Drainage basin
Example of a drainage basin. The dashed line is the main water divide of the hydrographic basin

A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.[1] The drainage basin includes both the streams and rivers that convey the water as well as the land surfaces from which water drains into those channels, and is separated from adjacent basins by a drainage divide.[2]

Animation of Latorița River drainage basin, Romania.Modelare 3D pentru Bazinul Hidrografic al Paraului Latorita.gif

The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channelling it to a single point. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a geographical barrier such as a ridge, hill or mountain.

Other terms that are used to describe a drainage basin are catchment, catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, water basin and watershed.[3] In the technical sense, a watershed refers to a divide that separates one drainage area from another drainage area.[4] However, in the United States and Canada, the term is often used to mean a drainage basin or catchment area itself. Drainage basins drain into other drainage basins in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins combining into larger drainage basins.[5]

Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are designed to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks. In a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.[1]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency launched the website Watershed Central for the US public to exchange information and locate resources needed to restore local drainage basins in that country.

Contents

Major drainage basins of the world

Map

Major continental divides, showing drainage into the major oceans and seas of the world.
Drainage basins of the principal oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the ocean.

Ocean basins

There are 354 drainage basins throughout the world[citation needed] in all sorts of places. The following is a list of some of the major ones:

Largest river basins

The three largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the Amazon basin, the Congo basin, and the Mississippi basin.[6] The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Congo, and Ganges Rivers.[7]

Endorheic drainage basins

Endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean. Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks. The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, and drains into the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea. Other endorheic regions include the Great Basin in the United States, much of the Sahara Desert, the watershed of the Okavango River (Kalahari Basin), highlands near the African Great Lakes, the interiors of Australia and the Arabian Peninsula, and parts in Mexico and the Andes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, adjacent closed basins.

In endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example is the Dead Sea.

Importance of drainage basins

Geopolitical boundaries

Drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important. For example, the English crown gave the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in the entire Hudson Bay basin, an area called Rupert's Land. Today, bioregional democracy can include agreements of states in a particular drainage basin to defend it. One example of this is the Great Lakes Commission.

Hydrology

Drainage basin of the Ohio River, part of the Mississippi River drainage basin.

In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin. A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwater flow directions do not always match those of their overlying drainage network. Measurement of the discharge of water from a basin may be made by a stream gauge located at the basin's outlet.

Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin, and there are different ways to interpret that data. If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation, using the arithmetic mean method will give good results. In the Thiessen polygon method, the watershed is divided into polygons with the rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for the rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. These polygons are made by drawing lines between gauges, then making perpendicular bisectors of those lines form the polygons. The isohyetal method involves contours of equal precipitation are drawn over the gauges on a map. Calculating the area between these curves and adding up the volume of water is time consuming.

Geomorphology

Drainage basins are the principal hydrologic unit considered in fluvial geomorphology. A drainage basin is the source for water and sediment that moves through the river system and reshapes the channel.

Ecology

The Mississippi River drains the largest area of any U.S. river, much of it agricultural regions. Agricultural runoff and other water pollution that flows to the outlet is the cause of the hypoxic, or dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

Drainage basins are important elements to consider also in ecology. As water flows over the ground and along rivers it can pick up nutrients, sediment, and pollutants. Like the water, they get transported towards the outlet of the basin, and can affect the ecological processes along the way as well as in the receiving water source.

Modern usage of artificial fertilizers, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has affected the mouths of watersheds. The minerals will be carried by the watershed to the mouth and accumulate there, disturbing the natural mineral balance. This can cause eutrophication where plant growth is accelerated by the additional material.

Resource management

Because drainage basins are coherent entities in a hydrological sense, it has become common to manage water resources on the basis of individual basins. In the U.S. state of Minnesota, governmental entities that perform this function are called watershed districts. In New Zealand, they are called catchment boards. Comparable community groups based in Ontario, Canada, are called conservation authorities. In North America this function is referred to as watershed management. In Brazil, the National Policy of Water Resources, regulated by Act n° 9.433 of 1997, establishes the drainage basin as territorial division of Brazilian water management.

Catchment factors

The catchment is the most significant factor determining the amount or likelihood of flooding.

Catchment factors are: topography, shape, size, soil type and land use (paved or roofed areas). Catchment topography and shape determine the time taken for rain to reach the river, while catchment size, soil type and development determine the amount of water to reach the river.

Topography

Topography determines the speed with which the runoff will reach a river. Clearly rain that falls in steep mountainous areas will reach the river faster than flat or gently sloping areas.

Shape

Shape will contribute to the speed with which the runoff reaches a river. A long thin catchment will take longer to drain than a circular catchment.

Size

Size will help determine the amount of water reaching the river, as the larger the catchment the greater the potential for flooding.

Soil type

Soil type will help determine how much water reaches the river. Certain soil types such as sandy soils are very free draining and rainfall on sandy soil is likely to be absorbed by the ground. However, soils containing clay can be almost impermeable and therefore rainfall on clay soils will run off and contribute to flood volumes. After prolonged rainfall even free draining soils can become saturated, meaning that any further rainfall will reach the river rather than being absorbed by the ground.

Land use

Land use can contribute to the volume of water reaching the river, in a similar way to clay soils. For example, rainfall on roofs, pavements and roads will be collected by rivers with almost no absorption into the groundwater.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Hydrologic Unit Geography". Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/hu.shtml. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  2. ^ "drainage basin". www.uwsp.edu. http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/glossary/a_d/drainage_basin.html. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1998). The Field Guide to Geology. Checkmark Books. pp. 130–13. ISBN 0-8160-3823-6. 
  4. ^ "Recommended Watershed Terminology". watershed.org. http://www.watershed.org/?q=node/187. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  5. ^ "What is a watershed and why should I care?". university of delaware. http://www.wr.udel.edu/cb/whatwhycare.html. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  6. ^ Coupe Jr.; Goolsby, Richard; Donald; Donald A. Goolsby (June 7, 1999). "NASQAN Mississippi River Basin Fact Sheet". Geology. NASQAN. p. 1. http://water.usgs.gov/nasqan/progdocs/factsheets/missfacts/missfs.html. Retrieved 2008-06-24. [dead link]
  7. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia articles on Amazon River, Congo River, and Ganges Published by Microsoft in computers.

References

  • DeBarry,Paul A. (2004). Watersheds: Processes, Assessment and Management. John Wiley & Sons.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • drainage basin — ☆ drainage basin n. the region or area drained by a river system …   English World dictionary

  • drainage basin — noun the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet flood control in the Missouri basin • Syn: ↑river basin, ↑basin, ↑watershed, ↑catchment area,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • drainage basin — the area drained by a river and all its tributaries. Also called catchment area, drainage area. Cf. watershed (def. 2). [1880 85, Amer.] * * * ▪ geology also called  Catchment Area,  or (in North America)  Watershed,      …   Universalium

  • drainage basin — vandens baseinas statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Sausumos teritorijos dalis, iš kurios vanduo paviršiniu arba požeminiu srautu suteka į vandens objektą (upę, ežerą, jūrą ar kt.). atitikmenys: angl. catchment; catchment area; …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • drainage basin —    The land area from which surface runoff drains into a stream channel or system of stream channels, or to a lake, reservoir, or other body of water [6].    In a karst setting, subsurface drainage (internal drainage) may have boundaries defined… …   Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology

  • drainage basin —    A general term for a region or area bounded by a drainage divide and occupied by a drainage system.    GG …   Glossary of landform and geologic terms

  • drainage basin — /ˈdreɪnɪdʒ beɪsən/ (say draynij baysuhn) noun the entire area drained by a river and all its tributaries. Also, drainage area …   Australian English dictionary

  • drainage basin — the total surface land area drained by a stream or river; often used in the sense of the water bodies in the basin. Not a watershed which is strictly an elevated boundary area separating tributaries draining to different river systems …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • drainage basin — noun A topographic region in which all water drains to a common outlet; a watershed. Syn: watershed, catchment basin …   Wiktionary

  • drainage basin —   the area from which a river channel receives water …   Geography glossary

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