- Paper mill
A paper mill is a
factorydevoted to making paperfrom wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machineor similar apparatus. It is a common misconception that paper mills are sources of odors. Pulp mills, not paper mills can be a source of malodorous air emissions.
In 105 AD, the first
papermakingprocess was innovated in China, by the Han DynastyChinese court eunuch Tsai Lunin the early 2nd centuryAD. The technology spread from East Asiato the Islamic world after the Battle of Talas.
The earliest known paper mill is known to have operated in
Baghdad, modern-day Iraq, as early as 794. After Baghdad, the paper-making process spread to Damascus, Egypt, and Morocco, and by the 10th century, it had replaced papyrus, wood, silkand parchmentas the cheapest and most widespread writing medium in the Islamic world. [citation|first=Farid|last=Mahdavi|title=Review: "Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World" by Jonathan M. Bloom|journal= Journal of Interdisciplinary History|publisher= MIT Press|volume=34|issue=1|year=2003|pages=129-30]
In Europe, the first mention of rag-paper is in the tract of Peter,
abbot of Cluny( 1112- 1150AD), while the oldest recorded document on paper in Christian Europe is the 11th century Missal of Silos, whose paper was probably made in Islamic Spain. [ Islam and the Occident, A. Gonzalez Palencia, "Hispania", Vol. 18, No. 3 (Oct., 1935), pp. 245-276 JSTOR [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2133(193510)18%3A3%3C245%3AIATO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F] ] One of the first known paper mills in Europe was in Xativa (now Jativa) near Valencia, Spain, established around 1151 AD by the Muslim Moors. [ [http://users.stlcc.edu/nfuller/paper/ stlcc.ecu/nfuller/paper] ]
Paper mills can be fully-integrated mills or non-integrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a pulp mill and a paper mill on the same site. Such mills receive logs or wood chips and produce paper. It is the pulping section of the mill, particularly if it uses the
kraft process, which is responsible for the odor commonly associated with these mills. Non-integrated mills purchase wood pulp, usually as dried baled, known as market pulpand produce little, if any, odor.
The modern paper mill uses large amounts of
energy, water, and wood pulpin a highly efficient and extremely complex series of processes, using modern and sophisticated controls technologyto produce a sheet of paper that can be used in incredibly diverse ways. Modern paper machines are very large and can be 500 feet (~150 m) in length, produce a sheet 400 inches (~10 m) wide, and operate at speeds of over 60 mph (100 km/h). [cite web|url=http://www.metsoautomation.com/News/newsdocuments.nsf/Web2NewsDoc/CAC7C79ED6B6E117C22572A00048448C?OpenDocument&ch=ChMetsoPaperWebEng&id=CAC7C79ED6B6E117C22572A00048448C&|title=Metso supplied SC paper machine line sets a new world speed record at Stora Enso Kvarnsveden|accessdate=2008-04-12] The two main suppliers of paper machines are Metsoand Voith.
Braviken Paper Mill, Norrköping, Sweden
Crane Paper Company, Dalton, Massachusetts(A large supplier of paper for the U.S. dollar)
Curtis Paper Mill, Newark, Delaware(closed paper mill also known as the Nonantum Mill)
Sartell Paper Mill, Sartell, Minnesota
Södra Cell Folla, Norway
UPM Kymmene, Finland
Portucel Soporcel, Portugal
Cutting Stock Problem
* [http://www.paperweb.biz/ Paperweb.biz - Paper world directory and search engine for the pulp and paper world]
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