International Society for Krishna Consciousness


International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as 'the Hare Krishna' movement, is one of several Vaishnava groups. [Harvnb|Gibson |2002|p=4] It was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. [Harvnb|Gibson |2002|p=6] While some classified it as a new religious movement, its core philosophy is based on scriptures such as the "Śrīmad Bhāgavatam" and the "Bhagavad-gītā", [ Citation
first = Klaus | last = Klostermaier
author-link = Oxford University
title = A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism
place = Oxford
publisher = Oneworld Publications
year = 1998
isbn = 1-85168-175-2
] both of which date back more than two millennia. The distinctive appearance of the movement and its culture come from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 1400s and Western converts from early 1930s. [ [http://www.sadananda.com/home/ Site] dedicated to direct western disciples of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura [http://www.sadananda.com/home/pdf/bioe.pdf] ]

Non-sectarian in its ideals, [ [http://www.prabhupadavani.org/Conversations/Text/004.html August 22, 1976 Conversation] "ISKCON, which is a worldwide nonsectarian movement dedicated to propagating the message of the Vedas for the benefit of mankind."] ISKCON was formed to spread the practice of bhakti yoga (devotion to God), in which aspirant devotees ("bhaktas") dedicate their thoughts and actions towards pleasing the Supreme Lord, Krishna (seen as non-different from God). [ [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/1/3/28/en1 Bhag.Purana 1.3.28] "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead."] Harvnb|Guy|2005|p=39|loc=page 39 'According to Ortodox Gaudiya. Krishnas svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession'] ISKCON today is a worldwide confederation of more than 400 centres, including 60 farm communities some aiming for self-sufficiency, 50 schools and 90 restaurants. In recent decades the movements most rapid expansions in terms of numbers of membership have been within Eastern Europe and India. [ [http://directory.krishna.com Directory of ISKCON] ] [Harvnb|Cole Dwayer|2007|p=38]

Philosophy and history

:"For further information see: Achintya Bheda Abheda and Gaudiya Vaishnavism"

Although Krishna is described as the eighth "avatara" of Vishnu, some Hindus believe that he is the "avatari", or the source of all the other avatars. [Harvnb|Gibson |2002|p=18] Thus devotees in ISKCON worship Krishna as the highest form of God, "svayam bhagavan", and often refer to him as "the Supreme Personality of Godhead" in writing, which was a phrase coined by Prabhupada in his books on the subject. Devotees consider Radha to be Krishna's divine female counterpart, the embodiment of love. An important aspect of their philosophy is the belief that the individual soul is an eternal personal identity which does not ultimately merge into any formless light or void as suggested by the monistic (Advaita) schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada himself never declared ISKCON to be a Hindu organisation, because he considered it to be a 'material designation' and not an appropriate name. Prabhupada most frequently offers "Sanatana-dharma" and "Varnasrama-dharma" as more correct names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority. [cite web
url=http://www.iskcon.com/icj/6_2/62jagat.html
title=Vol 6, No 2 December 1998 ICJ
publisher=www.iskcon.com
last=Brzezinski
first=J
] Also referred as Gaudiya Vaishnavism it is a monotheistic tradition that has its roots in the theistic Vedanta traditions.cite book |author=Laderman, Gary |title=Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions |publisher=ABC-CLIO |location=Santa Barbara, Calif |year=2003 |pages= |isbn=1-57607-238-X |oclc= |doi= |article=ISKCON] These are also other branches of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, of which ISKCON is the largest branch. [Harvnb|Bryant|Ekstrand|2004|p=34]

Hare Krishna devotees specifically follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya, or Bengali, Bhagavata Vaishnavas which comes under the general description of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. "Vaishnavism" means 'worship of Vishnu', and "Gauḍa" refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism is practiced and is widespread, among other places, such as Rajastan and Vrindavana. Gaudiya Vaishnavism has had a continuous following in India, especially West Bengal and Orissa for the past five hundred years. Srila Prabhupada disseminated Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology in the Western world through extensive writings and translations, [ A Hinduism, Page 8,Lynne Gibson, 2002] including Bhagavad Gita [http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/en] , Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana) [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/en] and Chaitanya Charitamrita [http://caitanyacaritamrta.com/en] and other scriptures. These works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the canon of ISKCON. Many of these books are now available online from a number of websites. [ [http://www.vedabase.net Vedabase.net] ] [ [http://veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/spbooks.htm Srila Prabhupada's books from Veda Encyclopedia] ]

Early western conversions to monotheistic Krishna vaisnavism or Bhagavata Vaishnava line, that forms the basis of ISKCON philosophy, were recorded by the Greeks and survived as archeological monuments. [Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics By James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, 1926. Page 571 on on early worship of Vasudeva-Krsna.] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=JnA_AAAAMAAJ&q=Krsna+worship+column+vasudeva&dq=Krsna+worship+column+vasudeva Ancient India, History and Culture - by Balkrishna Govind Gokhale - Page 162 on early Greek conversions and worship of Vasudeva-Krsna.] ]

Maha Mantra

The popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for devotees of this movement comes from the mantra that devotees sing aloud or chant quietly on rosary-like beads, called Japa mala. This mantra, known also as the Maha Mantra, contains the names of God "Krishna" and "Rama". Devotees believe that the sound vibration created by repeating these names of God gradually revives a state of pure God-consciousness, or "Krishna consciousness." [ [http://www.krishna.com/node/388 Chanting the transcendental vibration] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada ]

The Maha Mantra:

: "Hare Krishna Hare Krishna"

: "Krishna Krishna Hare Hare": "Hare Rama Hare Rama"

: "Rama Rama Hare Hare"

even purposes of ISKCON

When Srila Prabhupada first incorporated ISKCON in 1966, he gave it seven purposes: [ Citation
first = Dasa Goswami | last = Satsvarupa
author-link = Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami
title =Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1
publisher = BBT
date = 1981,2002
pages = 1133
isbn = 0892133570(2 volume edition 2002)
page = 408
] .

  1. To systematically propagate spiritual knowledge to society at large and to educate all peoples in the techniques of spiritual life in order to check the imbalance of values in life and to achieve real unity and peace in the world.
  2. To propagate a consciousness of Krishna, as it is revealed in the Bhagavad-gita and the Srimad-Bhagavatam.
  3. To bring the members of the Society together with each other and nearer to Krishna, the prime entity, thus to develop the idea within the members, and humanity at large, that each soul is part and parcel of the quality of Godhead (Krishna).
  4. To teach and encourage the sankirtana movement, congregational chanting of the holy names of God as revealed in the teachings of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
  5. To erect for the members, and for society at large, a holy place of transcendental pastimes, dedicated to the personality of Krishna.
  6. To bring the members closer together for the purpose of teaching a simpler and more natural way of life.
  7. With a view towards achieving the aforementioned purposes, to publish and distribute periodicals, magazines, books and other writings.

Four regulative principles

Srila Prabhupada prescribed four regulative principles, in relation to the four legs of dharma [ [http://vedabase.net/sb/1/17/24/ The Four Legs of Dharma] ] , as the basis of the spiritual life:
* No eating of meat, fish or eggs
* No illicit sex
* No gambling
* No intoxication (including alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and recreational drugs).

The four legs of Dharma are: [ [http://vedabase.net/sb/1/17/24/ The Four Legs of Dharma] ]
* Daya, Mercy
* Tapas, Self-Control or Austerity
* Satyam, Truthfulness
* Śaucam, Cleanliness of body and mind

Congregational orientation

Many members of ISKCON worship at their local mandir, or temple, and practice Krishna consciousness at home with their families. [Harvnb|Gibson |2002|p=7]

Preaching activities

ISKCON is actively evangelistic. Members try to spread Krishna consciousness, primarily by singing the Hare Krishna mantra in public places and by selling books written by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. [Krishna Consciousness in the West - "David G. Bromley, Prof. Larry D. Shinn", 1989, Page 149] Both of these activities are known within the movement as "Sankirtan". According to the doctrine of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, one does not need to be born in a Hindu family to take up the practice of Vaishnavism. There are ISKCON communities around the world with schools, restaurants and farms. In general, funds collected by ISKCON are treated as communal property and used to support the community as a whole and to promote the preaching mission. [Hare Krishna Transformed, E. Burke Rochford, 2007. Page 67] Many temples also have programs (like Food for Life Global) to provide meals for the needy. Also, ISKCON has recently brought the academic study of Krishna into western academia as Krishnology.

Food for Life

ISKCON has inspired, and sometimes sponsored, a project called Food for Life. The goal of the project is to "liberally distribute pure vegetarian meals (prasadam) throughout the world", as inspired by Prabhupada's instruction, given to his disciples in 1974, "No one within ten miles of a temple should go hungry . . . I want you to immediately begin serving food". [ [http://www.ffl.org/ffl_about_history.php History of Food for Life] ] A global charity, directed by Paul Turner and Mukunda Goswami, [ [http://www.ffl.org/ffl_about.php About Food for Life Global] ] coordinates the project. Food for Life is currently active in over sixty countries and purports to serve over 700,000 meals every day. [ [http://www.ffl.org/ffl_about.php About Food for Life Global] ] Its welfare achievements have been noted by a number of journals worldwide. [ [http://www.ffl.org/ffl_newyorktimes.php New York Times, Dec 1995] ] [ [http://www.thehindujobs.com/thehindu/mp/2002/11/21/stories/2002112100600200.htm The Hindu: A meal from Lord Krishna] ] [ [http://www.evana.org/index.php?id=7759 European Vegetarian and Animal News Agency (EVANA)] ] [ [http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7007735487 AHN Global News] ]

Management structure

Srila Prabhupada spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. As a charismatic leader, Srila Prabhupada's personality and management had been responsible for much of the growth of ISKCON and the reach of his mission. [ [http://www.leeds.ac.uk/trs/staff/kim_knott.htm Knot, Kim] "Insider and Outsider Perceptions of Prabhupada" in "ISKCON Communications Journal" Vol. 5, No 1, June 1997: "In an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON. He noted that 'Prabhupada profited from two intertwined sources of authority' (1987:40), the traditional authority of the disciplic lineage, parampara, inherited from his own guru, and his own charismatic authority, derived from his spiritual attainment and presence...(49) Shinn offered an analysis based on sociological rather than spiritual (Vaishnava) authority in order to make sense of the role of guru in ISKCON and the unique qualities of Prabhupada." See also Larry D. Shinn (1987), "The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the Hare Krishnas in America". Philadelphia: The Westview Press. [http://www.iskcon.com//icj/5_1/5_1knott.html available online] ]

The Governing Body Commission (or GBC) was created by Prabhupada in 1970. In a letter written on 28th July 1970 Prabhupada appointed the following members to the commission, all of them non sannyasi:citation
author = Das Goswami, S.
author-link = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
year = 1982
title = Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, Vol 4: In Every Town and Village, Around the World, 1968--71
publisher = Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
isbn =
page =

]

* 1. Śrīmān Rupanuga Das Adhikary
* 2. Śrīmān Bhagavandas Adhikary
* 3. Śrīmān Syamsundar Das Adhikary
* 4. Śrīmān Satsvarupa Das Adhikary
* 5. Śrīmān Karandhar Das Adhikary
* 6. Śrīmān Hansadutta Das Adhikary
* 7. IAST|Śrīmān Tamala Kṛṣṇa Das Adhikary
* 8. Śrīmān Sudama Das Adhikary
* 9. Śrīmān Bali Mardan Das Brahmacary
* 10. Śrīmān Jagadisa Das Adhikary
* 11. Śrīmān Hayagriva Das Adhikary
* 12. IAST|Śrīmān Kṛṣṇadas Adhikary

The letter outlined the following purposes of the commission: 1) improving the standard of temple management, 2) the spread of Krishna consciousness, 3) the distribution of books and literature, 4) the opening of new centers, 5) the education of the devotees. [A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Letter of 28th July 1970. "As we have increased our volume of activities, now I think a Governing Body Commission (hereinafter referred to as the G.B.C.) should be established. I am getting old, 75 years old, therefore at any time I may be out of the scene, therefore I think it is necessary to give instruction to my disciples how they shall manage the whole institution. They are already managing individual centers represented by one president, one secretary and one treasurer, and in my opinion they are doing nice. But we want still more improvement in the standard of Temple management, propaganda for Krishna consciousness, distribution of books and literatures, opening of new centers and educating devotees to the right standard." [http://www.vnn.org/editorials/ET0402/ET08-8546.html] ] GBC has since grown in size to include 48 senior members from the movement [ [http://www.iskcongbc.info/gbc_members.html iskcongbc.info] ] who make decisions based on consensus of opinion rather than any one person having ultimate authority. It has continued to manage affairs since Prabhupada's passing in 1977.

Influential leaders since 1977

Before his death, Prabhupada appointed eleven of his closest disciples to serve as gurus.cite book
author=Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow
title=Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions
publisher=World Wisdom
location=Bloomington, Ind
year=2004
pages= [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0941532577/ref=sib_books_pg?ie=UTF8&keywords=eleven%20Prabhupada&p=S08F&checkSum=MAuEpsV75Eea0Sw%252FXH2%252BN5Vwi3%252BEVizjiO0Z5txMxEU%253D p. 280]
isbn=0-941532-57-7
] cite book
author=Rochford, E. Burke
title=Hare Krishna in America
publisher=Rutgers University Press
location=New Brunswick, N.J
year=1985
pages= [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0813524903/ref=sib_dp_srch_pop?v=search-inside&keywords=before+his+death+Prabhupada+appointed+eleven+of+his+closest+disciples+to+serve+as+gurus+&go.x=3&go.y=15&go=Go%21# p. 103]
isbn=0-8135-1114-3
] Upon Prabhupada's death on November 14 1977, these eleven western gurus were chosen to succeed as spiritual heads of ISKCON.cite book
author = Flood, G.D.
year = 1996
title = An Introduction to Hinduism
publisher = Cambridge University Press
isbn = 0521438780
pages = 274
] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami [ [http://www.sdgonline.org/ sdgonline.org] ] , Jayapataka Swami [ [http://www.iskcon.net/perth/Biographys/ISKCON_Gurus/Jayapataka_Swami.html#Jaya Jayapataka Swami] ] , Hridayananda dasa Goswami, Tamal Krishna Goswami [ [http://www.goswami.com/ Tamal Krishna Goswami homepage] ] , Bhavananda Goswami, Hansadutta Swami, Ramesvara Swami, Harikesa Swami, Bhagavan dasa Adhikari, Kirtanananda Swami, and Jayatirtha dasa Adhikari.

Of these eleven, the first three have remained prominent leaders within the movement, as was Tamal Krishna Goswami until his death in a car accident in March 2002. Bhavananda no longer holds the post of an initiating guru but is still involved with preaching activities. Ramesvara and Harikesa resigned as spiritual leaders in 1987 and 1999 respectively and the remaining four were all expelled from the movement by the Governing Body Commission during turbulent times in the 1980s. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils.html The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement] by Tamal Krishna Goswami ] Of Prabhupada's disciples, which number some 5,000 in total [ [http://www.prabhupada.com/disciple.php Srila Prabhupada Disciple Database] ] approximately 70 are now acting as diksha gurus within ISKCON. ["The lastest information that I have is that there are 69 initiating spiritual masters in ISKCON." Prahladananda Swami [http://www.prahladanandaswami.net/] ]

As of March 2008, Ramai Swami is the chairman of ISKCON's Governing Body Commission. [ [http://news.iskcon.com/node/949/gbc_meetings_2008_-_day_7_youth_fund_mayapur_temple_and_bhaktivedanta_institute GBC Meetings 2008] ISKCON News 21 Mar 2008, Retrieved on 2008-05-05]

For further information see: "Disciples of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami".

Internal problems and controversy

In the years following Prabhupada's death in November 1977, a number of theological controversies arose: [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils2.html The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement (Part 2)] by Tamala Krishna Goswami ]

Origin of the soul

Srila Prabhupada explains that the soul falls from the spiritual world to this material world and that the supreme objective of the human life is to become Lord Krishna conscious to be able to return "Back to Godhead" (also the title of the official ISKCON magazine). However, some Sarasvata Gaudiya Vaisnavas also teach that the soul has never been in the spiritual world. Discussions about these apparently contradictory views are available in the book "Our Original Position" published by GBC Press and the article "Where Do the Fallen Souls Fall From?" [ [http://www.jswami.info/jiva Origin of the Jiva from jswami.info] ]

The Guru and the Parampara

ISKCON adheres to the traditional system of paramparā, or disciplic succession, in which teachings upheld by scriptures are handed down from master to disciple, generation after generation. [See the brief essay [http://www.jswami.info/master_disciple "From Master to Disciple"] by Jayadvaita Swami.] A minority of people who express faith in Srila Prabhupada's teachings say that Srila Prabhupada, in contrast to the tradition, intended that after his physical demise he would continue to initiate disciples through ceremonial priests, called "ritviks." One version of this idea is espoused by a group calling itself the ISKCON Revival Movement. [ [http://www.iskconirm.com/tfo.htm IRM article 'The Final Order'] ] ISKCON's Governing Body Commission has rejected all such ideas. [See [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils2.html The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement, Part 2] by Tamal Krishna Goswami. (Here is the link to [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils.html Part 1] .)]

Issues within the society

ISKCON also experienced a number of significant internal problems, the majority of which occurred from the late seventies onwards, and especially within the decade following Prabhupada's death. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils.html The Perils of Succession:

Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement] ]

In 1976 a case involving allegations of "brainwashing" involving a minor named Robin George and her parents went all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1983, a California jury awarded the family more than $32 million in damages for false imprisonment and other charges, which was reduced to $485,000 in 1993. [ [http://www.hinduismtoday.com/archives/1993/8/1993-8-15.shtml Court Case details] ] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402E0DE123BF93BA25755C0A965948260 "Krishna Group Loses Brainwashing Lawsuit", New York Times, June 18, 1983] ] .

Also ISKCON has been subject matter of discussion at some anti-cult movements.

cite journal
author = Knott, K.
year = 2000
title = In Every Town and Village: Adaptive Strategies in the Communication of Krishna Consciousness in the UK, the First Thirty Years
journal = Social Compass
volume = 47
issue = 2
pages = 153
doi = 10.1177/003776800047002002
] cite journal
author = Larry Shinn
year =
title = The Maturation of the Hare Krsnas in America
url = http://www.iskcon.com/icj/2_1/shinn.html
accessdate = 2008-04-18
] cite journal
author = Berg, T.V.
coauthors = Kniss, F.
year = 2008
title = ISKCON AND IMMIGRANTS: The Rise, Decline, and Rise Again of a New Religious Movement
journal = Sociological Quarterly
volume = 49
issue = 1
pages = 79–104
doi = 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2007.00107.x
doi_brokendate = 2008-06-26
]

Currently, except in a few countries (such as some in the Islamic world), the Hare Krishna movement is accepted by the academics as "the most genuinely Hindu of all the many Indian movements in the West".Harvnb|Klostermair|2000|loc=IntroCitation
first = Klaus K.| last = Klostermaier
author-link = Oxford University
title = Hinduism: A Short History
place = Oxford
publisher = Oneworld Publications
year = 2000
isbn = 1-85168-213-9
]

Stories of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children at the society's boarding schools in India and America began to emerge in the 1980s, with cases dating back from the mid-1970s onwards. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/6_1/6_1rochford.html Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986] ] Some of these cases later appeared in print, such as in John Hubner and Lindsay Gruson's 1988 book "Monkey on a Stick". In 1998 an official publication produced by ISKCON detailed the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children at the society's boarding schools in both India and the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/6_1/ an article in ISKCON Communications Journal] ] The group received praise for its candor but later was sued by 95 people who had attended the schools.Fact|date=September 2008

Facing the fiscal drain likely to ensue from this legal action, the ISKCON centers involved declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. This allowed them to work out a settlement of US$9.5 million, meant to compensate not only the former students who had brought the suit but also any others who had undergone abuse but had not sued. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/press/index.htm Press Release: Courts Confirm Hare Krishna Chapter 11 Reorganization - Religious Society Apologizes to Victims of Child Abuse] ] About 430 such people responded to newspaper advertisements seeking to identify them. Individual victims are expected to receive between $6,000 and $50,000, depending on the nature and duration of their abuse.Fact|date=September 2008

To guard against further abuses, ISKCON has established a child protection office with teams worldwide, meant to screen out actual or potential abusers, educate children and adults on child abuse, and encourage due vigilance. [ [http://www.childprotectionoffice.org/teams.html Child Protection Office] ] A petition circulating (as of July 2006) among ISKCON members calls for "zero tolerance" for past offenders. [ [http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/723163042 Zero Tolerance Campaign] ]

In 1990 US Courts pronounced Kirtanananda Swami, the leader of the 'New Vrindavan' religious community (which was expelled from ISKCON for ten years between 1988-1998) [Rochford, Burke E. Jr. and Kendra Bailey Almost Heaven: Leadership, Decline and the Transformation of New Vrindaban in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions Vol. 9 nr. 3 February 2006 pages 10, 13] guilty on charges of racketeering and conspiracy to murder for his role in the death of two devotees (Steven Bryant and Charles Saint Denis) who had threatened his control of the community. Kirtanananda was sentenced to 20 years in prison on the racketeering charge, but was released in June 2004 for health reasons.Fact|date=September 2008

In response to the need to establish transparency and accountability among its members, ISKCON encouraged the establishment of an ombudsman organization, ISKCON Resolve. [ [http://www.iskconresolve.com Iskconresolve.com] ] This Integrated Conflict Management System (ICMS) also provides facilitators, arbitrators, and conflict analysis experts to help ISKCON members deal with internal disputes and concerns. The Resolve organisation states that its aims are to give all members of ISKCON a voice and to bring the ISKCON leadership to higher levels of transparency and accountability.Fact|date=September 2008

Rath Yatra controversy

ISKCON organises Rath Yatra festivals in different countries around the world, including India. Although held once annually in each location, these festivals occur on different dates throughout the summertime, which is marked difference from the Rath Yatra as held at the Jagannatha temple in Puri (where the festival originates). At this temple, the Rath Yatra festival is held once each year on a specific date in July, and complaints have recently been made regarding ISKCON's having their international festivals at significantly different times to this. [ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070036757&ch=12/24/2007%209:51:00%20AM NDTV] ] On December 20 2007 the Puri priests held a demonstration demanding a ban on entry of ISKCON monks and alleging "a number of foreigners under the cover of ISKCON were trying to enter the temple", which is not allowed as per temple tradition (only ethnic Hindus are traditionally allowed into the temple). [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Puri_priests_demand_ban_on_entry_of_ISKCON_monks/articleshow/2637652.cms TOI] ] . The validity of this temple policy has been questioned in the media on a number of occasions, [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/VIEW_Jagannath_temple_administration_refuses_entry_to_non-Hindus/rssarticleshow/2676066.cms Jagannath temple administration refuses entry to non-Hindus] ] [ [http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/4907 Jagannath temple no entry] ] with one case in November 2007 notably involving members of ISKCON. [ [http://religion.info/english/articles/article_347.shtml Iskcon devotees create flutter at Puri temple] ]

ee also

* Bhagavad Gita As It Is
* Bhakti
* Gangotri
* Hare Krishna in popular culture
* List of ISKCON members and patrons
* Radha Krsna Temple
* Vrindavan

Notes

References

* citation
title =Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity
last = Beck
first = Guy L. (Ed.)
authorlink = Guy Beck |url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=0SJ73GHSCF8C
publisher =
date = 2005
isbn =0791464156

*cite book |author=Lynne Gibson |title=Modern World Religions: Hinduism - Pupil Book Core (Modern World Religions) |publisher=Heinemann Educational Publishers |location=Oxford (England) |year=2002 |isbn=0-435-33619-3

* citation
last = Shinn
first = Larry
author-link = Larry Shinn
title = The Maturation of the Hare Krishnas in America
year = 1994
month = January
volume = 2
issue = 1
journal = ISKCON Communications Journal
url = http://www.iskcon.com/icj/2_1/shinn.html

* Citation
first = dasa Goswami | last = Satsvarupa
author-link = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
title = Srila Prabhupada Nectar, Vol 2
place = Philadelphia
publisher = GN Press, Inc
year = 1984
isbn = 0-911233-23-7

* Citation
first = Steven J. | last = Rosen
author-link = Steven Rosen
title = Vaisnavism: Contemporary Scholars Discuss the Gaudiya Tradition
place = New York
publisher = Folk Books
year = 1992
isbn = 0-9619763-6-5

* Citation
first = Klaus | last = Klostermaier
author-link = Oxford University
title = A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism
place = Oxford
publisher = Oneworld Publications
year = 1998
isbn = 1-85168-175-2

* Citation
first = Arvind | last = Sharma
author-link = Oxford University
title = Hinduism for Our Times
place = New Delhi
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 1996
isbn = 0-195-63749-6

* Citation
first = Klaus K.| last = Klostermaier
author-link = Oxford University
title = Hinduism: A Short History
place = Oxford
publisher = Oneworld Publications
year = 2000
isbn = 1-85168-213-9

External links

Official sites

* [http://www.iskcon.com ISKCON Worldwide]
* [http://www.krishna.com/ Krishna.com]
* [http://veda.harekrsna.cz VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online] ;News
* [http://www.ISKCONNews.com ISKCON News : The News Agency of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness ]

Unofficial websites

;Academic:
*cite web
url=http://www.icsahome.com/infoserv_articles/flood_gavin_hinduismvaisismandiskcon.htm
title= Hare Krishna: Hinduism, Vaisnavism, and ISKCON: Authentic Traditions or Scholarly Constructions?
publisher=Cults and Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001
accessdate=2008-05-11
last=Gavin
first=Flood

* [http://www.religioustolerance.org/hare.htm Hare Krishna & Iskcon]
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2722_134/ai_n14814238 The Hare Krishna movement comes of age (2005)]
* [http://www.culticstudiesreview.org/csr_articles/biblio/hk_bibliography_other_full.htm Comprehensive bibliography]

;Theology
* [http://www.dvaita.org/shaastra/iskcon.shtml Madhva followers criticizing ISKCON.]
* [http://www.gosai.com/dvaita/madhvacarya/index.html Defense of ISKCON's theological beliefs against attacks by Madhva followers.]

;Child Abuse Problems
* [http://www.vnn.org/editorials/ET9909/ET26-4805.html Personal account of child abuse in ISKCON]

;Women in ISKCON
* [http://surrealist.org/writing/postcharismatic.html Women in a Patriarchal religion]
* Haan, Wim [http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/wim_eng/krishna.htm Krishna's Women: Old Wine in New Bottles]

;Succession Issues
* [http://www.geocities.com/pointofsurrender/ Srila Prabhupada: The Prominent Link]
* [http://www.jswami.info/ritvik 'About Unusual Doctrines'] In support of the traditional approach to succession

;Miscellaneous Links
* [http://www.gouranga.tv Gouranga.tv - The Hare Krishna Video collection]
* [http://www.hinduismtoday.com/archives/1998/10/1998-10-14.shtml Can it Be That the Hare Krishnas Are Not Hindu?] Article from Hinduism Today - October 1998


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