Krishna holding flute
Devanagari कृष्ण Sanskrit Transliteration Kṛṣṇa Affiliation Svayam Bhagavan Abode Vrindavan, Gokul, Dwarka Mantra ॐ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय Weapon Sudarshana Chakra Consort Radha, Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Satya, Lakshmana, Kalindi, Bhadra, Mitravinda. Mount Garuda Texts Bhagavata Purana, Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharata
Krishna (Hindi/Sanskrit: कृष्ण)(kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] literally "dark, black, dark-blue") is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu . Krishna is identified as a historical individual who participated in the events of the Mahabharata.
Krishna is often described as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita. The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions. They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the Supreme Being. The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana.
Worship of a deity of Krishna, in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala, can be traced to as early as 4th century BC. Worship of Krishna as svayam bhagavan, or the Supreme Being, known as Krishnaism, arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the bhakti movement. From the 10th century AD, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as Jagannatha in Orissa, Vithoba in Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan. The Gaudiya Vaishnavism sect of Krishnaism was established in the 16th century, and since the 1960s has also spread in the West, largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.
- 1 Name and titles
- 2 Iconography
- 3 Literary sources
- 4 Life
- 5 Worship
- 6 In the performing arts
- 7 In other religions
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Name and titles
The Sanskrit word kṛṣṇa is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark" or "dark-blue"., sometimes it is also translated as "all attractive". It is cognate with Slavic čьrnъ "black". As a feminine noun, kṛṣṇā is used in the meaning "night, blackness, darkness" in the Rigveda, and as a demon or spirit of darkness in RV 4.16.13. As a proper noun, Kṛṣṇa occurs in RV 8.85.3 as the name of a poet. As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in murtis as black or blue-skinned.
Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets and titles, which reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Govinda, "finder of cows", or Gopala, "protector of cows", which refer to Krishna's childhood in Vraja. Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, Jagannatha (literally "Lord of the Universe"), a popular deity of Puri in eastern India.
Krishna is easily recognized by his representations. Though his skin colour may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in murtis, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with blue skin. He is often shown wearing a yellow silk dhoti and peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristic relaxed pose, playing the flute. In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other and raises a flute to his lips, known as Tribhangi Mudra, accompanied by cows, emphasizing his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids).
The scene on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, notably where he addresses Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often with typical god-like characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the chakra or in his two-armed form as a charioteer.
Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures: his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, or his main queens Rukmini and Satyabhama.
Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort Radha. Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but as Radha Krishna, a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools Rudra and Nimbarka sampradaya, as well as that of Swaminarayan faith. The traditions celebrate Radha Ramana murti, who is viewed by Gaudiyas as a form of Radha Krishna.
Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (Bala Krishna, bāla kṛṣṇa the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter or Laddu in his hand being Laddu Gopal. Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha of Orissa, Vithoba of Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.
The earliest text to explicitly provide detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahābhārata which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to the warrior-hero Arjuna, on the battlefield. Krishna is already an adult in the epic, although there are allusions to his earlier exploits. The Harivamsa, a later appendix to this epic, contains the earliest detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth.
In early texts, such as Rig Veda, there are no references to Krishna, however some, like Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar attempted to show that "the very same Krishna" made an appearance, e.g. as the drapsa ... krishna "black drop" of RV 8.96.13. See Krishnasura Some authors have also likened prehistoric depictions of deities to Krishna.as the son of Devaki and the disciple of Ghora Angirasa , the seer who preached his disciple the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya.’ Having been influenced by the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya’ Krishna in the Bhagavadgita while delivering the discourse to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra discussed about sacrifice, which can be compared to purusha or the individual.
Yāska's Nirukta, an etymological dictionary around 6th century BC, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from well known Puranic story about Krishna. Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitareya-Aranyaka, associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins.
Pāṇini, the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to 5th century or 6th century BC) mentions a character called Vāsudeva, son of Vasudeva, and also mentions Kaurava and Arjuna which testifies to Vasudeva Krishna, Arjuna and Kauravas being contemporaries.
Megasthenes (350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer and an ambassador of Seleucus I to the court of Chandragupta Maurya mentioned about Herakles in his famous work Indica. Many scholars have suggested that the deity identified as Herakles was Krishna. According to Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo, Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshipped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Methora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. Quintus Curtius also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard.
The name Kṛishṇa occurs in Buddhist writings in the form Kaṇha, phonetically equivalent to Kṛishṇa.
The Ghata-Jâtaka (No. 454) gives an account of Kṛishṇa's childhood and subsequent exploits which in many points corresponds with the Brahmanic legends of his life and contains several familiar incidents and names, such as Vâsudeva, Baladeva, Kaṃsa. Yet it presents many peculiarities and is either an independent version or a misrepresentation of a popular story that had wandered far from its home. Jain tradition also shows that these tales were popular and were worked up into different forms, for the Jains have an elaborate system of ancient patriarchs which includes Vâsudevas and Baladevas. Kṛishṇa is the ninth of the Black Vâsudevas and is connected with Dvâravatî or Dvârakâ. He will become the twelfth tîrthankara of the next world-period and a similar position will be attained by Devakî, Rohinî, Baladeva and Javakumâra, all members of his family. This is a striking proof of the popularity of the Kṛishṇa legend outside the Brahmanic religion.
According to Arthasastra of Kautilya (4th centuries CE) Vāsudeva was worshiped as supreme Deity in a strongly monotheistic format.
Around 150 BC, Patanjali in his Mahabhashya quotes a verse: "May the might of Krishna accompanied by Samkarshana increase!" Other verses are mentioned. One verse speaks of "Janardhana with himself as fourth" (Krishna with three companions, the three possibly being Samkarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha). Another verse mentions musical instruments being played at meetings in the temples of Rama (Balarama) and Kesava (Krishna). Patanjali also describes dramatic and mimetic performances (Krishna-Kamsopacharam) representing the killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva.
In the 1st century BC, there seems to be evidence for a worship of five Vrishni heroes (Balarama, Krishna, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba) for an inscription has been found at Mora near Mathura, which apparently mentions a son of the great satrap Rajuvula, probably the satrap Sodasa, and an image of Vrishni, "probably Vasudeva, and of the "Five Warriors". Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum.
Many Puranas tell Krishna's life-story or some highlights from it. Two Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana, that contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna’s story and teachings are the most theologically venerated by the Vaishnava schools. Roughly one quarter of the Bhagavata Purana is spent extolling his life and philosophy.
This summary is based on details from the Mahābhārata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana. The scenes from the narrative are set in north India, mostly in the present states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat.
Based on scriptural details and astrological calculations the date of Krishna's birth, known as Janmashtami, is 18 July 3228 BCE and departed on 3102 BCE. Krishna belonged to the Vrishni clan of Yadavas from Mathura, and was the eighth son born to the princess Devaki, and her husband Vasudeva. Mathura was the capital of the Yadavas, to which Krishna's parents Vasudeva and Devaki belonged. The king Kansa, Devaki's brother, had ascended the throne by imprisoning his father, King Ugrasena. Afraid of a prophecy that predicted his death at the hands of Devaki's eighth son, Kansa had the couple locked into a prison cell. After Kansa killed the first six children, and Devaki's apparent miscarriage of the seventh (which was actually a secret transfer of the infant to Rohini as Balarama), Krishna was born.
Since Vasudeva believed Krishna's life was in danger, Krishna was secretly taken out of the prison cell to be raised by his foster parents, Yasoda  and Nanda, in Gokula. Two of his other siblings also survived, Balarama (Devaki's seventh child, transferred to the womb of Rohini, Vasudeva's first wife) and Subhadra (daughter of Vasudeva and Rohini, born much later than Balarama and Krishna). According to Bhagavata Purana divine Krishna was born without a sexual union, but by divine "mental transmission" from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki.
Childhood and youth
Nanda was the head of a community of cow-herders, and he settled in Vrindavana. The stories of Krishna's childhood and youth tell how he became a cow herder, his mischievous pranks as Makhan Chor (butter thief), his foiling of attempts to take his life, and his role as a protector of the people of Vrindavana.
Krishna killed the demoness like Putana, sent by Kansa for Krishna's life. He tamed the serpent Kāliyā, who previously poisoned the waters of Yamuna river, thus leading to the death of the cowherds. In Hindu art, Krishna is often depicted dancing on the multi-hooded Kāliyā.
Krishna lifted the Govardhana hill and taught Indra, the king of the devas and rain, a lesson to protect native people of Vrindavana from persecution by Indra and prevent the devastation of the pasture land of Govardhan. Indra had too much pride and was angry when Lord Krishna advised the people of Vrindavana to take care of their animals and their environment that provide them with all their necessities, instead of worshipping Indra annually by spending their resources. In the view of some, the spiritual movement started by Lord Krishna had something in it which went against the orthodox forms of worship of the Vedic gods such as Indra. In Bhagavat Purana, Lord Krishna says that the rain came from the nearby hill Govardhana, and advised that the people worshiped the hill instead of Indra. This made Indra furious, so he punished them by sending out a great storm. Lord Krishna then lifted Govardhan and held it over the people like an umbrella.
The stories of his play with the gopis (milkmaids) of Vrindavana, especially Radha (daughter of Vrishbhanu, one of the original residents of Vrindavan) became known as the Rasa lila and were romanticised in the poetry of Jayadeva, author of the Gita Govinda. These became important as part of the development of the Krishna bhakti traditions worshiping Radha Krishna.
On his return to Mathura as a young man, Krishna overthrew and killed his maternal uncle, Kansa, after avoiding several assassination attempts from Kansa's followers. He reinstated Kansa's father, Ugrasena, as the king of the Yadavas and became a leading prince at the court. During this period, he became a friend of Arjuna and the other Pandava princes of the Kuru kingdom, who were his cousins. Later, he took his Yadava subjects to the city of Dwaraka (in modern Gujarat) and established his own kingdom there.
Krishna married Rukmini, the Vidarbha princess, by abducting her,at her request, from her proposed wedding with Shishupala. Krishna subsequently married 16,100 maidens who were held captive by demon Narakasura, to save their honour. of which eight were chief—collectively called the Ashta Bharya—including Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravrinda, Nagnajiti, Bhadra and Lakshana. Krishna killed the demon and released them all. According to social custom of the time, all of the captive women were degraded, and would be unable to marry, as they had been under the Narakasura's control. However Krishna married them to reinstate their status in the society. This symbolic wedding with 16,000 abandoned daughters was more of a mass women rehabilitation. In Vaishnava traditions, Krishna's wives are forms of the goddess Lakshmi— consort of Vishnu, or special souls who attained this qualification after many lifetimes of austerity, while his queen Satyabhama, is an expansion of Radha.
When Yudhisthira was assuming the title of emperor, he had invited all the great kings to the ceremony and while paying his respects to them, he started with Krishna because he considered Krishna to be the greatest of them all. While it was a unanimous feeling amongst most present at the ceremony that Krishna should get the first honours, his cousin Shishupala felt otherwise and started berating Krishna. Due to a vow given to Shishupal's mother, Krishna forgave a hundred verbal abuses by Shishupal, and upon the one hundred and first, he assumed his Virat (universal) form and killed Shishupal with his Chakra. The blind king Dhritarashtra also obtained divine vision during this time to be able to see the Lord's form. Essentially, Shishupal and Dantavakra were both re-incarnations of Lord Vishnu's gate-keepers Jaya and Vijaya, who were cursed to be born on Earth, to be delivered by the Lord back to Heaven.
Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita
Once battle seemed inevitable, Krishna offered both sides the opportunity to choose between having either his army called narayani sena or himself alone, but on the condition that he personally would not raise any weapon. Arjuna, on behalf of the Pandavas, chose to have Krishna on their side, and Duryodhana, Kaurava prince, chose Krishna's army. At the time of the great battle, Krishna acted as Arjuna's charioteer, since this position did not require the wielding of weapons.
Upon arrival at the battlefield, and seeing that the enemies are his family, his grandfather, his cousins and loved ones, Arjuna becomes doubtful about fight. He lost all his hopes and put down his Gandiv (Arjuna's bow). Krishna then advises him about the battle, with the conversation soon extending into a discourse which was later compiled as the Bhagavad Gita.
Krishna had a profound effect on the Mahabharata war and its consequences. He considered the Kurukshetra war as a last resort by voluntarily making himself as a messenger in order to establish peace between the Pandavas and Kauravas. But, once these peace negotiations failed and was embarked into the war, then he became a ruthless strategist. During the war, upon becoming angry with Arjun for not fighting in true spirit against his ancestors, Krishna once picked up a carriage wheel and converted it to a Chakra (discus) to challenge Bhishma when the latter injured him. Upon seeing this, Bhishma dropped his weapons and asked Krishna to kill him. However, Arjuna apologized to Krishna, promising that he would fight with full dedication hereafter, and the battle continued. Krishna had directed Yudhisthira and Arjuna to return to Bhishma the boon of "victory" which he had given to Yudhisthira before the war commenced, since he himself was standing in their way to victory. Bhishma understood the message and told them the means through which he would drop his weapons—which was if a woman entered the battlefield. Next day, upon Krishna's directions, Shikhandi (Amba reborn) accompanied Arjuna to the battlefield and thus, Bhishma laid down his arms. This was a decisive moment in the war because Bhishma was the chief commander of the Kaurava army and the most formidable warrior on the battlefield. Krishna aided Arjuna in killing Jayadratha, who had held the other four Pandava brothers at bay while Arjuna's son Abhimanyu entered Drona's Chakravyuha formation—an effort in which he got killed by the simultaneous attack of eight Kaurava warriors. Krishna also caused the downfall of Drona, when he signalled Bhima to kill an elephant called Ashwatthama, the namesake of Drona's son. Pandavas started shouting that Ashwatthama was dead but Drona refused to believe them saying he would believe it only if he heard it from Yudhisthira. Krishna knew that Yudhisthira would never tell a lie, so he devised a clever ploy so that Yudhisthira wouldn't lie and at the same time Drona would be convinced of his son's death. On asked by Drona, Yudhisthira proclaimedAshwathama Hatahath, naro va Kunjaro va
i.e. Ashwathama had died but he was nor sure whether it was a Drona's son or an elephant. But as soon as Yudhisthira had uttered the first line, Pandava army on Krishna's direction broke into celebration with drums and conchs, in the din of which Drona could not hear the second part of the Yudhisthira's declaration and assumed that his son indeed was dead. Overcome with grief he laid down his arms, and on Krishna's instruction Dhrishtadyumna beheaded Drona.
When Arjuna was fighting Karna, the latter's chariot's wheels sank into the ground. While Karna was trying to take out the chariot from the grip of the Earth, Krishna reminded Arjuna how Karna and the other Kauravas had broken all rules of battle while simultaneously attacking and killing Abhimanyu, and he convinced Arjuna to do the same in revenge in order to kill Karna. During the final stage of the war, when Duryodhana was going to meet his mother Gandhari for taking her blessings which would convert all parts of his body on which her sight falls to steel, Krishna tricks him to wearing banana leaves to hide his groin. When Duryodhana meets Gandhari, her vision and blessings fall on his entire body except his groin and thighs, and she becomes unhappy about it because she was not able to convert his entire body to steel. When Duryodhana was in a mace-fight with Bhima, Bhima's blows had no effect on Duryodhana. Upon this, Krishna reminded Bhima of his vow to kill Duryodhana by hitting him on the thigh, and Bhima did the same to win the war despite it being against the rules of mace-fight (since Duryodhana had himself broken Dharma in all his past acts). Thus, Krishna's unparalleled strategy helped the Pandavas win the Mahabharata war by bringing the downfall of all the chief Kaurava warriors, without lifting any weapon. He also brought back to life Arjuna's grandson Parikshit, who had been attacked by a Brahmastra weapon from Ashwatthama while he was in his mother's womb. Parikshit became the Pandavas' successor.
Krishna had a total of 16,108 wives, out of which eight were his princely wives and 16,100 were rescued from Narakasura, who had forcibly kept them in his harem, but all of them are considered to be incarnations of Goddess Lakshmi.
The first son of Queen Rukmini was Pradyumna, and also born of her were Charudeshna, Sudeshna and the powerful Charudeha, along with Sucharu, Chharugupta, Bhadracaru, Charuchandra, Vicaru and Caru, the tenth. Pradyumna fathered the greatly powerful Aniruddha in the womb of Rukmavati, the daughter of Rukmi. This took place while they were living in the city of Bhojakata.
The ten sons of Satyabhama were Bhanu, Subhanu, Svarbhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanuman, Chandrabhanu, Brihadbhanu, Atibhanu (the eighth), Sribhanu and Pratibhanu.
Samba, Sumitra, Purujit, Satajit, Sahasrajit, Vijaya, Citraketu, Vasuman, Dravida and Kratu were the sons of Jambavati. These ten, headed by Samba, were their father's favorites.
The sons of Nagnajiti were Vira, Candra, Asvasena, Citragu, Vegavan, Vrisha, Ama, Sanku, Vasu and the opulent Kunti.
Sruta, Kavi, Vrisha, Vira, Subahu, Bhadra, Santi, Darsa and Purnamasa were sons of Kalindi. Her youngest son was Somaka.
Madra's sons were Praghosha, Gatravan, Simha, Bala, Prabala, Urdhaga, Mahasakti, Saha, Oja and Aparajita.
Mitravinda's sons were Vrika, Harsha, Anila, Gridhra, Vardhana, Unnada, Mahamsa, Pavana, Vahni and Kshudhi.
Sangramajit, Brihatsena, Sura, Praharana, Arijith, Jaya and Subhadra were the sons of Bhadra, together with Vama, Ayur and Satyaka.
Diptiman, Tamratapta and others were the sons of Lord Krishna and Rohini.
Curse of Gandhari According to Mahabharata, Kurukshetra resulted in the death of all the hundred sons of Gandhari. Night before death of Duryodhana, Lord Krishna visited Gandhari to offer his condolence.Gandhari felt that Krishna knowingly didn't put an end to the war,In a fit of rage and sorrow, Gandhari cursed as Krishna will perish after 36 years including everyone from yadu dynasty.
At a festival, a fight broke out between the Yadavas who exterminated each other. His elder brother Balarama then gave up his body using Yoga. Krishna retired into the forest and sat under a tree in meditation. While the Mahabharata narrates the story that a hunter named Jara mistook his partly visible left foot for a deer and shot an arrow wounding him mortally; while Krishna's soul ascended to heaven, his mortal body was cremated by Arjuna.
According to Puranic sources, Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE. Vaishnava teachers such as Ramanujacharya and Gaudiya Vaishnavas held the view that the body of Krishna is completely spiritual and never decays as this appears to be the perspective of the Bhagavata Purana. Krishna never appears to grow old or age at all in the historical depictions of the Puranas despite passing of several decades, but there are grounds for a debate whether this indicates that he has no material body, since battles and other descriptions of the Mahabhārata epic show clear indications that he seems to be subject to the limitations of nature. While battles apparently seem to indicate limitations, Mahabharatha also shows in many places where Krishna is not subject to any limitations as through episodes Duryodhana trying to arrest Krishna where his body burst into fire showing all creation within him. Krishna is also explicitly described as without deterioration elsewhere.
The worship of Krishna is part of Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu as the Supreme God and venerates His associated Avatars, their consorts, and related saints and teachers. Krishna is especially looked upon as a full manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself. However the exact relationship between Krishna and Vishnu is complex and diverse, where Krishna is sometimes considered an independent deity, supreme in his own right. Out of many deities, Krishna is particularly important, and traditions of Vaishnava lines are generally centered either on Vishnu or on Krishna, as supreme. The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the sects of Krishna, reserving term "Vaishnavism" for sects focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an Avatar, rather than as a transcendent Supreme Being.
All Vaishnava traditions recognise Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna with Vishnu; while traditions, such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, regard Krishna as the svayam bhagavan, original form of God, or the Lord himself. Swaminarayan, the founder of the Swaminarayan Sampraday also worshipped Krishna as God himself. "Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of the Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala of late Vedic period. Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.
The deity Krishna-Vasudeva (kṛṣṇa vāsudeva "Krishna, the son of Vasudeva") is historically one of the earliest forms of worship in Krishnaism and Vaishnavism. It is believed to be a significant tradition of the early history of the worship of Krishna in antiquity. This tradition is considered as earliest to other traditions that led to amalgamation at a later stage of the historical development. Other traditions are Bhagavatism and the cult of Gopala, that along with the cult of Bala Krishna form the basis of current tradition of monotheistic religion of Krishna. Some early scholars would equate it with Bhagavatism, and the founder of this religious tradition is believed to be Krishna, who is the son of Vasudeva, thus his name is Vāsudeva; he is said to be historically part of the Satvata tribe, and according to them his followers called themselves Bhagavatas and this religion had formed by the 2nd century BC (the time of Patanjali), or as early as the 4th century BC according to evidence in Megasthenes and in the Arthasastra of Kautilya, when Vāsudeva was worshiped as supreme deity in a strongly monotheistic format, where the supreme being was perfect, eternal and full of grace. In many sources outside of the cult, the devotee or bhakta is defined as Vāsudevaka. The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatar.
Bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However Krishna is an important and popular focus of the devotional and ecstatic aspects of Hindu religion, particularly among the Vaishnava sects. Devotees of Krishna subscribe to the concept of lila, meaning 'divine play', as the central principle of the Universe. The lilas of Krishna, with their expressions of personal love that transcend the boundaries of formal reverence, serve as a counterpoint to the actions of another avatar of Vishnu: Rama, "He of the straight and narrow path of maryada, or rules and regulations."
The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna became prominent in southern India in the 7th to 9th centuries AD. The earliest works included those of the Alvar saints of the Tamil country. A major collection of their works is the Divya Prabandham. The Alvar Andal's popular collection of songs Tiruppavai, in which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous of the oldest works in this genre.  Kulasekaraazhvaar's Mukundamala was another notable work of this early stage.
Spread of the Krishna-bhakti movement
The movement spread rapidly from northern India into the south, with the Sanskrit poem Gita Govinda of Jayadeva (12th century AD) becoming a landmark of devotional, Krishna-based literature. It elaborated a part of the Krishna legend—his love for one particular gopi, called Radha, a minor character in Bhagavata Purana but a major one in other texts like Brahma Vaivarta Purana. By the influence of Gita Govinda, Radha became inseparable from devotion to Krishna.
While the learned sections of the society well versed in Sanskrit could enjoy works like Gita Govinda or Bilvamangala's Krishna-Karnamritam, the masses sang the songs of the devotee-poets, who composed in the regional languages of India. These songs expressing intense personal devotion were written by devotees from all walks of life. The songs of Meera and Surdas became epitomes of Krishna-devotion in north India.
These devotee-poets, like the Alvars before them, were aligned to specific theological schools only loosely, if at all. But by the 11th century AD, Vaishnava Bhakti schools with elaborate theological frameworks around the worship of Krishna were established in north India. Nimbarka (11th century AD), Vallabhacharya (15th century AD) and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (16th century AD) were the founders of the most influential schools. These schools, namely Nimbarka Sampradaya, Vallabha Sampradaya and Gaudiya Vaishnavism respectively, see Krishna as the supreme god, rather than an avatar, as generally seen.
In the Deccan, particularly in Maharashtra, saint poets of the Varkari sect such as Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Janabai, Eknath and Tukaram promoted the worship of Vithoba, a local form of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century. In southern India, Purandara Dasa and Kanakadasa of Karnataka composed songs devoted to the Krishna image of Udupi. Rupa Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti named Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.
In the West
Since 1966, the Krishna-bhakti movement has also spread outside India. This is largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement. The movement was founded by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who was instructed by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, to write about Krishna in English and to share the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy with people in the Western world.
In the performing arts
While discussing the origin of Indian theatre, Horwitz talks about the mention of the Krishna story in Patanjali's Mahabhashya (c. 150 BC), where the episodes of slaying of Kamsa (Kamsa Vadha) and "Binding of the heaven storming titan" (Bali Bandha) are described. Bhasa's Balacharitam and Dutavakyam (c. 400 BC) are the only Sanskrit plays centered on Krishna written by a major classical dramatist. The former dwells only on his childhood exploits and the latter is a one-act play based on a single episode from the Mahābhārata when Krishna tries to make peace between the warring cousins.
From the 10th century AD, with the growing bhakti movement, Krishna became a favorite subject of the arts. The songs of the Gita Govinda became popular across India, and had many imitations. The songs composed by the Bhakti poets added to the repository of both folk and classical singing.
The classical Indian dances, especially Odissi and Manipuri, draw heavily on the story. The 'Rasa lila' dances performed in Vrindavan shares elements with Kathak, and the Krisnattam, with some cycles, such as Krishnattam, traditionally restricted to the Guruvayur temple, the precursor of Kathakali.
The Sattriya dance, founded by the Assamese Vaishnava saint Sankardeva, extols the virtues of Krishna. Medieval Maharashtra gave birth to a form of storytelling known as the Hari-Katha, that told Vaishnava tales and teachings through music, dance, and narrative sequences, and the story of Krishna one of them. This tradition spread to Tamil Nadu and other southern states, and is now popular in many places throughout India.
Narayana Tirtha's (17th century AD) Krishna-Lila-Tarangini provided material for the musical plays of the Bhagavata-Mela by telling the tale of Krishna from birth until his marriage to Rukmini. Tyagaraja (18th century AD) wrote a similar piece about Krishna called Nauka-Charitam. The narratives of Krishna from the Puranas are performed in Yakshagana, a performance style native to Karnataka's coastal districts. Many movies in all Indian languages have been made based on these stories. These are of varying quality and usually add various songs, melodrama, and special effects.
In other religions
The most exalted figures in Jainism are the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Krishna, when he was incorporated into the Jain list of heroic figures presented a problem with his activities which are not pacifist or non-violent. The concept of Baladeva, Vasudeva and Prati-Vasudeva was used to solve it. The Jain list of sixty-three Shalakapurshas or notable figures includes amongst others, the twenty-four Tirthankaras and nine sets of this triad. One of these triads is Krishna as the Vasudeva, Balarama as the Baladeva and Jarasandha as the Prati-Vasudeva. He was a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The stories of these triads can be found in the Harivamsha of Jinasena (not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to Mahābhārata) and the Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita of Hemachandra.
In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. The villain is the Prati-vasudeva. Baladeva is the upholder of the Jain principle of non-violence. However, Vasudeva has to forsake this principle to kill the Prati-Vasudeva and save the world. 
The story of Krishna occurs in the Jataka tales in Buddhism, in the Ghatapandita Jataka as a prince and legendary conqueror and king of India. In the Buddhist version, Krishna is called Vasudeva, Kanha and Keshava, and Balarama is his younger brother, Baladeva. These details resemble that of the story given in the Bhagavata Purana. Vasudeva, along with his nine other brothers (each son a powerful wrestler) and one elder sister (Anjana) capture all of Jambudvipa (many consider this to be India) after beheading their evil uncle, King Kamsa, and later all other kings of Jambudvipa with his Sudarshana Chakra. Much of the story involving the defeat of Kamsa follows the story given in the Bhagavata Purana.
As depicted in the Mahābhārata, all of the sons are eventually killed due to a curse of sage Kanhadipayana (Veda Vyasa, also known as Krishna Dwaipayana). Krishna himself is eventually speared by a hunter in the foot by mistake, leaving the sole survivor of their family being their sister, Anjanadevi of whom no further mention is made.
Since Jataka tales are given from the perspective of Buddha's previous lives (as well as the previous lives of many of Buddha's followers), Krishna appears as one of the lives of Sariputra, one of Buddha's foremost disciples and the "Dhammasenapati" or "Chief General of the Dharma" and is usually shown being Buddha's "right hand man" in Buddhist art and iconography. The Bodhisattva, is born in this tale as one of his youngest brothers named Ghatapandita, and saves Krishna from the grief of losing his son. The 'divine boy' Krishna as an embodiment of wisdom and endearing prankster forms a part of worshipable pantheon in Japanese Buddhism.
Bahá'ís believe that Krishna was a "Manifestation of God", or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the Word of God progressively for a gradually maturing humanity. In this way, Krishna shares an exalted station with Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster, Buddha, Muhammad, Jesus, the Báb, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh.
Members of the Ahmadiyya Community believe Krishna to be a great prophet of God as described by their founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Ghulam Ahmad also claimed to be the likeness of Krishna as a latter day reviver of religion and morality whose mission was to reconcile man with God. Ahmadis maintain that the term Avatar is synonymous with the term 'prophet' of the middle eastern religious tradition as God's intervention with man; as God appoints a man as his vicegerent upon earth. In Lecture Sialkot, Ghulam Ahmed wrote:
Let it be clear that Raja Krishna, according to what has been revealed to me, was such a truly great man that it is hard to find his like among the Rishis and Avatars of the Hindus. He was an Avatar—i.e., Prophet—of his time upon whom the Holy Spirit would descend from God. He was from God, victorious and prosperous. He cleansed the land of the Aryas from sin and was in fact the Prophet of his age whose teaching was later corrupted in numerous ways. He was full of love for God, a friend of virtue and an enemy of evil.
Krishna worship or reverence has been adopted by several new religious movements since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in occult texts, along with Greek, Buddhist, Biblical and even historical figures. For instance, Édouard Schuré, an influential figure in perennial philosophy and occult movements, considered Krishna a Great Initiate; while Theosophists regard Krishna as an incarnation of Maitreya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom), the most important spiritual teacher for humanity after Buddha. Krishna was canonized by Aleister Crowley and is recognized as a saint in the Gnostic Mass of Ordo Templi Orientis.
- ^ a b
- ^ Knott 2000, p. 56
- ^ Knott 2000, p. 36, p. 15
- ^ Richard Thompson, Ph. D. (December 1994). Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism. http://content.iskcon.com/icj/1_2/12thompson.html. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ^ a b c Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions (American Oriental Society) 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381.
- ^ a b Hein, Norvin. "A Revolution in Kṛṣṇaism: The Cult of Gopāla: History of Religions, Vol. 25, No. 4 (May, 1986 ), pp. 296-317". www.jstor.org. JSTOR 1062622.
- ^ a b c d Hastings, James Rodney (2nd edition 1925-1940, reprint 1955, 2003) [1908-26]. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. John A Selbie (Volume 4 of 24 ( Behistun (continued) to Bunyan.) ed.). Edinburgh: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 476. ISBN 0-7661-3673-6. http://books.google.com/?id=Kaz58z--NtUC&pg=PA540&vq=Krishna. Retrieved 2008-05-03. "The encyclopedia will contain articles on all the religions of the world and on all the great systems of ethics. It will aim at containing articles on every religious belief or custom, and on every ethical movement, every philosophical idea, every moral practice." pp.540-42
- ^ a b Selengut, Charles (1996). "Charisma and Religious Innovation:Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON". ISKCON Communications Journal 4 (2). http://content.iskcon.com/icj/4_2/4_2charisma.html
- ^ Rosen, Steven (2006). Essential Hinduism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 224. ISBN 9780275990060. http://books.google.com/books?id=WuVG8PxKq_0C&pg=PA224.
- ^ "Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary p.306". website. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon project. 2008. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0306-kRzanAvat.jpg. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ Bryant 2007, p. 17
- ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf (2001). Rethinking the Mahābhārata: a reader's guide to the education of the dharma king. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 251–53, 256, 259. ISBN 0-226-34054-6.
- ^ B.M.Misra. Orissa: Shri Krishna Jagannatha: the Mushali parva from Sarala's Mahabharata. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-514891-6. in Bryant 2007, p. 139
- ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. [s.l.]: Grolier. 1988. p. 589. ISBN 0-7172-0119-8.
- ^ Benton, William (1974). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 885. ISBN 0852292902, 9780852292907. http://books.google.com/?id=G8YqAAAAMAAJ&q=Krsna+blue+skin+deity&dq=Krsna+blue+skin+deity.
- ^ D. D. Kosambi (1962), Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture, New Delhi, CHAPTER I: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE BHAGAVAD-GITA, paragraph 1.16
- ^ Harle, J. C. (1994). The art and architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. p. 410. ISBN 0-300-06217-6. "figure 327. Manaku, Radha's messenger describing Krishna standing with the cow-girls, from Basohli."
- ^ Datta, Amaresh; Mohan Lal (1994). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 4290. http://books.google.com/?id=g-wbAAAAIAAJ&q=Manipur+Radha&dq=Manipur+Radha.
- ^ The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long]. 1843, p.390 
- ^ Ramesh M. Dave, K. K. A. Venkatachari, The Bhakta-bhagawan Relationship: Paramabhakta Parmeshwara Sambandha. Sya. Go Mudgala, Bochasanvasi Shri Aksharpurushottama Sanstha, 1988. p.74
- ^ Valpey 2006, p. 52
- ^ Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. p. 251. ISBN 0852297602, 9780852297605. http://books.google.com/?id=kEj-2a7pmVMC&pg=PA251&dq=Bala+Krishna.
- ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (1998). The Qualities of Sri Krsna. GNPress. pp. 152 pages. ISBN 0911233644
- ^ a b Vithoba is not only viewed as a form of Krishna. He is also by some considered that of Vishnu, Shiva and Gautama Buddha according to various traditions. See: Kelkar, Ashok R. (2001) . "Sri-Vitthal: Ek Mahasamanvay (Marathi) by R.C. Dhere". Encyclopaedia of Indian literature. 5. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 4179. http://books.google.com/books?id=KnPoYxrRfc0C&pg=PA4179&dq=vithoba&as_brr=3&sig=0WHJ4sGcLGYNiZDwjR9YHwDA75k#PPA4180,M1. Retrieved 2008-09-20. and Mokashi, Digambar Balkrishna; Engblom, Philip C. (1987). Palkhi: a pilgrimage to Pandharpur — translated from the Marathi book Pālakhī by Philip C. Engblom. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 35. ISBN 0887064612. http://books.google.com/?id=vgLZGFH1ZTIC&pg=PA14&dq=Palkhi:+a+pilgrimage+to+Pandharpur.
- ^ Wendy Doniger (2008). "Britannica: Mahabharata". encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-357806/Mahabharata. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ a b c Bryant 2007, p. 4
- ^ Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya Krishna-cult in Indian Art. 1996 M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.126: "According to (D.R.Bhadarkar), the word Krishna referred to in the expression 'Krishna-drapsah' in the Rig- Veda, denotes the very same Krishna".
- ^ a b http://kurukshetra.nic.in/museum-website/archeologicaltreasure.html
- ^ "Matapariksha: An examination of religions, Volume 1 By John Muir". Books.google.co.in. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=85w-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA31&dq=Chandogya+Upanishad+son+of+Devaki&hl=en&ei=8SjaTIuyM4GfcbfJyMMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ "The Religions of India Volume 1, Volume 1 By Edward Washburn Hopkins". Books.google.co.in. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ITJ5fGSsgygC&pg=PA454&dq=Chandogya+Upanishad+son+of+Devaki&hl=en&ei=8SjaTIuyM4GfcbfJyMMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CF0Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Chandogya%20Upanishad%20son%20of%20Devaki&f=false. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ "Indian Hist (Opt) By Reddy". Books.google.co.in. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=CeEmpfmbxKEC&pg=SL1-PA297&dq=Chandogya+Upanishad+son+of+Devaki&hl=en&ei=8SjaTIuyM4GfcbfJyMMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6wEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya Krishna-cult in Indian Art. 1996 M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.128: Satha-patha-brahmana and Aitareya-Aranyaka with reference to first chapter.
- ^ a b Hastings 2003, pp. 540–42
- ^ Pâṇ. IV. 3. 98, Vâsudevârjunâbhyâm vun. See Bhandarkar, Vaishnavism and Śaivism, p. 3 and J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 168. Sûtra 95, just above, appears to point to bhakti, faith or devotion, felt for this Vâsudeva.
- ^ Krishna: a sourcebook, pp 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007
- ^ III. i. 23, Ulâro so Kaṇho isi ahosi
- ^ Hemacandra Abhidhânacintâmani, Ed. Boehtlingk and Rien, p. 128, and Barnett's translation of the Antagada Dasāo, pp. 13-15 and 67-82.
- ^ Bryant 2007, p. 5
- ^ Barnett, Lionel David (1922). Hindu Gods and Heroes: Studies in the History of the Religion of India. J. Murray. p. 93. http://books.google.com/?id=R-5KAAAAMAAJ.
- ^ Puri, B.N. (1968). India in the Time of Patanjali. Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan. Page 51: The coins of Raj uvula have been recovered from the Sultanpur District.. the Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum,
- ^ Barnett, Lionel David (1922). Hindu Gods and Heroes: Studies in the History of the Religion of India. J. Murray. p. 92. http://books.google.com/?id=R-5KAAAAMAAJ.
- ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass.
- ^ Knott 2000, p. 61
- ^ According to the Bhagavata and Vishnu Puranas, but in some Puranas like Devi-Bhagavata-Purana, her paternal uncle. See the Vishnu-Purana Book V Chapter 1, translated by H. H. Wilson, (1840), the Srimad Bhagavatam, translated by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, (1988) copyright Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
- ^ "Yashoda and Krishna". Metmuseum.org. 2011-10-10. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/sss/ho_1982.220.8.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 124–130,224
- ^ Tripurari, Swami, Gopastami, Sanga, 1999.
- ^ Lynne Gibson (1844). Calcutta Review. India: University of Calcutta Dept. of English. p. 119.
- ^ Lynne Gibson (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 503.
- ^ The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore (ed. Sisir Kumar Das) (1996). A Vision of Indias History. Sahitya Akademi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 444. ISBN 8126000945.
- ^ Schweig, G.M. (2005). Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story.. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford. ISBN 0691114463.
- ^ Bryant 2007, p. 290
- ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 28–29
- ^ Charudeva Shastri, Suniti Kumar Chatterji(1974) Charudeva Shastri Felicitation Volume, p. 449
- ^ David L. Haberman, (2003) Motilal Banarsidass, The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin, p. 155, ISBN 812081861X
- ^ Bryant 2007, p. 152
- ^ Aparna Chatterjee (December 10, 2007). "The Ashta-Bharyas". American Chronicle. http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/45238. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 130–133
- ^ Rosen 2006, p. 136
- ^ "Krishna & Shishupal". Mantraonnet.com. 2007-06-19. http://www.mantraonnet.com/shopping/comic-books/gods/krishna-shishupal.html. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita, by Robert N. Minor in Bryant 2007, pp. 77–79
- ^ B. R. Kishore, Lord Krishna,page 47
- ^ Francis Hamilton, Genealogies of the Hindus extracted from Sacred Texts, page 123, 145
- ^ "Lord Krishna's Disappearance,Disappearance of Lord Krishna,Life Span of Lord Krishn,Disappearance of Sri Krishna". Happywink.org. http://www.happywink.org/janmashtami/lord-krishna-disappearance.html. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
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- ^ "MAHABHARATA -Krishna`s Return to Heaven". Urday.in. http://www.urday.in/mkrishnaheaven.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 148
- ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (2006 - digitized). "The Mahabharata (originally published between 1883 and 1896)". book. Sacred Texts. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m16/m16004.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ Mani, Vettam (1975). Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 429. ISBN 0842-60822-2.
- ^ The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8) state that the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.
- ^ See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21535-2
- ^ Sutton (2000) pp.174-175
- ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (2006 - digitized). "The Mahabharata, Book 5: Udyoga Parva: Bhagwat Yana Parva: section CXXXI (originally published between 1883 and 1896)". book. Sacred Texts. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m05/m05131.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (2006 - digitized). "The Mahabharata, Book 5: Udyoga Parva: Bhagwat Yana Parva: section CXXX(originally published between 1883 and 1896)". book. Sacred Texts. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m05/m05131.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13. "Knowest thou not sinless Govinda, of terrible prowess and incapable of deterioration?"
- ^ John Dowson (2003). Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature. Kessinger Publishing. p. 361. ISBN 0-7661-7589-8. http://books.google.com/?id=6JB-KOXy5k8C&pg=PA361&dq=Vishnu+Sahasranama+Krishna.
- ^ See Beck, Guy, "Introduction" in Beck 2005, pp. 1–18
- ^ Knott 2000, p. 55
- ^ Flood (1996) p. 117
- ^ a b See McDaniel, June, "Folk Vaishnavism and Ṭhākur Pañcāyat: Life and status among village Krishna statues" in Beck 2005, p. 39
- ^ a b Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press.
- ^ K. Klostermaier (1997). The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972-1984. Crotty, Robert B.. Brill Academic Pub. p. 109. ISBN 90-04-07863-0. http://books.google.com/?id=F_0UAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA109&dq=Svayam+bhagavan. "For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but svayam bhagavan, the Lord himself."
- ^ Delmonico, N., The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism in Ekstrand 2004
- ^ De, S.K. (1960). Bengal's contribution to Sanskrit literature & studies in Bengal Vaisnavism. KL Mukhopadhyaya. p. 113: "The Bengal School identifies the Bhagavat with Krishna depicted in the Shrimad-Bhagavata and presents him as its highest personal god."
- ^ Bryant 2007, p. 381
- ^ "Vaishnava". encyclopedia. Division of Religion and Philosophy University of Cumbria. http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/hindu/devot/vaish.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13. [ Vaishnava] University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008
- ^ Graham M. Schweig (2005). Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. Front Matter. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.
- ^ Bhattacharya, Gouriswar: Vanamala of Vasudeva-Krsna-Visnu and Sankarsana-Balarama. In: Vanamala. Festschrift A.J. Gail. Serta Adalberto Joanni Gail LXV. diem natalem celebranti ab amicis collegis discipulis dedicata.
- ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2005). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. p. 206. ISBN 0791470814. "Present day Krishna worship is an amalgam of various elements. According to historical testimonies Krishna-Vasudeva worship already flourished in and around Mathura several centuries before Christ. A second important element is the cult of Krishna Govinda. Still later is the worship of Bala-Krishna, the Child Krishna—a quite prominent feature of modern Krishnaism. The last element seems to have been Krishna Gopijanavallabha, Krishna the lover of the Gopis, among whom Radha occupies a special position. In some books Krishna is presented as the founder and first teacher of the Bhagavata religion."
- ^ Basham, A. L.. "Review:Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes. by Milton Singer; Daniel H. H. Ingalls, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (May, 1968 ), pp. 667-670". www.jstor.org. JSTOR 2051211.
- ^ Singh, R.R. (2007). Bhakti And Philosophy. Lexington Books. ISBN 0739114247.
- p. 10: "[Panini's] term Vāsudevaka, explained by the second century B.C commentator Patanjali, as referring to "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods."
- ^ Couture, André (2006). "The emergence of a group of four characters (Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) in the Harivamsa: points for consideration". Journal of Indian Philosophy 34 (6): 571–585. doi:10.1007/s10781-006-9009-x.
- ^ a b Klostermaier, K. (1974). "The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 94 (1): 96–107. doi:10.2307/599733. JSTOR 599733.
- ^ Vaudeville, C. (1962). "Evolution of Love-Symbolism in Bhagavatism". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 82 (1): 31–40. doi:10.2307/595976. JSTOR 595976.
- ^ Bowen, Paul (1998). Themes and issues in Hinduism. London: Cassell. pp. 64–65. ISBN 0-304-33851-6.
- ^ Radhakrisnasarma, C. (1975). Landmarks in Telugu Literature: A Short Survey of Telugu Literature. Lakshminarayana Granthamala.
- ^ Sisir Kumar Das (2005). A History of Indian Literature, 500-1399: From Courtly to the Popular. Sahitya Akademi. p. 49. ISBN 8126021713.
- ^ Srila Prabhupada - He Built a House in which the whole world can live, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1983, ISBN 0-89213-133-0 page xv
- ^ Varadpande p.231
- ^ Varadpande p.232-3
- ^ Zarrilli, P.B. (2000). Kathakali Dance-Drama: Where Gods and Demons Come to Play. Routledge. p. 246.
- ^ See Jerome H. Bauer ""Hero of Wonders, Hero in Deeds: Vasudeva Krishna in Jaina Cosmohistory in Beck 2005, pp. 167–169
- ^ Jaini, P.S. (1993). Jaina Puranas: A Puranic Counter Tradition. ISBN 9780791413814. http://books.google.com/?id=-kZFzHCuiFAC&pg=PA207&dq=Prati+Vasudeva.
- ^ Cort, J.E. (1993). An Overview of the Jaina Puranas. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=-kZFzHCuiFAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA185&dq=Prati+Vasudeva&ots=SrTawB33eW&sig=egXiuHioIMmhMHNtwFS9f6stvtk.
- ^ "Andhakavenhu Puttaa". www.vipassana.info. http://www.vipassana.info/ay/andhakavenhu_puttaa.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- ^ a b Law, B.C. (1941). India as Described in Early Texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Luzac.
- ^ Jaiswal, S. (1974). "Historical Evolution of the Ram Legend". Social Scientist 21 (3-4): 89–97. JSTOR 3517633.
- ^ Hiltebeitel, A. (1990). The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata. State University of New York Press.
- ^ The Turner of the Wheel. The Life of Sariputta, compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera
- ^ Guth, C.M.E. "Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring, 1987 ), pp. 1-23". www.jstor.org. JSTOR 2385037.
- ^ Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 2. ISBN 0-87743-160-4. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/je/BNE/bne-6.html#gr5.
- ^ a b Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam (2007). Lecture Sialkot. Tilford: Islam International Publications Ltd.. ISBN 1-85372-917-5. http://alislam.org/library/books/LectureSialkot.pdf.
- ^ "Krishna". http://www.alislam.org/library/books/revelation/part_2_section_1.html. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- ^ Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth. Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
- ^ Harvey, D. A. (2003). "Beyond Enlightenment: Occultism, Politics, and Culture in France from the Old Regime to the Fin-de-Siècle". The Historian (Blackwell Publishing) 65 (3): 665–694. doi:10.1111/1540-6563.00035.
- ^ Schure, Edouard (1992). Great Initiates: A Study of the Secret History of Religions. Garber Communications. ISBN 0893452289.
- ^ See for example: Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996). New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Brill Publishers. p. 390. ISBN 9004106960. , Hammer, Olav (2004). Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. Brill Publishers. pp. 62, 174. ISBN 900413638X. , and Ellwood, Robert S. (1986). Theosophy: A Modern Expression of the Wisdom of the Ages. Quest Books. p. 139. ISBN 0835606074.
- ^ Crowley associated Krishna with Roman god Dionysus and Magickal formulae IAO, AUM and INRI. See Crowley, Aleister (1991). Liber Aleph. Weiser Books. p. 71. ISBN 0877287295. http://sacred-texts.com/oto/aleph_3.htm. and Crowley, Aleister (1980). The Book of Lies. Red Wheels. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0877285160.
- ^ Apiryon, Tau; Apiryon (1995). Mystery of Mystery: A Primer of Thelemic Ecclesiastical Gnosticism. Berkeley, CA: Red Flame. ISBN 0971237611.
- Beck, Guy L. (1993). Sonic theology: Hinduism and sacred sound. Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-855-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZgybmMnWpaUC
- Bryant, Edwin H. (2004). Krishna: the beautiful legend of God;. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044799-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=icxPm82VcbgC
- Bryant, Edwin H. (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-514891-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=HVDqCkW1WpUC
- The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published between 1883 and 1896
- The Vishnu-Purana, translated by H. H. Wilson, (1840)
- The Srimad Bhagavatam, translated by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, (1988) copyright Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
- Knott, Kim (2000). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 160. ISBN 0192853872. http://books.google.com/books?id=Wv8XK_GU9icC
- The Jataka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births, edited by E. B. Cowell, (1895)
- Ekstrand, Maria (2004). Bryant, Edwin H.. ed. The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=mBMxPdgrBhoC
- Goswami, S.D (1998). The Qualities of Sri Krsna. GNPress. ISBN 0911233644. http://www.gnpress.net/docs/ebooks/qualities_of_sri_krsna.pdf
- Garuda Pillar of Besnagar, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908–1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129.
- Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521438780. http://books.google.com/books?id=KpIWhKnYmF0C.
- Beck, Guy L. (Ed.) (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791464156. http://books.google.com/?id=0SJ73GHSCF8C
- Rosen, Steven (2006). Essential Hinduism. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-99006-0
- Valpey, Kenneth R. (2006). Attending Kṛṣṇa's image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-38394-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5pjQgAACAAJ
- Sutton, Nicholas (2000). Religious doctrines in the Mahābhārata. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,. p. 477. ISBN 8120817001. http://books.google.com/books?id=rFyUHC-ORp4C
- History of Indian Theatre By M. L. Varadpande. Chapter Theatre of Krishna, pp. 231–94. Published 1991, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-278-0.
- Sri Krishna - Differences in Realisation & Perception of the Supreme (stephen-knapp.com)
- Vedic Archeology (A Vaishnava Perspective) (gosai.com)
- Article on the chronology of Krishna (timesofindia.indiatimes.com)
- Website On Krishna (krishna.com)
Krishna Forms Worship Holy sites Texts See also Avatars of Vishnu Dashavatara Other avatars*Buddha or Balarama is considered the ninth avatar of Vishnu, depending on the tradition. In North India, Buddha is included and in south India, Balarama. Mahabharata Kuru KingdomSantanu · Ganga · Bhishma · Satyavati · Chitrāngada · Vichitravirya · Ambika · Ambalika · Vidura · Dhritarashtra · Gandhari · Shakuni · Pandu · Kunti · Madri · Yudhisthira · Bhima · Arjuna · Nakula · Sahadeva · Duryodhana · Dushasana · Yuyutsu · Dushala · Draupadi · Hidimbi · Ghatotkacha · Ahilawati · Subhadra · Uttara · Ulupi · Chitrāngadā · Abhimanyu · Iravan · Babruvahana · Barbarika · Parikshit · Janamejaya Other characters Other Hindu deities and texts Gods Goddesses Texts
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Krishna — mit Kuh Krishna (Sanskrit, m., कृष्ण, kṛṣṇa, wörtlich „der Schwarze“) ist eine hinduistische Form des Göttlichen und wird meist als der achte Avatara von Vishnu verehrt. Für seine Anhänger ist er die Inkarnation des Höchsten. Die heiligen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Krishna — Krish na (kr[i^]sh n[.a]), n. [Skr. k[.r]sh[.n]a The black. .] (Hindu Myth.) The most popular of the Hindu divinities, usually held to be the eighth incarnation of the god Vishnu. [1913 Webster] Note: Krishna is a well known Hindu deity.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Krishna II — (878 914) C.E. ascended the Rashtrakuta throne after the demise of his famous father Amoghavarsha I. His Kannada name was Kannara.Reu (1933), p75] His queen was a Haihaya princess of Chedi called Mahadevi. From the chronology of inscriptions that … Wikipedia
Krishna — (कृष्ण, en sánscrito significa negro u oscuro debido al color de su piel según la tradición) es, según el hinduismo, el octavo avatar de Vishnu. Es una de las deidades más importantes y veneradas de la India. Krishna, fue un héroe de la India… … Enciclopedia Universal
Krishna I — (756 774)C.E. an uncle of Dantidurga took charge of the growing Rashtrakuta empire by defeating the last Badami Chalukya king Kirtivarman II in 757. This is known from the copper plate grant of King Govinda III of 807 and a copper plate grant of… … Wikipedia
KRISHNA — De toutes les incarnations (avat ra ) animales ou humaines par lesquelles Vi ルユu (Vishnou) accepta de se manifester sur la Terre pour la sauver, celle de K リルユa (Krishna), qui est la huitième, plus encore que celle de R ma, constitue la plus… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Krishna — (Sanskrit krshna, »der Schwarze«), ursprünglich Fürst der Jādava, allmählich zu göttlicher Würde erhoben und als achte Verkörperung (Avatāra) des Vishnu (s.d.) gefeiert … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Krishna — eighth avatar of Vishnu, 1875, from Skt. krshnah, lit. the Black One, from PIE *kers no , suffixed form of root *kers dark, dirty (Cf. O.C.S. crunu, Rus. coron, Serbo Cr. crn, Czech cerny, O.Prus. krisnas black, Lith. kersas black and white,… … Etymology dictionary
Krishna — Krishna1 [krish′nə] n. [Sans kṛṣṇa, lit., black < IE base * kers , black, dark] an important Hindu god, an incarnation of Vishnu, second god of the Hindu trinity Krishnaism n. Krishna2 [krish′nə] river in S India, flowing from the Western… … English World dictionary
Krishna — Pour le fleuve, voir Krishnâ. Krishna Père … Wikipédia en Français