Philip II of Macedon


Philip II of Macedon

Infobox Monarch
name =Philip II
title =Basileus of Macedon


caption =Victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris)
reign =359 BC – 336 BC
coronation =
othertitles =
full name =
native_lang1 = Greek
native_lang1_name1= Φίλιππος
native_lang2 =
native_lang2_name1=
native_lang8 =
native_lang8_name1=
predecessor =Amyntas IV
successor =Alexander the Great
suc-type =
heir =
queen =
consort =
spouse 1 =Audata
spouse 2 =Phila
spouse 3 =Nicesipolis
spouse 4 =Philinna
spouse 5 =Olympias
spouse 6 =Meda of Odessa
spouse 7 =Cleopatra Eurydice
spouse 8 =
spouse 9 =
spouse 10 =
issue =Cynane
Philip III
Alexander the Great
Cleopatra
Thessalonica
royal house =
dynasty =Argead dynasty
royal anthem =
father =Amyntas III
mother =Eurydice II
date of birth =382 BC
place of birth =Pella
date of death =336 BC (aged 46)
place of death =Aigai
date of burial =
place of burial =Aigai|

Philip II of Macedon, (Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών — "φίλος" = "friend" + "ίππος" = "horse" — transliterated Audio-IPA|Ell-Filippos.ogg| ["Philippos"] [note: modern Greek pronunciation [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Philip Online etymology Dictionary Philip] ] ) 382–336 BC, was an ancient Greek [A History of Greece to 322 B.C.by N. G. L. Hammond .ISBN-10: 0198730950,page 56,1986"these conclusions to the evidence of archaeology, the following picture emerges. The first Greek-speaking peoples settled in Macedonia, Thessaly, and Epirus after c. 2500, and in these areas they developed different dialects".] king (basileus) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Philip III and possibly Ptolemy I, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

Life

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice II. In his youth, (c. 368–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas [ [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dio_Chrysostom/Discourses/49*.html#5 Dio Chrysostom Or. 49.5] ] [Homosexualities by Stephen O. Murray,University of ChicagoPress, [http://books.google.com/books?id=GfH6Nc8HHFwC&pg=PA42&dq=Dio+Chrysostom+49.5+Pelopidas+Philip+eromenos&sig=qXX4eIC8XaRtS4zNW3dkI5Oma_4 page 42] ] , and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear which was intended mostly to counter cavalry, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.

Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of the Epirotes [The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis,ISBN-10: 0521233488,1994,page 374,"... The victory over Bardylis made him an attractive ally to the Epirotes, who too had suffered at the Illyrians' hands, and his recent alignment ..."] .

He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna (lost by Macedon in 363). However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalcidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi: he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which granted him much of the gold later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In 355–354 he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenians fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board (354–353).

Involved in the Third Sacred War which had broken out in Greece, in the summer of 353 he invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus. The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all Thessalian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phocians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle granted Philip an immense prestige, as well the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was also "tagus" of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae.

Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus. To the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city, its expeditions held back by a revolt in Euboea (probably paid by Philip's gold). The Macedonian king finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula.Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic Games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If". Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, "Philippopolis" (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, he successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, while in the same year, Philip destroyed Amfissa because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to Delphi. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader ("hegemon") of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander III.

Assassination

The murder occured during October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander I of Epirus and Philip's daughter Cleopatra. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theater (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.

The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Fifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. In the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, Pausanias had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. His taunting of the new lover caused the youth to throw away his life, which turned his friend, Attalus, against Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by inviting Pausanias to dinner, getting him drunk, then subjecting him to sexual assault.

When Pausanias complained to Philip the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. He also married Attalus's niece, or daughter, Eurydice. Rather than offend Attalus, Phillip attempted to mollify Pausanius by elevating him within the bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour; so he planned to kill Philip, and some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was already in Asia fighting the Persians, put his plan in action. Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. The latter seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, if we accept Justin's report: he tells us that the same night of her return from exile she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse and erected a tumulus to his memory, ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias.

Many modern historians have observed that all the accounts are improbable. In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious: to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military machine personally loyal to Philip. What appears to be recorded in this are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the murder; their actions after the murder, however sympathetic they might appear (if actual), cannot prove their guilt in the deed itself. Further convoluting the case is the possible role of propaganda in the surviving accounts: Attalus was executed in Alexander's consolidation of power after the murder; one might wonder if his enrollment among the conspirators was not for the effect of introducing political expediency in an otherwise messy purge (Attalus had publicly declared his hope that Alexander would not succeed Philip, but rather that a son of his own niece Eurydice, recently married to Philip and brutally murdered by Olympias after Philip's death, would gain the throne of Macedon).

Marriages

The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by Athenaeus, 13.557b-e:

* Audata, the daughter of Illyrian King Bardyllis. Mother of Cynane.
* Phila, the sister of Derdas and Machatas of Elimiotis.
* Nicesipolis of Pherae, Thessaly, mother of Thessalonica.
* Olympias of Epirus, mother of Alexander the Great and Cleopatra
* Philinna of Larissa, mother of Arrhidaeus later called Philip III of Macedon.
* Meda of Odessa, daughter of the king Cothelas, of Thrace.
* Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of general Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon.

Archaeological findings

On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek prefecture of Imathia. The finds from this tomb were later included in the traveling exhibit "The Search for Alexander" displayed at four cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. Initially identified as belonging to Philip II, Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus. Disputations often relied on contradictions between "the body" or "skeleton" of Philip II and reliable historical accounts of his life (and injuries).

References

External links

* [http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per01295.htm#0 A family tree focusing on his ancestors]
* [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~jamesdow/s060/f000137.htm A family tree focusing on his descedants]
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Alexander*/home.html Plutarch: Life of Alexander]
* [http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm Philip II of Macedonia] biography by Jona Lendering on [http://livius.org/ Livius: "Articles in Ancient History"]
* [http://pothos.org Pothos.org] , [http://pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=53&keyword_id=9&title=Death%20of%20Philip:%20Murder%20or%20Assassination? Death of Philip: Murder or Assassination?]
* [http://virtualreligion.net/iho/philip2_mac.html Philip II of Macedon] entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
* [http://www.le.ac.uk/ua/pr/press/facingfacts.html Facial reconstruction expert revealed how technique brings past to life] , press release of the University of Leicester, with a portrait of Philip based on a reconstruction of his face.

Persondata
NAME = Philip II of Macedon
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Greek monarch
DATE OF BIRTH = 382 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH = Pella
DATE OF DEATH = 336 BC
PLACE OF DEATH = Vergina, Greece


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