Curry
A variety of vegetable curries from India.
Red roast duck curry (hot and spicy) from Thailand.
Rice and Chenopodium album leaf curry with onions and potatoes; a vegetarian curry dish.

Curry (play /ˈkʌri/) is a generic description used throughout Western culture to describe a variety of dishes from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or other Southeast Asian cuisines. The chief spices found in most South Asian curry powders are turmeric, coriander, and cumin; a wide range of additional spices may be included depending on the geographic region and the foods being included (white/red meat, fish, lentils, rice and vegetables).[1]

Curry's popularity in recent decades has spread outward from Southern Asia to figure prominently in international cooking. Consequently, each culture has adopted spices in its indigenous cooking to suit its own unique tastes and cultural sensibilities. Curry can therefore be called a pan-Asian or global phenomenon with immense popularity in Thai, British, Japanese and Caribbean cuisines.

Contents

Etymology

The word "curry" is an anglicised version of the Tamil word kari (கறி) meaning 'sauce',[2] which is usually understood to mean vegetables/meat cooked with spices with or without a gravy.[3] Another school of thought indicates that the word "curry" originated from the Bengali word "Torkari", a general term often used in Bengal in the same way 'curry' is used in English. The word first meant uncooked garden vegetables. From this it was a natural extension to mean cooked vegetables or even fish and vegetables cooked together.

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a term used loosely to describe the areas encompassed by the countries of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Andhra cuisine

Andhra cuisine is spicy and has a unique flavour, although there are regional variations in Andhra Pradesh cuisine. Telangana in the west of Andhra Pradesh has dishes like Ambali, jonna rotte/jowar bread, sajja rotte/bread from sajja grains, and hyderabadi biryani. In this region, the curry is flavored with spices like clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, anise, and bay leaf. The coastal Andhra Pradesh has more variety in their cuisine with a large variety of curries made from vegetables and a few curries made from meat. In this region, the curry is flavored with coriander powder, cumin seeds/powder, black pepper powder, red hot chili peppers/powder, asafoetida, ghee, fenugreek seeds, curry leaves and turmeric. Even though the same vegetables are used in the curry, the coastal Andhra curry tastes completely different from the Telanganacurry. This is what made the curry a concept rather than a strict recipe. It can be customized to use the local spices. The curries are mainly eaten with rice.

Bengali, Bangladeshi and Oriya cuisines

Beef curry served with roasted onion in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Bengali cuisine includes a plethora of curries. Seafood and fresh fish are a great favourite with Bengalis, and a large number of curries have been devised to accompany them. Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes, as are poppy seeds.

The Oriya people have similar eating habits and also prepare these types of curries.

Gujarati and Rajasthani cuisine

The typical Gujarati and Rajasthani cuisine is called Thali, which consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour), daal or, chaval (rice), and shaak (sabzi) (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir fried, spicy or sweet). Curry varies in flavour and heat. Mild curry could be made of cardamom, coriander, cumin, turmeric, star anise, and salt.

Karnataka cuisine

Curry-based dishes from Karnataka, India.

The curries of Karnataka are typically vegetarian and with meat and fish around mostly coastal areas. They use a wide variety of vegetables and spices and coconut and jaggery are common tastes. There are dry and sauce based curries. Some typical sauce based dishes include Saaru, Gojju, Thovve, Huli, Majjige Huli; which is similar to the "kadi" made in the north, Sagu or Kootu, which is eaten mixed with hot rice.

Malayali cuisine

Malayali curries of Kerala typically contain shredded coconut paste or coconut milk, curry leaves, and various spices. Mustard seeds are used in almost every dish, along with onions, curry leaves, sliced red chilies fried in hot oil. Most of the non-vegetarian dishes are heavily spiced. Kerala is known for its traditional Sadya, a vegetarian meal served with boiled rice and a host of side-dishes, such as Parippu (Green gram), Papadum, some ghee, Sambar, Rasam, Aviyal, Kaalan, Kichadi, pachadi, Injipuli, Koottukari, pickles (mango, lime), Thoran, one to four types of Payasam, Boli, Olan, Pulissery, moru (buttermilk), Upperi, Banana chips, etc. The sadya is customarily served on a banana leaf.

Maharashtrian cuisine

The curries of Maharashtra vary from mildly spicy to very spicy and include vegetarian, mutton, chicken and fish. Coastal Maharashtrian - Konkani - curries use coconut extensively along with spices. In western Maharashtra, curries are very spicy and groundnut powder is often added to it. Vidarbha's cuisine is usually spicier than that of the coastal and southern regions. The ingredients commonly used are besan, or chickpea flour, and groundnut powder. As a result of the long Islamic Moghul rule in the region, the cuisine of Aurangabad has been highly influenced by the North Indian method of cooking. Khandeshi food is very very spicy and most famous dish is Shev Bhaji, wange (Brinjal) che bharit and many more like Udidachi dal, Bharleli wangi (Brinjal), none other than Thecha (Mix of Garlic, Green chilies) bhakari and spicy mutton. Most of the people are farmers so their traditional food is very simple.

North Indian cuisines

Indian vegetable curries with chapati.

North Indian cuisine includes Mughlai cuisine, the cuisine of Kashmir, Awadhi cuisine, the cuisine of Uttar Pradesh and Bhojpuri cuisine. Kadhi is a specific dish, made by stirring yoghurt into a roux of ghee and besan. The spices added vary, but usually include turmeric, black mustard seed, and curry leaves. It is often eaten with rice. North India, where dishes are classified as sukhi (dry) and tari (with liquid), the word curry is often confounded with the similar-sounding Hindi-Urdu word tari (from the Persian-derived tar meaning wet) and has no implications for the presence or absence of spice, or whether the dish is Indian or not (e.g. any stew, spicy or not, would be considered a curry dish, simply because it is wet).[4][5][6] In Urdu, curry is usually referred to as saalan (سالن). The equivalent word for a spiced dish in Hindi-Urdu is masaledar (i.e. with masala).[7]

Pakistani cuisine

Curry chicken from Pakistan

A favourite Pakistani curry is Karahi, which is either mutton or chicken cooked in a cooking utensil called karahi, which is similar in shape to a wok. Lahori Karahi incorporates garlic, ginger, fresh chillies, tomatoes and select spices. Peshawari karahi is a simple dish made with just meat, salt, tomatoes and coriander.

Punjabi cuisine

Curried rajmah with rice.

Punjabi curries are mainly based upon masalas. which is either a blend of dried (and usually dry roasted) spices, or a paste made from a combination of spices and a base of garlic, ginger, onions and tomatoes. A popular cooking fat is pure desi ghee, and some dishes are often enriched with liberal amounts of butter and cream. There are certain dishes that are exclusive to Punjab, such as Maha Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag).

Sindhi cuisine

A "Kaleji" meat curry cooked in Pakistani style

Sindhi cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Sindhi people. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry.

Tamil and Sinhalese cuisines

Tamil cuisine's distinctive flavour and aroma is achieved by a blend and combination of spices including curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, poppy seeds, mustard seeds, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, fennel or anise seeds, fenugreek seeds, nutmeg, coconut, turmeric root or powder, and rosewater. Lentils, vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments and are often served with rice. Traditionally vegetarian foods dominate the menu with a range of non-vegetarian dishes including freshwater fish and seafood cooked with traditional Tamil spices and seasoning. This holds good for all the four south Indian states.

In Sri Lankan cuisine, rice, which is usually consumed daily, can be found at any special occasion; whilst spicy curries are favourite dishes for dinner and lunch. 'Rice and curry' refers to a range of Sri Lankan dishes.

Other South Asian cuisine

Afghan and Pashtun cuisine

The cuisine of the Pashtun people in northwestern Pakistan is somewhat similar to the cuisine of neighbouring Afghanistan, which is largely based upon cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice except with the addition of large South Asian influence. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yoghurt, whey), various nuts, native vegetables, and fresh and dried fruits.

Northeast Indian and Nepalese cuisines

The curries of North-East India are very different from those of other parts of India. This area's cuisine has been influenced by its neighbours, namely Burma and Tibet. Well known Indian spices are used less. Yak is a popular meat in this region of India.

Dahl baht, rice and lentil soup, is a staple dish of Nepal. Newa cuisine is a type of cuisine developed over centuries by the Newars of Nepal.

Other Asian cuisines

Chinese cuisine

Chinese curries (咖哩, gā lǐ) typically consist of chicken, beef, fish, lamb, or other meats, green peppers, onions, large chunks of potatoes, and a variety of other ingredients and spices in a mildly spicy yellow curry sauce, and topped over steamed rice. White pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce, and/or hot chili oil may be applied to the sauce to enhance the flavor of the curry.

The most common Chinese variety of curry sauce is usually sold in powder form. It seems to have descended from a Singaporean and Malaysian variety, countries which also introduced the Satay sauce to the Chinese. The ethnic Cantonese (dominant in Kuala Lumpur), this yellow, Chinese-Malaysian variety was naturally introduced to China by the Cantonese, and features typically in Hong Kong cuisine. (Interestingly, the Malay Satay seems to have been introduced to China with wider success by the ethnic Teochew, who make up the second largest group of Chinese of Singapore and are the dominant group in Thailand.)

There are many different varieties of Chinese curry, depending on each restaurant. Unlike other Asian curries, which usually have a thicker consistency, Chinese curry is often watery.[citation needed] "Galimian," (from Malaysian "curry mee" or "curry noodles,") is also a popular Chinese curry dish.

Japanese cuisine

Japanese style Karē-Raisu (Curry rice)
Karē-Pan (Curry bread)

Japanese curry (カレー karē?) is one of the most popular dishes in Japan, where people eat it an average of 125 times a year according to a survey made in 2005.[8] It is usually eaten as karē raisu — curry, rice and often pickled vegetables, served on the same plate and eaten with a spoon, a common lunchtime canteen dish. It is less spicy and seasoned than the indian/other east asian curries, and is more of a thick japanese stew than a curry.

Curry was introduced to Japan by the British in the Meiji era (1868–1912) after Japan ended its policy of national self-isolation (Sakoku), and curry in Japan was categorized as a Western dish. Its spread across the country is commonly attributed to its use in the Japanese Army and Navy which adopted it extensively as convenient field and naval canteen cooking, allowing even conscripts from the remotest countryside to experience the dish. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force traditionally have curry every Friday for lunch and many ships have their own unique recipes.

The standard Japanese curry contains onions, carrots, potatoes, and sometimes celery, and a meat that is cooked in a large pot. Sometimes grated apples or honey are added for additional sweetness and other vegetables are sometimes used instead. For the meat, pork, beef and chicken are the most popular, in order of decreasing popularity. In northern and eastern Japan including Tokyo, pork is the most popular meat for curry. Beef is more common in western Japan, including Osaka, and in Okinawa chicken is favoured.[9] Curry seasoning is commonly sold in the form of a condensed brick which dissolves in the mixture of meat and vegetables.

Sometimes the curry-rice is topped with breaded pork cutlet (tonkatsu); this is called Katsu-karē ("cutlet curry"). Korokke (potato croquettes) are also a common topping.

Apart from with rice, karē udon (thick noodles in curry flavoured soup) and karē-pan ("curry bread" — deep fried battered bread with curry in the middle) are also popular.

Curry was introduced to Korea by the Japanese during their occupation in the early 20th century, and is hence nearly identical to the Japanese version. The common ingredients are rice, curry sauce, vegetables, kimchi, smoked pork, and wasabi.

Southeast Asian cuisines

Southeast Asia, including countries like Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and also some Southeast Asian minority groups, have their own versions of curry. Note that these countries have had many influences from Indian culture and cuisine, owing to South Asian travellers centuries before.

Burmese cuisine

Burmese cuisine has a very different basis and understanding of curries. The principle ingredient of almost all Burmese curries are fresh onion (which provides the gravy and main body of the curry), Indian spices and red chillies. Usually, meat and fish are the main ingredients for popular curries.

Burmese curries can be generalised into two types - the hot spicy dishes which exhibit north Indian or Pakistani influence, and the milder 'sweet' curries. Burmese curries almost overwhelmingly lack coconut milk, thus setting them apart from most southeast Asian curries.

Regular ingredients include fresh onion, garlic and chili paste. Spices regularly used are Garam Masala, dried chili powder, cumin powder, tumeric and ngapi, a fermented paste made from either fish or prawns. Burmese curries are quite oily, as the extra oil aided in helping the food last longer. A spaghetti equivalent called Nan gyi thohk exists, in which wheat or rice noodles are eaten with thick chicken curry.

Indonesian cuisine

Rendang with rice.

In Indonesia, gulai and kari or kare are dishes based on curry. They are often highly localised and reflect the meat and vegetables available. They can therefore employ a variety of meats (chicken, beef, water buffalo and goat as in the flavoursome "gulai kambing"), seafood (prawn, crab, mussel, clam, squid, etc.), fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal, Indonesian bay leaves or salam leaves, candlenuts, turmeric, turmeric leaves, asam gelugur, asam kandis, shrimp paste (terasi), cumin, coriander seed and coconut milk. One popular curry is rendang from West Sumatran cuisine. Authentic rendang uses water buffalo slow-cooked in thick coconut milk for a number of hours to tenderise and flavour the meat. In Aceh, curries use daun salam koja or daun kari (translated as "curry leaves"). Opor Ayam is another kind of curry, which tastes very similar to that of gulai. Some[who?] say opor is the name widely used in Java to refer to gulai itself (gulai is the word used in Sumatra) however opor (usually) does not use cinnamon, while gulai does. Opor is also known to be part of a family meal around Eid[disambiguation needed ], while gulai can be commonly found in West Sumatran restaurants.

Malaysian cuisine

Being at the crossroads of ancient trade routes has left a mark on the Malaysian cuisine. While the curry may have initially found its way to Malaysian shores via the Indian population, it has since become a staple among the Malays and Chinese too. Malaysian curries differ from state to state, even within similar ethnic groupings, as they are influenced by the many factors, be it cultural, religious, agricultural or economical.

Malaysian curries typically use curry powders rich in turmeric, coconut milk, shallots, ginger, belacan (shrimp paste), chilis, and garlic. Tamarind is also often used. Rendang is another form of curry consumed in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia; although it is drier and contains mostly meat and more coconut milk than a conventional Malaysian curry. Rendang was mentioned in Malay literature Hikayat Amir Hamzah[10] (1550-an)[11] is popular among Indonesians, Singaporeans and Malaysians. All sorts of things are curried in Malaysia, including mutton, chicken, shrimp, cuttlefish, fish, aubergines, eggs, and vegetables.

Philippine cuisine

In the Philippines, mostly a linear range of curry recipes could be seen. A typical curry dish would be usually of either pork or chicken as the meat while cooked at a similar manner as to other local dishes such as adobo, kaldereta, and mechado, patis (fish sauce), with potatoes, bay leaf, coconut milk, and sometimes lemongrass and carrots to complement.

Thai cuisine

In Thai cuisine, curries are meat, fish and/or vegetable dishes in a sauce based on a paste made from of chilies, spices and herbs. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, galangal and, in central and southern Thai cuisine, also coconut milk. Northern and northeastern Thai curries generally do not contain coconut milk. Due to the use of fresh herbs, spices, and other fresh ingredients, Thai curries tend to be more aromatic than Indian curries. In the West, a few Thai curries are described by color; red curries use red chilies while green curries use green chilies. Yellow curry - called Kaeng kari (by various spellings) in Thai, of which a literal translation would be "curry soup" - is more similar to Indian curries, with the use of turmeric, cumin, and other dried spices. A few dishes also utilise an Indian style curry powder (Thai: pong kari).

Thai curries:

Vietnamese cuisine

In Vietnam, curry is called cà ri. Vietnamese curry features coconut milk, potato, sweet potato, taro roots, chicken garnished with cilantro and green onion and is more soup-like than Indian curry. Goat curry also exists but only at a few specialized restaurants. The curry is usually eaten with a baguette, rice vermicelli or steamed rice. At home, people usually only make chicken curry on each Death anniversary day of a family member. Vietnamese curry is considered a Southern food.

Other cuisines

Other countries have their own varieties of curry, well known examples include:

  • South Africa: Cape Malay curries and Durban Curries
  • Caribbean: Curry Goat
  • Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga: Known generally as "kare" or "kale," the spice is a popular ingredient in curried lamb, mutton, and chicken stew. Often prepared with coconut milk and accompanied by rice or taro.
  • Ethiopia: Wat, a thick, heavily spiced stew
  • Germany: Currywurst
  • Central Africa: Groundnut stew, though not technically a curry, is a similar style
  • Central Europe: Gulash A spicy stew or soup usually made with paprika, garlic, potatoes, beef or pork and dill. Not served with rice.

Curry powder is used as an incidental ingredient in other cuisines, including for example a "curry sauce" (sauce au curry, sometimes even au cari) variation of the classic French béchamel.

British cuisine

In British cuisine, the word "curry" is primarily used to denote a sauce-based dish flavoured with curry powder or a paste made from the powder and oils. However, the use of fresh spices such as ginger and garlic, and preparation of an initial masala from freshly ground dried spices are sometimes used.

The first curry recipe in Britain appeared in The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse in 1747.[12] The first edition of her book used only pepper and coriander seeds for seasoning of "currey". By the fourth edition of the book, other relatively common ingredients of turmeric and ginger were used. The use of hot spices was not mentioned, which reflected the limited use of chili in India — chili plants had only been introduced into India around the late 15th century and at that time were only popular in southern India. Many curry recipes are contained in 19th century cookbooks such as those of Charles Elme Francatelli and Mrs Beeton. In Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, a recipe for curry powder is given that contains coriander, turmeric, cinnamon, cayenne, mustard, ginger, allspice and fenugreek; although she notes that it is more economical to purchase the powder at "any respectable shop".[13] In 1810, the British Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed opened the first Indian curry house in England: the Hindoostanee Coffee House in London.[14] According to legend, one 19th century attempt at curry resulted in the invention of Worcestershire sauce.[15]

Curry grew increasingly popular in Britain as a result of importation from the British Raj and with immigration from South Asia from the 1950s onwards.

Until the early 1970s, more than three quarters of Indian restaurants in Britain were identified as being owned and run by people of Bengali origin. Most were run by migrants from East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971. Bangladeshi restaurateurs overwhelmingly come from the northeastern division of Sylhet. Until 1998, as many as 85% of curry restaurants in the UK were British Bangladeshi restaurants,[16] but in 2003 this figure declined to just over 65%.[17] Currently the dominance of Bangladeshi restaurants is generally declining in some parts of London and the further north one travels. In Glasgow, there are more restaurants of Punjabi origin than any other.[18]

Regardless of the ethnic origin of a restaurant's ownership, the menu will often be influenced by the wider Indian subcontinent (sometimes including Nepalese dishes), and sometimes cuisines from further afield (such as Persian dishes). Some British variations on Indian food are now being exported from the UK to India.[19] British-style curry restaurants are also popular in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Curry has become an integral part of British cuisine, so much so that, since the late 1990s, Chicken Tikka Masala has been referred to as "a true British national dish".[20] It is now available on Intercity rail trains, as a flavour for crisps, and even as a pizza topping.

Other British curry derivatives include "Coronation chicken", a cold dish invented to commemorate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 - and curry sauce (or curry gravy), usually served warm with traditional British fast food dishes such as chips. Curry sauce occasionally includes sultanas.

British curry house

Curry is eaten in almost all parts of the Indian subcontinent and outside, namely India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, it has its varying degrees of style, taste and aroma, depending on local ingredients used.

Bengalis in the UK settled in big cities with industrial employment. In London, Bengalis settled in the East End. For centuries, the East End has been the first port of call for many immigrants working in the docks and shipping from east Bengal. Their regular stopover paved the way for food/curry outlets to be opened up catering for an all-male workforce as family migration and settlement took place some decades later.

This cuisine is characterized by the use of a common base for all the sauces to which spices are added when individual dishes are prepared. The standard "feedstock" is usually a sautéed mixture of onion, garlic and fresh ginger, to which various spices are added, depending on the recipe, but which may include: cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, chilies, peppercorns, cumin and mustard seeds. Ground coriander seed is widely used as a thickening agent, and turmeric is added for colour and its digestive qualities. Fresh or canned tomatoes and Bell Peppers are a common addition.

Better quality restaurants will normally make up new sauces on a daily basis, using fresh ingredients wherever possible and grinding their own spices. More modest establishments are more likely to resort to frozen or dried ingredients and pre-packaged spice mixtures.

Although the names may be similar to traditional dishes, the recipes generally are not.

  • Korma/kurma - mild, yellow in colour, with almond and coconut powder.
  • Curry - medium, brown, gravy-like sauce.
  • Biryani - Spiced rice and meat cooked together and usually served with vegetable curry sauce.
  • Dupiaza/dopiaza - medium curry the word means "double onion" referring to the boiled and fried onions used as its primary ingredient.
  • Pasanda - a mild curry sauce made with cream, coconut milk, and almonds or cashews.
  • Roghan josh (from "roghan" (fat) and "josh" (energy/heat - which as in English may refer to either "spiciness" or temperature)) - medium, with tomatoes and paprika.
  • Bhuna - medium, thick sauce, some vegetables.
  • Dhansak - medium/hot, sweet and sour sauce with lentils (originally a Parsi dish). This dish often also contains pineapple.
  • Madras - fairly hot curry, red in colour and with heavy use of chili powder.
  • Pathia - hot, generally similar to a madras with lemon juice and tomato purée.
  • Jalfrezi - onion, green chili and a thick sauce.
  • Sambar - medium heat, sour curry made with lentils and tamarind.
  • Vindaloo - this is generally regarded as the classic "hot" restaurant curry, although a true vindaloo does not specify any particular level of spiciness. The name has European origins, derived from the Portuguese term "vinha d'alhos", a marinade containing wine ("vinho"), or sometimes vinegar, and garlic ("alho"), used to prevent the pork from going off in hot weather.
  • Phaal - extremely hot dish using ground chilies, ginger and fennel.

The tandoor was introduced into Britain in the 1960s and tandoori and tikka chicken became popular dishes; chicken tikka masala was said to have been invented in Glasgow.

Other dishes may be featured with varying strengths, with those of north Indian origin, such as butter chicken, tending to be mild, and recipes from the south of India tending to be hotter.

Balti curries

A Balti chicken curry

Baltis are a style of curry thought to have been developed in Birmingham, England[21] which have spread to other western countries and are traditionally cooked and served in the same, typically cast iron pot. It is believed that their origin lies in the Pakistani region of Baltistan, from where they were brought and pioneered by South Asian migrants to the UK.

Curry house cuisine at home

The popularity of curry houses in Britain has encouraged a number of publications aiming to show how the curry house cuisine, as opposed to authentic Indian cuisine, can be recreated at home. A notable publication is Kris Dhillon's book The Curry Secret, which was first published in 1989 but has been reprinted as recently as 2008.[22] Dhillon reports having had experience working in her own Indian-style restaurant before publishing the book.[23] In contrast, Bruce Edwards published a short series of articles in 1990 based mostly on deduction and experiments in trying to recreate his experiences as a restaurant customer. The series consisted of three articles published in the Curry Club Magazine.[24] Edwards published a follow-up series in the same magazine three years later, using information he had since learned from a behind-the-scenes look at an Indian take-away restaurant.[25] Edwards' articles are still used as a reference by members of the online forum "Curry Recipes Online", where he has also informally published a few brief further follow-ups.[26]

West Indies

In the West Indies, curry is a very popular dish. The Indian indentured servants that were brought over from India by different European powers, brought this dish, as well as their culture, to the West Indies. In Jamaica and Trinidad, curried goat is prominently featured. Curry can be found at both inexpensive and upscale Caribbean restaurants, and ingredients can range from chicken or vegetables to shellfish such as shrimp and scallops. Examples of curries in the West Indies include:

  • Jamaica: Especially curried chicken, goat, fish and shrimp
  • Trinidad and Tobago: Most notably curried chicken, goat, shrimp, and curry aloo
  • Guyana: Chicken Curry, Goat Curry, Duck Curry, Shrimp Curry, Beef Curry (eaten by Muslims), Aloo Curry (Potato), Fish (different varieties) Curry, etc.

Curry powder

Curry powder is a spice mixture of widely varying composition developed by the British during the days of the Raj as a means of approximating the taste of Indian cuisine at home. Masala refers to spices, and this is the name given to the thick and pasty sauce based on a combination of spices with ghee (clarified butter), butter, palm oil or coconut milk. Most commercial curry powders available in Britain, the U.S. and Canada, rely heavily on ground turmeric, in turn producing a very yellow sauce. Lesser ingredients in these Western yellow curry powders are often coriander, cumin, fenugreek, mustard, chili, black pepper and salt. It should be reiterated that curry powders and pastes produced and consumed in India are extremely diverse; some red, some yellow, some brown; some with five spices and some with as many as 20 or more. Besides the previously mentioned spices, other commonly found spices in different curry powders in India are allspice, white pepper, ground mustard, ground ginger, cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg, mace, green cardamom seeds or black cardamom pods, bay leaves and coriander seeds.

Health benefits

Some studies have shown that ingredients in curry may help to prevent certain diseases, including colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.[27][28] A number of studies have claimed that the reaction of pain receptors to the hotter ingredients in curries leads to the body's release of endorphins, curry is claimed to be one of the most powerful aphrodisiacs.[29] With the complex sensory reaction to the variety of spices and flavours, a natural high is achieved that causes subsequent cravings, often followed by a desire to move on to hotter curries. Some refer to this as addiction, but other researchers contest the use of the word "addiction" in this instance.[30]

See also

References

  1. ^ Raghavan S. Handbook of Spices, Seasonings and Flavorings. CRC Press, 2007 ISBN 084932842X, p. 302
  2. ^ "University of Chicago". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 2001-09-01. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:705.hobson. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  3. ^ "Indian Cookery Terms". Cookeryonline.com. 2007-02-24. http://www.cookeryonline.com/India/INDIA4.html#K. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  4. ^ Sarina Singh. India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781740596947. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fk8FQa2ZSFQC. Retrieved 2010-05-17. "generally cooked sukhi (dry) or tari (in a sauce)" 
  5. ^ Nigel B. Hankin. Hanklyn-janklin: a stranger's rumble-tumble guide to some words, customs, and quiddities, Indian and Indo-British. Banyan Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=E2saAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2010-05-17. "In the north, a hot savoury gravy-like sauce, ideally containing ghee, added to vegetables or into which a chapati may be dipped, will be termed tari" 
  6. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, Ashok Koul. Colloquial Urdu: the complete course for beginners. Routledge. ISBN 9780415135405. http://books.google.com/books?id=HkPwaXWipVcC. Retrieved 2010-05-17. ""Do you like spicy food or curry? In America, curry is the name of a dish but this is not the case in India. Curry is neither always spicy not is curry powder usually sold. Curry is usually liquid (tari vali)" tar:wet, tari:liquid, tari vali sabzi" 
  7. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, Ashok Koul. Colloquial Urdu: the complete course for beginners. Routledge. ISBN 9780415135405. http://books.google.com/books?id=HkPwaXWipVcC. Retrieved 2010-05-17. ""Hamare yahan (America) curry ka matlab koi masaledar Hindustani khana hai. In America, curry is any spicy (masaledar) Indian dish"" 
  8. ^ S&B Foods Inc. "Curry Q&A" (in Japanese). http://www.sbcurry.com/qa/number_1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  9. ^ The Curry Rice Research (in Japanese)
  10. ^ Hikayat Amir Hamzah. Books.google.com. ISBN 9789831921166. http://books.google.com/books?id=rahQDaE0bD8C&pg=PA10&dq=rendang+hikayat. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  11. ^ "malay concordance project". Mcp.anu.edu.au. http://mcp.anu.edu.au/N/AHmz_bib.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  12. ^ Hannah Glasse (1747). The art of cookery, made plain and easy. OCLC 4942063. 
  13. ^ Isabella Mary Beeton (1861). Mrs. Beeton's book of household management. p. 215. ISBN 0-304-35726-X. 
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Further reading


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Synonyms:

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  • curry — curry …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • Curry — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Curry es el nombre generalmente adoptado en Occidente para describir una serie de platos elaborados con una mezcla de especias picantes, desarrolladas en las cocinas asiáticas, del este y sureste asiático. Diferentes …   Wikipedia Español

  • Curry — ist die Bezeichnung für verschiedene eintopfartige Gerichte, siehe Curry (Gericht) der Name einer Gewürzmischung, siehe Currypulver die Bezeichnung für verschiedene thailändische scharfe Würzpasten, siehe Currypaste Teilweise davon abgeleitet… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • curry — [ kyri ] n. m. • caril mot malabar 1602, aussi cari; curry repris à l angl. 1820 ♦ Épice indienne composée de piment, de curcuma et d autres épices pulvérisées. Riz au curry. Mets préparé avec cette épice. Un curry d agneau, de volaille. Des… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Curry — Семантика: мультипарадигменный: функциональный, логический Curry язык Curry является универсальным языком программирования, в котором объединены две парадигмы декларативного программирования функциональная и логическая. Более того, в этом языке… …   Википедия

  • curry — s.n. (Liv.) Mâncare preparată din ardei şi din alte ingrediente. [pron. cári. / < fr. curry < cuv. din Malabar]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 04.02.2005. Sursa: DN  CURRY s.n. Amestec de condimente, de origine indiană, realizat după nenumărate… …   Dicționar Român

  • curry — curry1 [kʉr′ē] vt. curried, currying [ME curraien < OFr correier, conreder, to put in order < VL * corredare < L com , with + red , base appearing in * arredare: for IE base see RIDE] 1. to use a curry comb 2. to prepare (tanned leather) …   English World dictionary

  • Curry — Cur ry (k?r r?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Curried} ( r?d); p. pr. & vb. n. {Currying}.] [OE. curraien, curreien, OF. cunreer, correier, to prepare, arrange, furnish, curry (a horse), F. corroyer to curry (leather) (cf. OF. conrei, conroi, order,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Curry — Sm (eine Gewürzmischung) erw. fach. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. curry( powder), dieses aus anglo i. curry, aus tamil. kari Soße, Tunke .    Ebenso nndl. kerrie, nfrz. cari, curry, nschw. curry. ✎ Littmann (1924), 123f.; Rey… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • curry — Ⅰ. curry [1] ► NOUN (pl. curries) ▪ a dish of meat, vegetables, etc., cooked in an Indian style sauce of strong spices. ► VERB (curries, curried) ▪ prepare or flavour with such a sauce. ORIGIN Tamil …   English terms dictionary

  • Curry — Cur ry, n. [Tamil kari.] [Written also {currie}.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Cookery) A kind of sauce much used in India, containing garlic, pepper, ginger, and other strong spices. [1913 Webster] 2. A stew of fowl, fish, or game, cooked with curry.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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