- Andhra Pradesh
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = state
state_name = Andhra Pradesh
native_name = Andhra Pradesh
other_name = ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్
abbreviation = IN-AP
capital = Hyderabad
latd = 17.366 |longd = 78.476
largest_city = Hyderabad
Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur, Kurnool, WarangalTirupati
official_languages = Telugu,
legislature_type = Bicameral
legislature_strength = 295+90
telangana movement web site http://telangana.aginfoway.com
leader_title_1 = Governor
leader_name_1 = Narayan Dutt Tiwari
leader_title_2 = Chief Minister
YS Rajasekhara Reddy
November 1, 1956
area_total = 275608
area_magnitude = 11
area_rank = 4th
area_magnitude = 11
climate = Aw, BSh
population_year = 2001
population_total = 76210007
population_rank = 5th
population_density = 277
districts = 23
website = www.aponline.gov.in
Andhra Pradesh ( _te. ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్) (audio|Andhra.ogg|pronunciation) or AP, the "Rice Bowl of India", is a state in southern India. It lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by
Maharashtra, Chhattisgarhand Orissain the north, the Bay of Bengalin the East, Tamil Naduto the south and Karnatakato the west. Andhra Pradesh is the 4th largest state in India by area 106,195 sq mi (275,608 km²) and population. It is the largest state in Southern India. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna run across the state. Historically this land was known as Andhraapatha, Andhra Desa, Andhraavani, Andhra mandalamu, Andhra vishaya etc. [A Study of Telugu Place-names By S. S. Ramachandra Murthy, P. 10]
Government and politics
Andhra Pradesh has a Legislative Assembly of 294 seats. The state has 60 members in the
Parliament of India; 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House. [cite web|url=http://www.apassemblylive.com|title=Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly] [cite web|url=http://220.127.116.11/newls/membershomepage.aspx|title=Parliament of India]
Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982.
Kasu Brahmananda Reddyheld the record for the longest serving chief minister which was broken by N.T. Rama Raoin 1983. P.V. Narasimha Raoalso served as the chief minister of the state, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. Among the notable chief ministers of the state are Tanguturi Prakasam, CM for only the Andhra state (the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy) others include Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, Jalagam Vengal Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N.T. Rama Rao, Nara Chandrababu Naiduand Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy.
In 1983 the
Telugu Desam Party(TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao(NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time introducing a formidable second political party to Andhra Pradesh's politics and thus breaking the single party monopoly on Andhra Pradesh's politics. After a few months, Nadendla Bhaskar Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR successfully convinced the then State Governor to dissolve the Assembly and call for a fresh election. TDP won the elections with a large majority and NTR became Chief Minister of the State for the second time. His government policies included investment in education, rural development and in holding corrupt government officials.
In 1989 group elections ended the 7-year rule of NTR with INC party returning to power with Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm of affairs. He was replaced by N. Janardhan Reddy who was in turn replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhasker Reddy.
In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to TDP again and saw NTR becoming the chief minister again. NTR died of a heart attack before the next elections.
In 1995, N Chandrababu Naidu (TDP), became the chief minister. He won a second term in 1999 before he was defeated by the INC-led coalition in the May 2004 polls.
Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddyof INC, became Chief Minister of state after May 2004. Rajasekhara Reddy fought the 2004 Assembly elections in an alliance with the Telangana Rashtra Samithi(TRS), which was formed by Mr K. Chandrasekhar Rao whose aim is to form a separate state.
Andhra Kingdomwas mentioned in the Sanskrit epicssuch as Aitareya Brahmanaand Mahabarata. Inscriptional evidence showed that there was a kingdom in coastal Andhra ruled by Kuberaka with Pratipalapura ( Bhattiprolu) as his capital. This probably was the oldest known kingdom in Southern India. Around the same time Dhanyakatakam/ Dharanikota(present day Amaravati) seemed to be a very important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupaof Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of "The Glorious Lunar Mansions" ( Kalachakra)". [Helmutt Hoffmann, "Buddha's Preaching of the Kalachakra Tantraat the Stupa of Dhanyakataka," in: German Scholars on India, Vol. I. PP. 136-140. (Varanasi, 1973)] [Taranatha; http://www.kalacakra.org/history/khistor2.htm]
Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in 4th century BCE. With the fall of the Mauryan EmpireAndhra Satavahanas became independent in 3rd century BCE. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Ananda Gotrikas and Cholas ruled the Telugu land. Inscriptional evidence of Telugu languagewas found during the rule of Renati Cholas (Kadapa region) in 5th century CE.Fact|date=August 2007 During this period Telugu emerged as a popular medium undermining the predominance of Prakritand Sanskrit.Fact|date=August 2007 Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kingsFact|date=August 2007 who ruled from their capital Vinukonda. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas from their capital in Vengi. As early as 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundryaround 1022 CE.
The battle of
Palnaduresulted in the weakening of Eastern Chalukyan power and emergence of the Kakatiyadynasty in the 12th and the 13th centuries CE. dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. In Colonial India, Northern Circarsbecame part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhraregion. Later the Nizamhad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseemaregion. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely stateof Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim
Nizam of Hyderabadwanted to retain his independence from India, but the people of the region launched the movement to join the Indian Union. His state of Hyderabad was forced to become part of the Republic of India in 1948, after Indian Military operation known as operation polowithin 5 days with popular support from people as Hyderabad State.
In an effort to gain an independent state, and protect the interests of the Telugu people of
Madras State, "Amarajeevi" Potti Sriramulufasted until death. Public outcry and civil unrest after his death forced the government to announce the formation of a new state for Telugu speaking people. Andhra attained statehood in October 1953 with Kurnoolas its capital.
On 1st November 1956, Andhra State merged with the
Telanganaregion of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the [http://asi.nic.in/asi_museums_amravati.asp Archaeological Museum] at
Amaravatinear Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museumin Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts and the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidencyin a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow [http://www.vizagcityonline.com/visakha_museum/] . Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawadahas a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions [Victoria Jubilee Museum: http://www.indiatourism.com/andhra-pradesh-museums/victoria-jubilee-museum.html] .
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly the spiciest and the most delicious of all
Indian cuisines. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine depending on caste, geographical regions, traditions etc. Pickles and chutneys, called "pachchadi" in Teluguare particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (" Gongura"). The mango pickle " Aavakaaya" is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles. Riceis the staple foodand is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu ( pesarattu) or dosas. Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices ( masala) into a variety of strongly flavoured dishes.
Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in
Telanganain the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and " ghee" (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. The biryaniis perhaps the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi dishes.
Jayapa Senani (
Jayapa Nayudu) is the first person who wrote about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh ["Ntitya Ratnavali" (http://www.telugupeople.com/discussion/article.asp?id=111] . Both Desi and Margi forms of dances have been included in his Sanskrit treatise 'Nritya Ratnavali'. It contains eight chapters. Folk dance forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam, Chindu, Gondali and Kolatam are described. In the first chapter the author deals with discussion of the differences between Marga and Desi, Tandava and lasya, Natya and Nritta. In the 2nd and 3rd chapters he deals with Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas and Mandalas. In the 4th Chapter Karnas, angaharas and recakas are described. In following chapters he described the local dance forms i.e. desi nritya. In the last chapter he deals with art and practice of dance.
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; however women tend to learn it more often.
Kuchipudiis the state's best-known classical dance forms of Andhra Pradesh. The various dance forms that existed through the states’ history are Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, Kolattamand chindu .
Maha Shivaratriin February/March.
Ugadior the Telugu New Year in March/April.
Sri Rama Navamicelebrated in March/April, 9 days after Ugadi.
Varalakshmi Vrathamin August.
* Vinayaka Chavithi in August.
* Dasara in September/October.
Atla Tadde3rd day in bright half of Aswiyuja month (falls in September/October in Gregorian calendar)
* Deepavali in October/November 20days after Dasara.
Bonaluin Sravanam. (Celebrated in Telanganaregion).
Bathukammacelebrated on Dasara in Telanganaregion.
Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragadaform the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharathainto Telugu. Bammera Potanais another great poet who composed the great classic "SriMad Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu", a Telugu translation of "Sri Bhagavatham" authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya is called as 'Adikavi'. Nannaya was patronized by the king Rajarajanarendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram ( Rajahmundry). Vijayanagaraemperor Krishna Deva Raya wrote Amuktamalyada. Philosophical poems by Yogi-Vemana are quite famous throughout the Telugu land. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingamis termed as Modern literature. Veerasalingam is called as 'Gadya Tikkana'. Satyavathi Charitam was the first social novel in Telugu. Rajashekara Charitham was the most popular novel written by Veerasalingam. Other modern writers include Jnanpith Awardwinners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. Revolutionary poets like Sri Sriare also popular.
Andhra Pradesh is the state with the most cinema halls in India, at around 3000Fact|date=February 2007. The state also produces about 200Fact|date=February 2007 movies a year. It has around 40%, 330 cinema halls out of 930 DTS cinema halls in India [ [http://www.dtsonline.com/digitalcinema/find/index.php DTS | Home ] ] of all the Dolby digital theatres in India. Now it also houses an IMax theatre with a big 3D screen and also 3-5 multiplexes. It is also the largest movie industry in India, producing more movies than any other industry.
The state has a rich musical heritage. Many legends of the
Carnatic musicincluding Trinity of Carnatic music( Thyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitarand Syama Sastri) were of Telugu descent. Other great composers include Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadasu. Folk songs are also popular in the rural areas of the state.
Andhra Pradesh is home to
Hindu saintsof all castes. An important backward-caste figure is, Sant Yogi Potuluri Veerabrahmam was a Shudra that had Brahmin, Harijan and Muslim disciples. [ [http://www.mihira.com/wisdommasters/veerabrahmam.htm Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami ] ] Fisherman Raghu was also a Sudra. [ [http://www.telugubhakti.com/telugupages/Monthly/Bhaktas/content1.htm Stories of Bhaktas - Fisherman Raghu ] ] Sant Kakkayya was a chura (cobbler) Harijan saint.
Several important Hindu modern-day saint are from Andhra Pradesh. These include
Nimbarkawho founded Dvaitadvaita, Mother Meera who advocated Indian independence and Aurobindo Mission, Bala Sai Babawho advocates religious unity in worship, Satya Sai Babawho does the same, and Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji.
Satya Sai Babais from a Kshatriya family and was born on 23rd November 1926 in Puttaparthi. He is renowned worldwide as a master of love and peace. He is believed to be the avatarof Shirdi Sai Baba. Sathya Sai Organization has many branches worldwide. Its member are from all religions and seek to establish peace in the world.
His Holiness Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji was born on 25th December 1947 in Kattubadipalem village, sri potti sreeramulu Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh.Andhra Pradesh is also home for Christians and Muslims who form minor part of population in this state.
Pilgrimages in Andhra
Tirupati or Tirumala is a very important pilgrimage for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city (of any religious faith) in the world. Its main temple is dedicated to the god
Venkateswara. Tirpuathi is located in Chittoordistrict. Satyanarayana swamytemple famous in Annavaram in East Godavari district. Simhachalamis another very popular pilgrmage of national importance. Simhachalam is said in mythology to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahladafrom abusive father Hiranyakasipu. KanakaDurga Temple is one of the famous in Andhra Pradesh which is situated in Vijayawada city.
Simhachalam, it is a hill shrine in the city that is 16 km away from the City centre of Visakhapatnam on the other side of the Hill on the north of the city.One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, Simhachalam temple is situated 16 km from Vizag among thickly wooded hills. The beautifully-carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and the 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa bear testimony to the architectural brilliance of the temple. The image of the presiding deity, Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy, is covered by a thick layer of sandalwood paste. This is one of the oldest temple in India dedicated to Narasimha, one of the incarnations of Vishnu, built in 11th century by Kullotunga, an Eastern Chalukyan king. One Vijaya stamba is erected by Sri Krishna Deva Raya emerged victorious over the Gajapati kings of Orissa. One will find ancient telugu inscriptions in this temple. This temple is one of the most famous temples in India. Its architecture is Dravida (South Indian). There is a popular belief that this lord is protecting Vizag from natural disasters like Floods, cyclones, Earthquakes and Tsunamis. Till date there is not even a single death occurred due to natural calamities. Couples just before marriage go to this temple as a ritual. This temple is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.
Srisailamis another major temple in Andhra Pradesh, which is of national importance. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyothirlingams. The " Skanda Purana" has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to it, which points to the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is said that Adi Sankaravisited this temple and at that time he composed his "Sivananda Lahiri". Shiva's sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakalitemple till Shiva and Parvatiappeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard. Srisailam is located in Kurnooldistrict. Bhadrachalamis a renown place for the sri rama temple and the blissful godavari river. This is the place where the famous Bhakta Ramadasu (originally - Kancherla Gopanna) has written his devotional songs and dedicated to lord Rama. Bhadrachalam is located in Khammam district. Basar - Saraswathi templeis another famous place for Saraswathi - goddess of education. Basara is located in Adilabaddistrict. Yaaganti Cavesis another important piligrim center in Andhra Pradesh. Apart from that Mahanandi, Kurnool Dt is another piligrim center which is full of greenary.
Kanakadurga temple is a famous temple in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the Indrakeeladri hill in the city of Vijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. According to a legend, the now verdant Vijayawada was once a rocky region strewn with hillocks that were obstructing the flow of River Krishna. The land was thus rendered unfit for habitation or cultivation. Invocation to Lord Siva led to His directing the hills to give way to river Krishna. And lo! the river started flowing unimpeded with all its might, through the tunnels or "Bejjam" bored into the hills by Lord Siva. That is how the place got its name Bezawada. 
One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Siva on top of Indrakeela hill to win His blessings and the city derived its name "Vijayawada" after this victory. Yet another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanakadurga over the demon king Mahishasura. It is said that once upon a time, the growing menace of demons became unendurable for the natives living in this region. Sage Indrakila, took to severe penance and when the goddess appeared, the sage begged Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons. As per his wishes, after killing the demons, goddess Durga made Indrakila Her permanent abode. Later She also slayed the demon king Mahishasura freeing the people of Vijayawada from the evil clutches of the demon. Special pujas are performed during Dasara also called Navaratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam.The festival of Dasara for Goddess Durga is celebrated here every year. A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna river.
Other cultural elements
Nanduri Subbarao's "Yenki Paatalu" (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya(a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura(a chutneyfrom Roselle plant), "Atla Taddi" (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, "Dudu basavanna" (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranti) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgiis known for originating stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.'Kalankari' is an ancient art form dating back to the Harappan civilization. Andhra is also famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and light weight metal alloys.Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra is an art form by itself. 'Yaksha ganam', 'Burra katha' (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), 'Jangama kathalu', 'Hari kathalu', 'Chekka bajana', 'Urumula natyam' (usually done in festivals, where a group of people dance in circles for loud music), 'Ghata natyam' (performances done with earthen pots over one's head) are all folk dances unique to Andhrapradesh palumamba fetival in visaka famous.
Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business and veterinary science are offered, leading to first degrees as well as postgraduate awards. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas.
Andhra Pradesh has 1330 arts, science and commerce colleges,1000 MBA,MCA Colleges, 500 engineering colleges and 53 medical colleges. The student to teacher ratio is 19:1 in the higher education. According to census taken in 2001, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 60.5%. While male literacy rate is at 70.3%, the female literacy rate however is only at 50.4%, a cause for concern.
The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes of high quality.
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University(JNTU), International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and Indian School of Business(ISB) are gaining international attention for their standards. National Institute of Fashion Technology, Hyderabad (NIFT) [ [http://www.hyderabad.niftindia.com/ National Institute of Fashion Technology ] ] is well reputed among those interested in a career in fashion. Also Institute of Hotel Management Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition, hyderabad (IHM HYDERABAD) which is one of the best IHM s nationwide producing quality personnel to the hospitality industry from the past 35 years.
Major Universities/Institutes in Andhra Pradesh:
Indian Institute of Technology,Hyderabad [ [http://www.iith.ac.in IITH] ] Fact|date=September 2008
* Institute of Hotel Management Catering technology and Applied Nutrition, Hyderabad.
National Institute of Technology NIT, Warangal
* IIIT, Hyderabad [International Institute of Information Technology]
Indian School of Business, Hyderabad
* Birla Institute Of Technology [BITS] , Hyderabad
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad
* J.N.T.U. College of Engineering, Kakinada.
* J.N.T.U. College of Engineering, Anathapur.
* J.N.T.U. College of Engineering.Pulivendula,Kadapa.
School of Information Technology, JNTU, Hyderabad
University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
Osmania University, Hyderabad
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
* Sagi RamaKrishnam Raju Engineering College (SRK Engg. College),
* Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering,
Kakatiya University, Warangal
Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati
Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada
* , Hyderabad
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur
* , Hyderabad
* Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupathi (Veterinary science has been separated from N.G. Ranga Agri. University to form this separate university)
Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Hyderabad
GITAM University, Visakhapatnam
Badruka College of Commerce, Hyderabad
Indian Institute of Planning and Management IIPM, Hyderabad
Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati
Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur
Sri Sathya Sai University, Puttaparthi
ICFAI University, Hyderabad
NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad
* IIIT Idupulapaya,Kadapa
* Nannayya University,Rajahmundry
* Yogi vemana university,Kadapa
* Telangana University, [Nizamabad] .
* Nalgonda University, [Nalgonda] .
* RaJiv Institute of Medical Sciences(RIMS),Kadapa.
Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad("See also List of institutions based in Hyderabad India")
Andhra Pradesh has several newspapers. Some of them are:
*Telugu Newspapers -
Eenadu, Andhra Jyothi, Prajasakti, Vaartha, Andhra Bhoomi, Visalandra, Surya, Udayam, Sakshiand Andhra Prabha.
*Urdu Newspapers -
Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily, Rehnuma-e-Deccan, Itimad Urdu Daily, Awamand The Milap Daily.
*English Newspapers -
Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu, The Times of India, Indian Express, The Economic Times, The Business Line.
Araku valley] Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirupati, the abode of Lord Venkateswara, is the richest and most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam, the abode of "Sri Mallikarjuna", is one of twelve "Jyothirlingalu" in India, Amaravati's Siva temple is one of the Pancharamams, and Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for some fine temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.
The golden beaches at
Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at "Papi Kondalu", waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the natural attractions of the state..Kailashagiri is situated adjacent to sea in Visakhapatnam, it is one of the beautiful sight which shows the entire beauty of visakhapatnam having other side sea. A Beautiful park is developed on the hill top of Kailashagiri, the city boasts of having a Park on hill top that has a luxurious toy train, ropeway and beautiful view of beach front into which Eastern Ghats merge into the sea. Further, Visakhapatnam is home to many tourist attactions like INS Karasura Submarine museum ( The only one of its kind in India), the most beautiful and the longest Beach Road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley (Known as poorman's Ooty , a lot of movies are shooted here), VUDA Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens,etc.
The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State in India. They are at a height of about 800 to 1300 metres above Mean Sea Level and are famous for millions of years old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by William King George, the British geologist in the year 1807.The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as borra. Similarly Belum caves was formed due to erosion in limestone deposite in the area by Chitravati River, millions of years ago. This limestone caves was formed due to action of carbonic acid — or weakly acidic groundwater formed due to reaction between limestone and water.
are the second largest cave in Indian sub-continent and the longest caves in plains of Indian Subcontinent. Belum Caves derives its name from "Bilum" Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu language, it is called Belum Guhalu. Belum Caves has a length of 3229 meters, making it the second largest natural caves in Indian Subcontinent. Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, fresh water galleries and siphons. The caves reach its deepest point (120 feet from entrance level) at the point known as Patalganaga.
Horsley HillsHorsley Hills, elevation 1,265 m, is a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km from Bangalore, India and 144 km from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi valley school. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km. The narrow road to Horsely Hills is very scenic. It is surrounded throughout its entire length with dense growths of eucalyptus, jacaranda, allamanda, and gulmohar trees. This place is also believed to be haunted by some ghosts. Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palaceand Falaknuma Palaceare some of the monuments in the state.
There are five airports in the state: Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi International),
Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundryand Tirupati. Government also have plans to start airports in six other cities including Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Ramagundamand Ongole. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation( APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by government of Andhra Pradesh connecting all the cities and villages. APSRTC also has the distinction of being in the Guinness book of World records for having the largest fleet of vehicles, and the longest area covered/commuted daily. Apart from these, thousands of private operators run buses connecting major cities and towns of the state. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.
Andhra Pradesh also has two of the important ports of India at
Visakhapatnamand Kakinadaand three minor ports, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam( Guntur) and Krishnapatnam. One more private port is being developed at Gangavaram, Near Visakhapatnam, This is the deep sea port that can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000-250,000 DWT, thereby making big oceanliners to enter into Indian shores.
List of people from Andhra Pradesh
History of India
Middle kingdoms of India
Bruce Elliot Tapper
* http://www.dae.gov.in/ni/nijul03/cudapah.pdf* http://www.dae.gov.in/ni/nijul03/cudapah.pdf
* [http://www.telanganamatchmaker.com/Default.aspx TelanganaMatchMaker.com]
* [http://www.aptalkboard.com Official - Andhra Pradesh Talk Board]
* [http://www.aptalks.com Official - Andhra Pradesh Political Talk Board]
* [http://www.way2njoy.com Andhrapradesh details all in and outs]
* [http://www.aponline.gov.in/ Andhra Pradesh Government Official Portal]
* [http://www.eenadu.net/ Eenadu-Largest circulated Telugu daily]
* [http://www.ramojifilmcity.com world's biggest Film studio]
* [http://www.eemaata.com/ Telugu webzine]
* [http://www.teluguone.com Telugu culture,TV,cortoons,stories etc]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.