Nitrosyl chloride


Nitrosyl chloride
Nitrosyl chloride
Identifiers
CAS number 2696-92-6 YesY
PubChem 17601 YesY
ChemSpider 16641 YesY
EC number 220-273-1
UN number 1069
MeSH Nitrosyl+chloride
RTECS number QZ7883000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula ClNO
Molar mass 65.46 g/mol
Appearance yellow gas, red liquid
Density 1.273 g/cm3 (liquid, -12 °C)
2.872 g/L (gas)
Melting point

-59.4 °C

Boiling point

-5.55 °C

Solubility in water decomposes
Solubility in chlorocarbons soluble
Structure
Molecular shape sp2 at N
Dipole moment 1.90 D
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 1580
EU Index Not listed
Main hazards Highly toxic
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
3
1
W
Related compounds
Other anions Nitrosyl fluoride
Nitrosyl bromide
Other cations Thionyl chloride
Related compounds Nitric oxide
Nitrosylsulfuric acid
Nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate
Thionitrosyl chloride
 YesY chloride (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound NOCl. It is a yellow gas that is most commonly encountered as a decomposition product of aqua regia, a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. The related nitrosyl halides nitrosyl fluoride, NOF, and nitrosyl bromide, NOBr, are also known.

Contents

Structure and synthesis

A double bond exists between N and O (distance = 1.16 Å) and a single bond between N and Cl (distance = 1.69 Å). The O-N-Cl angle is 113°.[1]

NOCl can be prepared by the direct combination of chlorine and nitric oxide. Alternatively, nitrosylsulfuric acid and HCl also affords the compound:

HCl + NOHSO4 → NOCl + H2SO4

It also arises from the combination of hydrochloric and nitric acids according to the following reaction:[2]

HNO3 + 3 HCl → Cl2 + 2 H2O + NOCl

Although this mixture was used for dissolving gold for a long time the first description of the gas was done by Edmund Davy in 1831.[3]

Reactions

  • NOCl reacts with halide acceptors to give the nitrosyl cation, [NO]+. This species is available as NOBF4.
  • NOCl reacts with water to release HCl.
  • Heating NOCl above 100°C gives back Cl2 and NO.
  • In organic synthesis, NOCl is often employed. It adds to alkenes to afford α-chloro oximes.[4]
  • NOCl photolyses to NO and a Cl radical.

Safety

NOCl is very toxic and irritating to the lungs, eyes and skin.

References

  1. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  2. ^ L. J. Beckham, W. A. Fessler, M. A. Kise (1951). "Nitrosyl Chloride". Chemical Reviews 48 (3): 319–396. doi:10.1021/cr60151a001. 
  3. ^ Edmund Davy (1830 - 1837). Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 3.. JSTOR. pp. 27–29. JSTOR 110250. 
  4. ^ Ohno, M,; Naruse, N.; Terasawa, I. (1973), "7-cyanoheptanal", Org. Synth., http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv5p0266 ; Coll. Vol. 5: 266 

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