured the political allegory "Harry Truman" and the nostalgic Pankow-composed "Old Days". Both hits reached the Top 15, with the latter even reaching the Top Five. That summer also saw a very successful joint tour across America with The Beach Boys, with both acts performing separately, then coming together for a rousing finale. The tour was considered one of the highest grossing in rock music up to that time.

Chicago gave a concert in Mexico City in 1975 at the Auditorio Nacional which was highly appreciated by the audience, contrary to the Mexican press later reviewing it as not one of the band’s better performances, presumably for the band not being "in the best of shape". The tickets for the concert sold so fast that thousands of people were unable to get in, so Terry Kath asked those inside to applaud for those standing outside. Carmen Romano de Lòpez Portillo, the wife of Mèxico's then-President Josè Lòpez Portillo, is said to have been in first row of the audience.[citation needed]

But for all their effort, none of their singles went to number one until Chicago X in 1976, when Cetera's ballad "If You Leave Me Now" climbed to the top of the charts and remained there for two weeks. The song also won Chicago their only Grammy award, for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group in 1977. Ironically, the tune almost did not make the cut for the album; "If You Leave Me Now" was recorded at the very last minute. The huge success of the song would foreshadow a later reliance on ballads that would typecast the group on radio, despite the presence of mellower songs on all the previous albums. The group's 1977 release, Chicago XI, was another big success for the band; it included Cetera's hit ballad "Baby, What a Big Surprise", a #4 U.S. hit which became one of the group's last big hits of the decade.

Time of transition

1978 was a tragic and transitional year for Chicago. The year began with an acrimonious split with long-time manager James William Guercio. Then, on January 23, guitarist/singer-songwriter/group co-founder Terry Kath died of an accidental, self-inflicted gunshot wound. One account describes Kath's drunken last words to guitar tech Don Johnson: "Don't worry, guys. It isn't even loaded. See?"[10] Kath was the group's leader onstage, and for many longtime fans, its musical soul. Terry Kath's shocking death could have meant the end for Chicago, but encouraged by friends and admirers such as Doc Severinsen, the group held fast and soldiered on.

After auditioning over 30 potential replacements for Kath, Chicago decided upon guitarist/singer/songwriter Donnie Dacus, who joined the band in April 1978 just in time for the Hot Streets album (he was also being filmed for the musical Hair at the time). Its energetic lead-off single, "Alive Again", brought Chicago back to the Top 15; James Pankow wrote it "originally as a love song but ultimately as recognition of Kath's guiding spirit shining down from above."[11] The group was briefly re-energized by Dacus, whose long blond hair and rock star image stage presence seemingly overshadowed his musical abilities. The kinetic Dacus may have been out of character for the normally laid-back Chicago, but he could sing and play, and the band responded by delivering some of their tightest live performances ever. Hot Streets, with producer Phil Ramone now at the helm, was Chicago's first album with an actual title rather than a number and was the band's first LP to have a picture of the band (shot by photographer Norman Seeff) featured prominently on the cover (with the ubiquitous logo downsized), two moves that were seen by many as a way to indicate the band had changed following Kath's death. To a degree, the band returned to the old naming scheme on its subsequent releases, although most titles would now bear Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals. The release of Hot Streets also marked a move somewhat away from the jazz-rock direction favored by Kath and towards more pop songs and ballads. Dacus didn't last long, only staying with the band through the 1979 album Chicago 13 (Dacus is also featured in a promotional video on the DVD included in the Rhino Records Chicago box set from 2003). 13, again produced by Phil Ramone, was the group's first studio album not to contain a Top 40 hit.

1980's Chicago XIV, produced by Tom Dowd, relegated the horn section to the background on a number of tracks, and the album's two singles failed to make the Top 40. Production values were spare, perhaps due to the lean, stripped-down New Wave music that was popular at the time. Chris Pinnick handled the guitar duties and came close to the "Kath sound," but did not sing. He would remain with the band through 1985. Believing the band to no longer be commercially viable, Columbia Records dropped them from its roster in 1981 and released a second "Greatest Hits" volume later that year to fulfill its contractual obligation.

The second major phase of the band's career took off in late 1981—with a new producer (David Foster), a new label (Warner Brothers), and the addition of keyboardist/guitarist/singer Bill Champlin and guitarist Chris Pinnick (who had played on XIV and subsequent tour); percussionist Laudir de Oliveira also departed at this time along with former Buckingham and sax player Marty Grebb, who had joined the group briefly for the XIV tour.

Foster brought in studio musicians for some of the tracks on Chicago 16 (including the core members of Toto), and Chicago once again topped the charts with the song "Hard to Say I'm Sorry/Get Away", which was featured in the soundtrack of the Daryl Hannah film Summer Lovers. This was followed up by a string-laden power ballad that barely missed the top 20, "Love Me Tomorrow". The following album, Chicago 17, became the biggest selling album of the band's history, producing two more Top Ten singles—"You're the Inspiration" and "Hard Habit to Break" (both #3 hits)—and two other singles: "Stay the Night" (#16) and "Along Comes a Woman" (#14). Peter's brother, Kenny Cetera, was brought into the group for the 17 tour to add percussion and high harmony vocals.

Lead vocalist Peter Cetera's desire to record a second solo album (he'd done his eponymous first one in 1981) and not continue with the band's gruelling tour schedule caused him to leave Chicago in 1985. Although other band members (including Lamm and Champlin) have released solo material, Cetera has proved the most successful—topping the pop charts with The Karate Kid, Part II theme song "Glory of Love", and with "The Next Time I Fall" (a duet with Amy Grant). Two more songs—a 1988 solo hit called "One Good Woman" (#4 U.S.) and a 1989 duet with Cher called "After All" (#6 U.S.)—reached the Top Ten.

The post-Cetera era

Cetera was replaced in September 1985 by bassist/singer/songwriter Jason Scheff, who joined the band for the final Foster-produced album Chicago 18. This album was not as commercially successful as the previous two, but still produced the #3 single "Will You Still Love Me?", a Top 5 Adult Contemporary and Top 20 Pop song ("If She Would Have Been Faithful..."), and also a high-tech and highly programmed version of "25 or 6 to 4" with a concept video that got a lot of airplay on MTV. Soon after the album was recorded, the band hired guitarist Dawayne Bailey from Bob Seger's Silver Bullet Band. Bailey and Scheff had previously played in bands together, so Scheff introduced Bailey to the band in time for the Chicago 18 tour (Scheff and Bailey's first concert with Chicago took place on Friday Oct 17, 1986 in Rockford, Illinois).

In 1988, the band replaced producer Foster with Ron Nevison and Chas Sanford, and they topped the charts again with the Diane Warren-composed single "Look Away", from the album Chicago 19. The album also yielded two more Top 10 hits, both with Bill Champlin singing solo lead for the first time and another Top 5 single that would officially be a release from the forthcoming greatest hits record. Chicago 19 was followed in short order by Greatest Hits 1982-1989, which included the aforementioned #5 hit "What Kind Of Man Would I Be?", a slightly remixed tune originally included on 19 and sung by Jason Scheff. The album's other Top Ten hit, "You're Not Alone", reached #10 in early 1989. During 1989, Chicago did a reprise joint concert tour with The Beach Boys (and would do so once again in 1997).

The band continued in the decade of the 1990s, even though their popularity began to decline. There was also another personnel change: founding member Danny Seraphine was fired by the band in 1990 and was replaced by drummer Tris Imboden, who first appeared on the 1991 album Twenty 1. Imboden was well-known in the industry as the longtime drummer for Kenny Loggins. Chicago was recognized with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on July 23, 1992.

In 1993, Chicago wrote and recorded their 22nd album, Stone of Sisyphus. Their record company at the time though, Reprise [Warner Music Group], was unhappy with the finished result, and thus the album was not released, although in succeeding years bootleg recordings of the album went on to surface worldwide, including over the Internet. It is also rumored that the label would not release the album as a result of being unable to reach a licensing agreement with band management over the back catalog. Selected tracks from the unreleased album were later officially released on four international compilation greatest hits CDs and the Rhino Records 2003 box set, and four were re-recorded for band members' solo albums. One track, "The Pull," was performed live during their 1993 appearance at the Greek Theatre (taped for PBS, and released on video in 1993). The album finally did see a release in June 2008, almost 15 years after its completion.

Starting on their 1994 tour, Chicago merged their unique sound with Big Band music for the 1995 album Night & Day Big Band, which consisted of covers of songs originally recorded by artists like Sarah Vaughan, Glenn Miller, and Duke Ellington (from whom the album mainly got its inspiration). Session guitarist Bruce Gaitsch handled the guitar work, and the album featured guest appearances by Paul Shaffer of "David Letterman" fame, and Aerosmith guitarist Joe Perry.

Keith Howland joined the band as guitarist in early 1995 to replace the departed Dawayne Bailey.

During a Los Angeles concert in 1997, Chicago teamed up with the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra to perform a James Pankow/Dwight Mikelson orchestral arrangement of Pankow's rock epic "Ballet for a Girl in Buchannon". Also during this year, the group released The Heart of Chicago 1967-1997, a compilation album which went gold and yielded the #1 Adult Contemporary hit "Here in My Heart."

In 1998, Chicago released Chicago XXV: The Christmas Album, which mixed traditional holiday favorites with an original Lee Loughnane composition. It went gold in the US. (The album was re-released with additional tracks in 2003, under the title What's It Gonna Be, Santa?.) The album featured Howland's first (and to date only) lead vocal on a Chicago record.

The band released a live album in 1999, Chicago XXVI, which included only two of the many songs Cetera helped to write while in the group. In 2000, the group had the opportunity to tell their story in an episode of VH1's Behind The Music. This included gems such as Pankow relating this story from the early 1980s: "One record company said, 'Man, if you get rid of the horn section, we'll sign ya...' That's like tellin' Elton John to get rid of the piano." The show, however, was not without its difficulties. The episode put more emphasis on the death of Terry Kath than on their entire career combined, and Peter Cetera refused to be interviewed or to allow the songs he wrote to be played on it (although the episode did include interviews he gave to others and songs he co-wrote).

Chicago since 2000

Despite the personnel changes over the years, the group is still active four decades after its founding. They are one of the few major rock groups that have never broken up or even taken an extended hiatus. As of June 2010, four of the six surviving founding members (major songwriters Lamm and Pankow, plus Loughnane and Parazaider) remain providing continuity, while Jason Scheff has been with the band 25 years, Tris Imboden 20 years, and Keith Howland 15 years.

As a new century turned, the band licensed their entire recorded output to Rhino Records (after years with Columbia Records and Warner Brothers). In 2002, Rhino released a two-disc compilation, The Very Best of Chicago: Only The Beginning, which spans the band's entire career. The compilation made the Top 40 and sold over 2 million copies in the US, and includes a new edit of "Make Me Smile"—which segued together the beginning ("Make Me Smile") and end ("Now More Than Ever") parts of the "Ballet for a Girl in Buchannon" suite like the original single did, but without its numerous cuts. Rhino has also begun releasing remastered versions of all of the band's Columbia albums, each including several bonus tracks. In 2003, they released a 5-CD / 1-DVD box set—which includes a new edit of "It Better End Soon" (minus the flute solo), a track they had done for USA for Africa: We Are the World ("Good for Nothing"), and 3 tracks from the still-unissued Stone of Sisyphus album (its title track, "All the Years", and "Bigger Than Elvis"–the latter being Scheff's tribute to his father, who had performed with Elvis Presley). In 2005, they released a compilation entitled Love Songs.

Chicago continues to appear in big and small venues worldwide. In 2004–2005 they toured jointly with the band Earth, Wind & Fire; a DVD recorded during that tour, Chicago/Earth, Wind & Fire - Live at the Greek Theatre, was certified platinum just two months after its release.

The group released Chicago XXX, on March 21, 2006, their first all-new studio album since Twenty 1. Two songs from this album, "Feel" and "Caroline", were performed live during Chicago's Fall 2005 tour; the studio recording of "Feel" debuted on WPLJ radio in New York in November 2005. "Feel" was the first single released. The album contains two versions of the song: one with horns and an orchestral tag that echoes "Love Me Tomorrow", and another non-brass version. "Love Will Come Back" was the second single released. While Chicago XXX did manage to debut at No. 41 on the US album chart (besting some other entries, including Chicago XIV, which hit US #71, and Twenty 1, which topped out at only US #66), it only remained in the top 200 for two weeks.

During March 2006, Chicago made a multi-week appearance at the MGM Grand Las Vegas, which was repeated in May of the same year. In July 2006, the band made a series of US appearances with Huey Lewis and the News. Highlights of that tour included Chicago's Bill Champlin performing with Huey Lewis and the News on a couple of songs, members of Huey Lewis and the News contributing to Chicago's percussion-laden song, "I'm a Man," and Huey Lewis singing the lead vocal on Chicago's "Colour My World."

At the end of 2006, the band played at CD USA's New Year's Eve party on Fremont Street in Las Vegas. Chicago toured the summer of 2007 with the band America. On October 2, 2007, Rhino Records released the two-disc The Best of Chicago: 40th Anniversary Edition, a new greatest hits compilation spanning their entire forty years, similar to The Very Best of: Only the Beginning, released four years earlier.

June 17, 2008 saw the official release of the Stone of Sisyphus album by Rhino Records, recorded in 1993 and originally slated for a March 1994 release until being shelved by Warner Records. The album contains eleven of the original twelve tracks (the raucous "Get on This", considered by many fans to be the best track on the album, was left off), plus four demo recordings.

In 2009 Chicago reunited with Earth, Wind & Fire for yet another joint tour.[12]

In August 2009, Bill Champlin, who was with Chicago for 28 years, left the band to focus on his own music and solo career.[13] His replacement is keyboardist Lou Pardini. Drew Hester also joined the band in 2010.[14]

On December 12, 2009, Chicago performed nine songs live on stage at the Arena at Harbor Yard in Bridgeport, Connecticut as part of Brian Boitano's Skating Spectacular, taped for a New Year's Day NBC television broadcast. Boitano and other skaters performed live on the ice to the band's music.

Chicago toured with the Doobie Brothers in 2010, and the band appeared on the American Idol 9th season finale.[15]

On July the 24th, 2011, the band performed at Red Rocks in Colorado, accompanied by the Colorado Symphony Orchestra. This was the first time Chicago played a full-length symphonic concert.

The band re-teamed with producer Phil Ramone (who produced Hot Streets and Chicago 13) to record a new Christmas album. Chicago XXXIII: O Christmas Three was released in October 2011. In the meantime, Rhino released Chicago XXXIV: Live in '75, a concert from 1975.

Membership

Drew Hester Lou Pardini Brian Hicks Steve Jankowski Lee Thornburg Tom Timko Ray Herrmann Larry Klimas Nick Lane Bob Roberts Guille Garcia Lou Pardini Drew Hester Keith Howland Tris Imboden Dawayne Bailey Jason Scheff Bill Champlin Chris Pinnick Donnie Dacus Laudir de Oliveira Terry Kath Peter Cetera Danny Seraphine Walter Parazaider Lee Loughnane James Pankow Robert Lamm

Subs (by year)
Bob Roberts - woodwinds (mid-1969 briefly)
Brian Hicks - trumpet (1976)
Lee Thornburg - trumpet (1992 and recently)
Steve Jankowski - trumpet (1992, 2006, 2007)
Nick Lane - trombone (since 1999)
Lou Pardini - keyboards, vocals (August 1999, September 2007 and replacing Bill Champlin as of August 2009)
Larry Klimas - woodwinds (since 2003)
Ray Herrmann- woodwinds (since 2005)
Tom Timko - woodwinds (2005)
Drew Hester - drums (2009 January–August), percussion (2010)
Rock - percussion (since 2010)

Discography

See also

  • Best selling music artists (worldwide)

References

  1. ^ a b Ruhlmann, William. Chicago. Biography, Allmusic. Retrieved on: 2009-06-23.
  2. ^ http://scheffland.ning.com
  3. ^ "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/pages/Jason-Scheff-Music/246877268130#!/pages/Jason-Scheff-Music/246877268130?v=wall. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  4. ^ "Gold and Platinum - Top Selling Artists". Recording Industry Association of America. http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt. Retrieved 2010-07-23. 
  5. ^ "Gold and Platinum - Artist Tallies". Recording Industry Association of America. http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblArtTal. Retrieved 2010-07-23. 
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. pp. 255–256. ISBN 0-214-20512-6. 
  8. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002). All music guide to rock : the definitive guide to rock, pop, and soul (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Backbeat Books. pp. 208–09. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3. OCLC 317555621. 
  9. ^ Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard book of number 1 hits : the inside story behind every number one single on Billboard's Hot 100 from 1955 to the present (5th ed.). New York: Billboard Books. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2. OCLC 229271613. 
  10. ^ Guitars 'n' Guns, 1978 Darwin Award Nominee (confirmed true by Darwin)
  11. ^ "The Box", Chicago's 2003 5-CD / 1-DVD "greatest hits" compilation
  12. ^ "Chicago, Earth, Wind & Fire reunite for summer tour". CNN. http://cnnwire.blogs.cnn.com/2009/03/10/chicago-earth-wind-fire-reunite-for-summer-tour. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Musician Bill Champlin leaves Chicago - CNN.com". CNN. August 11, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/SHOWBIZ/Music/08/10/chicago.champlin/. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Chicago (the band) Official Store - Chicago Store". Chicagotheband.net. http://www.chicagotheband.net/. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  15. ^ Berman, Craig (27 May 2010). "'Idol’ voters make DeWyze choice". http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/37367849/ns/today-entertainment/. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 

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