- Seventeen Provinces
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Zeventien Provinciën"
The Seventeen Provinces
common_name = Netherlands
continent = Europe
region = Low Countries
country = Netherlands
era = Middle Ages
year_start = 1482
year_end = 1581
date_end = July 26
p1 = Burgundian Netherlands
flag_p1 = Blason fr Bourgogne.svg
s1 = Dutch Republic
flag_s1 = Prinsenvlag.svg
image_map_caption = Map of the Provinces
government_type = Monarchy
common_languages = Dutch, French
The Seventeen Provinces were a
personal unionof states in the Low Countriesin the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France( Artois, Nord), and a small part of the West of Germany.
The Seventeen Provinces were originally held by the
Dukes of Burgundyof the House of Valoisand later by the Habsburgs, first by the Spanish and then by the Austrian line. From 1512 the Provinces formed the major part of the Burgundian Circle.
The map corresponds to the following provinces:
County of Artois
County of Flanders, including the burgraviates of Lille, Douai, Orchies, the Lordship of Tournai and the Tournaisis
Lordship of Mechelen
County of Namur
County of Hainaut
#the County of
County of Holland
Duchy of Brabant, including the Margraviate of Antwerp, the counties of Leuvenand of Brussels, and the advocacy of the Abbey of Nivellesand of Gembloux
Duchy of Limburg, including the counties of Dalhemand Valkenburgand the Lordship of Herzogenrath
Duchy of Luxembourg
#the Prince-Bishopric, later Lordship of Utrecht
#the Lordship of West-Frisia
#the Duchy of
Gueldersand the County of Zutphen
#the Lordships of Groningen
#the Lordship of
Drenthe, Lingen, Wedde, and Westerwolde
#the Lordship of
It was not always the same "Seventeen" Provinces represented at the
Estates-General of the Netherlands. Sometimes one delegation was included in another.
In later years the county of Zutphen became a part of the
Duchy of Guelders, and the Duchy of Limburg was dependent on the Duchy of Brabant. On the other hand the French-speaking cities of Flanders were sometimes recognised as a separate province.
In addition, there were a number of
fiefdoms in this region that were not part of the Seventeen Provinces. The largest of these was the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, the green area on the map, including the County of Horne.
It was not a member-province of the
Burgundian Circle. It was part of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle. In the north, there were also a few smaller entities like the island of Amelandthat would retain their own lords until the French Revolution.
Historians came up with different variations of the list. The number could have been chosen because of its Christian connotation. [http://research.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?c=297]
The Seventeen Provinces originated from the
Burgundian Netherlands. The dukes of Burgundy systematically became the lord of different provinces. Mary I of Valois, Duchess of Burgundy was the last of the House of Burgundy.
When she married Maximilian I of Habsburg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the provinces were acquired by the
House of Habsburgin 1482. His grandson and successor, Charles V of Habsburg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Burgundy, eventually united all seventeen provinces under his rule, the last one being the Duchy of Guelders, in 1543.
Most of these provinces were fiefs of the
Holy Roman Empire. Two provinces, the County of Flanders and County of Artois, were originally French fiefs, but sovereignty was ceded to the Empire in the Treaty of Cambraiin 1529.
Pragmatic Sanction of 1549determined that the Provinces should remain united in the future and inherited by the same monarch. Therefore, Charles V introduced the title of "Heer der Nederlanden" ("Lord of the Netherlands"). Only he and his son could ever use this title.
After Charles V's abdication in 1556, his realms were divided between his son, Philip II of Habsburg, King of Spain, and his brother,
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Seventeen Provinces went to his son, the king of Spain.
Conflicts between Philip II and his Dutch subjects led to the
Eighty Years' War, which started in 1568. The seven northern provinces gained their independence as a republic called the Seven United Provinces. They were:
#the Lordship of Groningen and of the Ommelanden
#the Lordship of Friesland
#the Lordship of Overijssel
#the Duchy of Guelders (except its upper quarter) and the County of Zutphen
#the Prince-Bishopric, later Lordship of Utrecht
#the County of Holland
#the County of Zeeland
The southern provinces, Flanders, Brabant, Namur, Hainaut, Luxembourg a.o., were restored to Spanish rule thanks to the military and political talent of the Duke of Parma, especially at the Siege of Antwerp (1584–1585). Hence, these provinces became known as the Spanish Netherlands or
The northern Seven United Provinces kept parts of Limburg, Brabant, and Flanders during the
Eighty Years' War(see Generality Lands), which ended with the Treaty of Westphaliain 1648.
Artois and parts of Flanders and Hainaut were ceded to
Francein the course of the 17th and 18th century.
Bruges(County of Flanders) had already lost its prominent position as economic powerhouse of northern Europe. And Holland was gradually gaining importance in the 15th and 16th centuries.
However after the independence of the seven northern provinces and the resulting closure of the
Scheldtriver to navigation, a large number of people from the southern provinces emigrated north to the new republic.
The center of prosperity moved from cities in the south such as
Bruges, Antwerp, Ghent, and Brusselsto cities in the north, mostly Holland, including Amsterdam, the Hague, and Rotterdam.
To distinguish between the older and larger Low Countries of the Netherlands from the current country of the Netherlands, Dutch speakers usually drop the plural for the latter. They speak of "Nederland" in singular for the current country and of "de Nederlanden" in plural for the integral domains of Charles V.
In other languages, this has not been adopted, though the larger area is sometimes known as the
Low Countriesin English.
The fact that the term "Netherlands" has such different historical meanings can sometimes lead to difficulties in expressing oneself correctly. For example,
composers from the 16th century are often said to belong to the "Dutch School" ("Nederlandse School"). Although they themselves would not have objected to that term at that time, today it may wrongly create the impression that they were from the current Netherlands. In fact, they were almost exclusively from current Belgian.
Coats of arms
Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands
The Netherlands (disambiguation)
* [http://www.wazamar.org/Nederlanden/zeventien-prov.htm Map of the Seventeen Provinces (1555)]
* contemporary map [http://www.riesa-efau.de/forum/elemente/bilder_teilnehmer/1Dlugaiczyk%20Leo%20Belgicus_2.jpgLeo Belgicus]
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