A Zeppelin is a type of
rigid airshippioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelinin the early 20th century, based on designs he had outlined in 1874, [Eckener 1938. pages 155-157] designs he had detailed in 1893, and that were reviewed by committee in 1894, which he later patented in 1895. [Dooley A.190] Due to the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the term "zeppelin" in casual use came to refer to all rigid airships.
Zeppelins were operated by the
Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG(DLG). DLG, the first commercial airline, served scheduled flights before World War I. After the outbreak of the war, the German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts.
The German defeat halted the airship business temporarily, but under the guidance of
Hugo Eckener, the successor of the deceased count, civilian zeppelins experienced a renaissance in the 1920s. They reached their zenith in the 1930s, when the airships LZ 127 "Graf Zeppelin" and LZ 129 "Hindenburg" operated regular transatlanticflights between Germany and both North America and Brazil. The Hindenburg disasterin 1937, combined with political and economic issues, contributed to the demise of the Zeppelin.
The most important feature of Zeppelin's design is a rigid
metalalloy skeleton, made of rings and longitudinal girders.cite web
url = http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/airship.htm
title = Airships
accessdate = 2007-02-20
work = Military
publisher = GlobalSecurity.org] The advantage of this concept is that they can be built much larger than
non-rigid airships (which rely on a slight overpressure within the single gasbag to maintain their shape). This enables them to lift heavier loads and they can be equipped with more numerous and powerful engines.
The basic form of the first Zeppelins was a long cylinder with tapered ends and complex multi-plane
fins. During World War I, as a result of improvements by the competing firm of Schütte-LanzLuftschiffbau, the design was changed to the familiar streamlined shape and cruciformfins used by almost all airships since. Within this outer envelope, several separate balloons, or "cells", contained the lighter-than-airgas hydrogenor helium. Non-rigid airships do not have multiple gas cells. Motive power was provided by several internal combustion engines, mounted in nacelles rigidly connected to the skeleton. Steering was made possible by adjusting and selectively reversing engine thrust and by using rudder and elevator fins. The word for these combined control surfaces is empennage.
A comparatively small compartment for passengers and crew was built into the bottom of the frame, but in large Zeppelins this is not the entire habitable space; they often carried crew or cargo internally for aerodynamic reasons.
The first generations
Ferdinand von Zeppelinbecame interested in constructing a "Zeppelin balloon" after the Franco-Prussian Warof 1870–1871, where he witnessed French use of them to transport mail during the early war.de Syon (2001), p.15] He had also encountered Union Army Balloon Corpsemployment in 1863, during the American Civil War, as a military observer with the Union Army. He first wrote of his dirigible interest in 1874Dooley A.183] and began to seriously pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in 1890 at the age of 52.
Convinced of the potential importance of aircraft, he started working on various designs shortly after leaving the military in 1891. He had already outlined an overall system in 1874, [Eckener 1938. pages 155–157] and detailed designs in 1893Dooley A.187] that were reviewed by committee in 1894, and that he patented in
31 August1895,.de Syon (2001), p.18] with Theodor Kober producing the technical plans.Dooley A.190] In 1899, he started constructing his first guidable rigid airship, following his designs.
One unusual idea, which never saw service, was the ability to connect several independent airship elements like train wagons;de Syon (2001), p.16] in fact, the patent title called the design "Lenkbarer Luftfahrzug" (steerable air train). [Zeppelin's 1895 German patent number 98580 was titled: "Lenkbarer Luftfahrzug mit mehreren hintereinander angeordeneten Tragkörpern."Dooley A.233 which translates as "steerable airship train with linearly connected lifting bodies"]
expertcommittee to whom he had presented his plans in 1894 showed little interest, so the count was on his own in realizing his idea. In 1898 he founded the "Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Luftschiffahrt" (company for the promotion of airship flight), contributing more than half of its 800,000 Mark share capital himself. He assigned the technical implementation to the engineer Theodor Koberand later to Ludwig Dürr.
Construction of the first Zeppelin began in 1899 in a floating assembly hall on
Lake Constancein the Bay of Manzell, Friedrichshafen. This location was intended to facilitate the difficult launching procedure, as the hall could easily be aligned with the wind. The prototypeairship LZ 1 (LZ for "Luftschiff Zeppelin", or "Airship Zeppelin") had a length of convert|128|m|ft|sigfig=3, was driven by two convert|14.2|hp|kW Daimler engines and was controlled in pitch by moving a weight between its two nacelles.
The first Zeppelin flight occurred on
2 July1900 over the Bodensee.Dooley A.197-A.198] It lasted only 18 minutes before "LZ 1" was forced to land on the lake after the winding mechanism for the balancing weight broke.Fact|date=July 2008 After it was placed back in the hangar an apparatus used to suspend it broke. Upon repair, rigid airship technology proved its potential in subsequent flights (the second and third flights were in 17 October1900 and 24 October1900) beating the 6 m/svelocity record of the French airship "La France" by 3 m/s. Despite this performance, the shareholders declined to invest more money, and so the company was liquidated, with Count von Zeppelin purchasing the ship and equipment. The Count wished to continue experimenting, but he eventually dismantled the ship in 1901.de Syon (2001), p.25]
It was largely due to support by aviation enthusiasts that von Zeppelin's idea got a second (and third) chance and would be developed into a reasonably reliable technology. Only then could the airships be profitably used for civilian aviation and sold to the military.
Donations, the profits of a special
lottery, some public funding, a mortgage of Count von Zeppelin's wife's estate and a 100,000 Mark contribution by Count von Zeppelin himself allowed the construction of LZ 2, which took off for the first and only time on 17 January1906.de Syon (2001), p.26] After both motors failed, it made a forced landing in the Allgäumountains, where the anchored ship was subsequently damaged beyond repair by a storm.
Incorporating all usable parts of "LZ 2", the successor LZ 3 became the first truly successful Zeppelin, which by 1908 had traveled convert|4398|km|mi|sigfig=4 in total in the course of 45 flights. The technology then interested the German military, who bought "LZ 3" and redesignated it "Z 1". She served as a
school shipuntil 1913, when she was decommissioned as obsolescent.
The army was also willing to buy "LZ 4", but requested a demonstration of her ability to make a 24-hour trip.de Syon (2001), p.35] While attempting to fulfill this requirement, the crew of "LZ 4" had to make an intermediate landing in Echterdingen near
Stuttgart. During the stop, a storm tore the airship away from its anchorage in the afternoon of 5 August1908. She crashed into a tree, caught fire, and quickly burnt to ruins. No one was seriously injured, though two technicians repairing the engines escaped only by making a hazardous jump. This accident would have certainly knocked out the Zeppelin project economically had not one of the spectators in the crowd spontaneously initiated a collection of donations, yielding an impressive total of 6,096,555 Mark. This enabled the Count to found the "Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH" (Airship Construction Zeppelin Ltd.) and a Zeppelin Foundation.
Prior to World War I
Altogether, the airshipsclarifyme|date=July 2008 traveled approximately convert|200000|km|mi and transported about 40,000 passengers.Fact|date=July 2008
German Armyand Navy purchased 14 Zeppelins, who labeled their aircraft Z 1/2/... and L 1/2/..., respectively. During the war, the Army changed their scheme twice: following "Z XII", they switched to using LZ numbers, later adding 30 to obscure the total production. When World War I broke out, the military also took over the three remaining DELAG ships. By this time, it had already decommissioned three other Zeppelins ("LZ 3" "Z 1" included). Five more had been lost in accidents, in two of which people died: a storm pushed Navy Zeppelin "LZ 14" "L 1" down into the North Sea, drowning 14, and "LZ 18" "L 2" burst into flames following an engine explosion, killing the entire crew.
state-of-the-artZeppelins had lengths of convert|150|to|160|m|ft and volumes of 22,000-25,000 m3, enabling them to carry loads of around convert|9|t|kg lb. They were typically powered by three Maybachmotors of around convert|400|to|550|hp|kW each, reaching speeds up to about convert|80|km/h|mph.
During World War I
Bombers and scouts
Zeppelins were used as bombers during World War I, without notable success. At the beginning of the conflict the German command had high hopes for the craft, as they appeared to have compelling advantages over contemporary aircraft — they were almost as fast, carried many more guns, and had a greater
bombload capacity and enormously greater range and endurance. However, their great weakness was their vulnerability to gunfire.
The German craft were operated by both the Army and Navy as two entirely separate divisions, at the beginning of the war the Army had nine craft (including three requisitioned from civilian ownership) and the Navy had four. All the craft were identified with the pre-war prefix "LZ" and a number, to avoid confusion between craft with the same number it is customary to use the prefix "LZ" for Naval craft and just "L" for Army craft (the
Schütte-Lanzand Parseval types are sometimes identified with the respective prefixes"SL" and "PL"). Prior to the war the Army had lost three zeppelins to accidents and the Navy two, although both Naval losses occurred in 1913 and accounted for the majority of experienced personnel. There were major differences in doctrine. The Army emphasised bombing from a low level and close support to ground forces, while the Navy had trained for reconnaissance.
The first offensive use of Zeppelins was just two days after the invasion of
Belgium. A single craft, the "L. VI", flying from Cologne was damaged by gunfire while heading towards Paris and made a forced landing near Cologne. Two more Zeppelins were shot down in August and one was captured by the French, "L. VIII" was accidentally fired upon by German troops and then deliberately by French soldiers before crashing in Badonviller Forest, her crew attempted to set the craft afire but were driven off by French cavalry. Their use against well-defended targets in daytime raids was a mistake and the High Command lost all confidence in the Zeppelin, leaving it to the Naval Air Service to make any further use of the craft.
The main use of the craft was in reconnaissance over the
North Seaand the Baltic, where the admirable endurance of the craft led German warships to a number of Allied vessels. Zeppelin patrolling had priority over any other airship activity. During the entire war around 1,200 scouting flights were made.Fact|date=December 2007 During 1915 the German Navy had some 15 Zeppelins in commission and was able to have two or more patrolling continuously at any one time, almost regardless of weather.Lehmann Chapter VI] They kept the British ships from approaching Germany, spotted when and where the British were laying sea-mines, and later aided in the destruction of those mines. Zeppelins would sometimes land on the sea surface next to a minesweeper, bring aboard an officer and show him the lay of the mines. Before the widespread availability of incendiary ammunitionmade commerce raidingtoo risky, they would also land or hover close to a merchant ship suspected of carrying contraband, order all ship's hands to leave in boats, then inspect the ship, and either destroy it or take it back to Germany as prize.
The Naval Air Service also directed a number of strategic raids against Britain, leading the way in bombing techniques and also forcing the British to bolster their anti-aircraft defenses. The first airship raids were approved by the Kaiser in January 1915, although he demanded that no attacks be made on historic or government buildings or museums. The nighttime raids were intended to target only military sites, but after blackouts became widespread, many bombs fell randomly in
The first raid was on
19 January1915, the first bombing of civilians ever, in which two Zeppelins dropped 24 Χ 50 kg high explosive bombs and ineffective 3 kg incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, King's Lynnand the surrounding villages. In all four people were killed, sixteen injured and monetary damage estimated at £7,740, although the public and media reaction were out of all proportion to the death toll. There were a further 19 raids in 1915, in which 37 tons of bombs were dropped, killing 181 people and injuring 455. British defenses were divided between the Royal Navyand the British Armyat first, before the Army took full control in February 1916, and a variety of sub 4-inch (less than 102mm) caliber guns were converted to anti-aircraftuse. Searchlights were introduced, initially manned by police, but their inexperience led to a number of illuminated clouds being mistaken for attacking airships. Aerial defenses against Zeppelins were haphazard and the lack of an interrupter gearin early fighters meant the basic technique of downing them was to drop bombs on them (a technique to resurface in World War II). The first man to bring down a Zeppelin in this way was R. A. J. Warneford of the RNAS, flying a Morane Parasol on 7 June1915. Dropping six 9 kg bombs, he set fire to "LZ 37" over Ghent and as a result won the Victoria Cross.
Raids continued in 1916. After an accidental bombing of London in May (not the first, as the plaque to the right shows), in July the Kaiser allowed directed raids against urban centers.
There were 23 airship raids in 1916 in which 125 tons of ordnance were dropped, killing 293 people and injuring 691. Anti-aircraft defenses were becoming tougher and new Zeppelins were introduced which increased their operating altitude from convert|1800|to|3750|m|ft. To avoid searchlights, they flew above the clouds whenever possible, lowering an observer through them to direct the bombing. The improved safety was counteracted by the extra strain on the airship crews and the British introduction in mid-1916 of synchronized-gun fighters. The first night-fighter victory came on
2 September1916 when Lt. William Leefe Robinson, flying from Sutton's Farm, shot down one of a 16-strong raiding force over London, using incendiary ammunition. (The airship was not a Zeppelin but a wooden-framed Schütte-LanzSL11). He too was awarded a Victoria Cross. Early in the morning of 24 September1916, an airborne fighter and anti-aircraft guns caused the L.33 ( KapitänleutnantBocker) to crash land at Little Wigborough near Colchester, Essex, on its first raid. A close inspection of its wrecked structure enabled the British to understand where their own rigid airship designs had been deficient. Furthermore, one convert|250|hp|abbr=on engine recovered from the wreck subsequently substituted for two (of four) convert|180|hp|abbr=on engines on a Vickers-built machine, the hitherto underpowered "R.9".
Effective fighters marked the end of the Zeppelin threat. New Zeppelins came into service that could operate at convert|5500|m|ft but exposed them to extremes of cold, and changeable winds that could, and did, scatter many Zeppelin raids. In 1917 and 1918 there were only 11 Zeppelin raids against England, the final one on
5 August1918, resulted in the death of " Korvettenkapitän" Peter Strasser, commander of the German Naval Airship Department.
In 1917, the German High Command made an attempt to dirigible-deliver much-needed supplies to Lettow-Vorbeck's East African Campaign in
German East Africa. The "L.59" Zeppelin travelled over 6,400 km (4,000 miles) in 95 hours, but in the end failed to deliver the supplies. ["First World War" — Willmott, H.P.; Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 192] The craft had been purpose-built, and had been intended to be broken apart and itself used as supplies on arrival. However, it never attempted the mission again, and was coverted into a bomber.
Strategic issues aside, Zeppelin technology improved considerably as a result of the increasing demands of warfare. In late World War I the Zeppelin Company, having spawned several dependencies around Germany with shipyards closer to the fronts than Friedrichshafen, delivered airships of around 200 m (660 ft) in length (some even more) and with volumes of 56,000-69,000 m3. These dirigibles could carry loads of 40-50 tonnes and reach speeds up to convert|100|to|130|km/h|mph using five or even six
Maybachengines of around convert|260|hp|kW|abbr=on each.
To avoid enemy defenses such as British aircraft guns and searchlights, Zeppelins became capable of much higher altitudes (up to convert|7600|m|ft) and they also proved capable of long-range flights. For example, "LZ 104"
L.59, based in Yambol, Bulgaria, was sent to reinforce troops in German East Africa(today Tanzania) in November 1917. The ship did not arrive in time and had to return following reports of German defeat by British troops, but it had traveled convert|6757|km|mi in 95 hours and thus had broken a long-distance flight record.
A considerable, frequently overlooked, contribution to these technological advancements originated from Zeppelin's only serious competitor, the
Mannheim-based Schütte-Lanz airship construction company. While their dirigibles never became comparably successful, Professor Schütte's more scientific approach to airship design led to a number of important innovations copied, over time, by the Zeppelin company. These included, for example, the streamlined hull shape, the simple yet functional cruciform fins (replacing the more complicated box-like arrangements of older Zeppelins), individual direct-drive engine cars, anti-aircraft machine-gun positions, [University of Constance. [http://www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/Philo/Geschichte/MMAG/MMAG_Zeppelin/Gefahren/gefahren1.htm Gefahren und Strapazen der Luftschiffeinsätze] , upper platform with machine-gun placement and gunners] and gas ventilation shafts which removed excess hydrogen for safety.
End of the war
The German defeat in the war also marked the end of German military dirigibles, as the victorious Allies demanded a complete disarmament of German air forces and delivery of the remaining airships as
war reparations. Specifically, the Treaty of Versaillescontained the following articles dealing explicitly with dirigibles:
;Article 198:"The armed forces of Germany must not include any military or naval air forces. [...] No dirigible shall be kept.";Article 202:"On the coming into force of the present Treaty, all military and naval aeronautical material [...] must be delivered to the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. [...] In particular, this material will include all items under the following heads which are or have been in use or were designed for warlike purposes:":" [...] ":* "Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or assembled.":* "Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen.":* "Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft.":"Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Germany, be maintained inflated with hydrogen; the plant for the manufacture of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles may at the discretion of the said Powers, be left to Germany until the time when the dirigibles are handed over. [...] "
23 June1919, a week before the treaty was signed, many war Zeppelin crews destroyed their airships in their halls in order to avoid delivery. In doing so, they followed the example of the German fleet which had been scuttledtwo days before in Scapa Flow. The remaining dirigibles were transferred to France, Italy, Britain, and Belgiumin 1920.
A total of 84 Zeppelins were built during the war. Over 60 were lost, roughly evenly divided between accident and enemy action. 51 raids had been undertaken, [The figures given total 54. While
A. Whitehousein "The Zeppelin Fighters" (1966) gives figures of 5,907 bombs dropped, 528 people killed, 1,156 wounded in 208(!) raids.] in which 5,806 bombs were dropped, killing 557 people and injuring 1,358. It has been argued the raids were effective far beyond material damage in diverting and hampering wartime production, and diverting 12 fighter squadrons and over 10,000 personnel to air defenses.
After World War I
Count von Zeppelin had died in 1917, before the end of the war. Dr.
Hugo Eckener, a man who had long before envisioned dirigibles as vessels of peace rather than warfare, took command of the Zeppelin business. With the Treaty of Versailleshaving knocked out their competitor Schütte-Lanz, specialist in military airships, the Zeppelin company and DELAG hoped to resume civilian flights quickly. In fact, despite considerable difficulties, they completed two small Zeppelins: "LZ 120 Bodensee", which first flew in August 1919 and in the following two years actually transported some 4,000 passengers; and "LZ 121 Nordstern", which was foreseen for a regular route to Stockholm.
However, in 1921, the Allied Powers demanded these two Zeppelins be delivered as war reparations, as compensation for the dirigibles destroyed by their crews in 1919. Further Zeppelin projects could not be realized, partly because of Allied interdiction. This temporarily halted German Zeppelin aviation.
However, Eckener and his co-workers refused to give up and kept looking for investors and a way to circumvent Allied restrictions. Their opportunity came in 1924. The
United Stateshad started to experiment with rigid airships, constructing one of their own, the ZR-1 USS "Shenandoah" (see below), and ordering another from the UK when the British " R38 (ZR-2)" was canceled. However, "R38" (based on the Zeppelin L70, ordered as "ZR-2") broke apart and exploded during a test flight above the Humberon 23 August1921, killing 44 crewmen.
Under these circumstances, Eckener managed to acquire an order for the next American dirigible. Of course, Germany had to pay the costs for this airship itself, as they were calculated against the war reparation accounts, but for the Zeppelin company, this was secondary. So engineer Dr. Dürr designed "LZ 126", and using all the expertise accumulated over the years, the company finally achieved its best Zeppelin so far, which took off for a first test flight on
No insurance company was willing to issue a policy for the delivery to
Lakehurst, which, of course, involved a transatlanticflight. Eckener, however, was so confident of the new ship that he was ready to risk the entire business capital, and on 12 October, 0730 local time, the Zeppelin took off for the States under his command. His faith was not disappointed, and the ship completed her convert|8050|km|mi voyage without any difficulties in 81 hours and two minutes. American crowds enthusiastically celebrated the arrival, and President Calvin Coolidgeinvited Dr. Eckener and his crew to the White House, calling the new Zeppelin an "angel of peace".
Under its new designation ZR-3 USS "Los Angeles" (the former "LZ 126") became the most successful American airship. She operated reliably for eight years until being retired in 1932 for economic reasons and dismantled in August 1940.
With the delivery of "LZ 126", the Zeppelin company had reasserted its lead in rigid airship construction, but it was not yet quite back in business. Acquiring the necessary funds for the next project proved a problem in the difficult economic situation of post-World-War-I
Germany, and it took Eckener two years of lobbying and publicity work to secure the realization of "LZ 127".
Another two years passed before
18 September1928, when the new dirigible, christened "Graf Zeppelin" in honor of the Count, flew for the first time. With a total length of convert|236.6|m|ft and a volume of 105,000 m3, she was the largest dirigible yet.
Eckener's initial concept was to use "Graf Zeppelin" for experimental and demonstration purposes to prepare the way for regular airship traveling, by carrying passengers and mail to cover the costs. In October 1928 the first long-range voyage brought her to Lakehurst, where Eckener and his crew were once more welcomed enthusiastically with confetti parades in New York and another invitation to the White House. Later "Graf Zeppelin" toured Germany and visited
Italy, Palestine, and Spain. A second trip to the United States was aborted in Francedue to engine failure in May 1929.
In August 1929 "LZ 127" departed for another daring enterprise: a
circumnavigationof the globe. The growing popularity of the "giant of the air" made it easy for Eckener to find sponsors. One of these was the American press tycoon William Randolph Hearst, who requested the tour officially start in Lakehurst. As with the October 1928 flight to New York, Hearst had placed a reporter Grace Marguerite Hay Drummond-Hayon board who therefore became the first woman to circumnavigate the globe by air. From there, "Graf Zeppelin" flew to Friedrichshafen, then Tokyo, Los Angeles, and back to Lakehurst, in 21 days 5 hours and 31 minutes. Including the initial and final trips Friedrichshafen–Lakehurst and back, the dirigible traveled convert|49618|km|mi.
In the following year, "Graf Zeppelin" undertook a number of trips around Europe, and following a successful tour to
South Americain May 1930, it was decided to open the first regular transatlantic airship line. Despite the beginning of the Great Depressionand growing competition from fixed-wing aircraft, "LZ 127" would transport an increasing volume of passengers and mail across the ocean every year until 1936. Besides, the ship pursued another spectacular venue in July 1931 with a research trip to the Arctic; this had already been a dream of Count von Zeppelin twenty years earlier, which could, however, not be realized at the time due to the outbreak of war.
Eckener intended to supplement the successful craft by another, similar Zeppelin, projected as "LZ 128". However the disastrous accident of the British passenger airship "R101" on
5 October1930 led the Zeppelin company to reconsider the safety of hydrogen-filled vessels, and the design was abandoned in favor of a new project. "LZ 129" would advance Zeppelin technology considerably, and was intended to be filled with inert helium.
Hindenburg, end of an era
Following 1933, the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship in Germany began to overshadow the Zeppelin business. The Nazis were not interested in Eckener's ideals of peacefully connecting people; they also knew very well dirigibles would be useless in combat and thus chose to focus on
On the other hand, they were eager to exploit the popularity of the airships for
propaganda. As Eckener refused to cooperate, Hermann Göring, the Nazi Air minister, formed a new airline in 1935, the "Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei" (DZR), which took over operation of airship flights. Zeppelins would now prominently display the Nazi swastikaon their fins and occasionally tour Germany to indoctrinate the people with march music and Nazi propaganda speeches from the air.
4 March1936, LZ 129 "Hindenburg" (quickly named after former President of Germany Paul von Hindenburgby Eckener in an attempt to preempt the Nazi Party from naming the ship after Hitler) made her first flight. The "Hindenburg" was the largest airship ever built. However, in the new political situation, Eckener had not obtained the helium to inflate it due to a military embargo; only the United States possessed the rare gas in usable quantities. So, in what ultimately proved a fatal decision, the "Hindenburg" was filled with flammable hydrogen. Apart from the propaganda missions, "LZ 129" began to serve the transatlantic lines together with "Graf Zeppelin".
6 May1937, while landing in Lakehurstafter a transatlantic flight, in front of thousands of spectators, the tail of the ship caught fire, and within seconds, the "Hindenburg" burst into flames, killing 35 of the 97 people on board and one member of the ground crew. The actual cause of the fire has not been definitively determined; it is likely that a combination of leaking hydrogen from a torn gas bag, the vibrations caused by a swift rotation for a quicker landing to have started static electricity in the duralumin alloy skeleton and a flammable outer coating similar to rocket fuel accounted for the fact that the fire spread from its starting point in the tail to engulf the entire airship so rapidly (34 seconds).
Whatever caused the disaster, the end of the dirigible era was due to politics and the upcoming war, not the wreck itself, though it surely led to some public misgivings. Despite everything, there remained a list of 400 people who still wanted to fly as Zeppelin passengers and had paid for the trip. In 1940 the money they had paid for the trip was refunded.
"Graf Zeppelin" completed more flights, though not for overseas commercial flights to the U.S., and was retired one month after the "Hindenburg" wreck and turned into a museum. Dr. Eckener kept trying to obtain helium gas for "Hindenburg"'s sister ship, "Graf Zeppelin II", but due to political bias against the airship's commercial use by the Nazi leadership, coupled with inability to obtain helium gas in sufficient quantities due to an embargo by the United States, his efforts were in vain. The intended new flagship Zeppelin was completed in 1938 and, inflated with hydrogen, made some test flights (the first on
14 September), but never carried passengers. Another project, "LZ 131", designed to be even larger than "Hindenburg" and "Graf Zeppelin II", never progressed beyond the production of some single skeleton rings.
The career of "Graf Zeppelin II" was not over. She was assigned to the "
Luftwaffe" and performed about 30 test flights prior to the start of World War II. Most of those test flights were carried out near the Polish border, first in the Sudeten mountainsregion of Silesia and later in the Baltic Searegion. During one flight "LZ 130" crossed the Polish border near Hel Peninsula, where she was intercepted by a Polish Lublin R-XIIIfrom Puck naval airbase and forced to leave Polish airspace. During this time, "LZ 130" was used as an electronic scouting vehicle and was equipped with various telemetric equipment. From May to August 1939, she performed flights near the coastline of Great Britain in an attempt to determine whether the 100-meter towers erected from Portsmouthto Scapa Flowwere used for aircraft radio localization. Tests included photography, radio wave interception, magnetic analysis and radio frequency analysis but were unable to detect operational British Chain Home radardue to the searching in the wrong frequency range - the frequencies searched were too high, an assumption based on the Germans' own radarsystems. The (incorrect) conclusion was the British towers were not connected to radar operations, but formed a network of naval radio communication and rescue.
After the German invasion of Poland started the
Second World Waron 1 September, the "Luftwaffe" ordered "LZ 127" and "LZ 130" moved to a large Zeppelin hangar in Frankfurt, where the skeleton of LZ 131 was also located. In March 1940 Göring ordered the destruction of the remaining vessels and the aluminiumfed into the Nazi war industry. In May a fire broke out in the Zeppelin facility which destroyed most of the remaining parts. The rest of the parts and materials were soon scrapped with almost no trace of the German "giants of the air" remaining by the end of the year.
Non-German rigid airships
Airships using the Zeppelin construction method are sometimes referred to as zeppelins even if they had no connection to the Zeppelin business. Several airships of this kind were built in the USA and Britain in the 1920s and 1930s, mostly imitating original Zeppelin design derived from crashed or captured German World War I airships.
The British "R33" and "R34", for example, were near identical copies of the German L-33, which crashed virtually intact in Yorkshire on
24 September1916. Despite being almost three years out of date by the time they were launched in 1919, these sister ships were two of the most successful in British service. On 2 July1919, "R34" began the first return crossing of the Atlantic by aircraft. She landed at Mineola, Long Island on 6 July1919 after 108 hours in the air. The return crossing commenced on 8 Julybecause of concerns about mooring the ship in the open, and took 75 hours. Impressed, Britain began to contemplate a fleet of airships as links to far-flung colonies, but unfortunately post-war economic conditions lead to most airships being scrapped and trained personnel dispersed, until " R-100" and " R-101" commenced construction in 1929.
Another example was the first American-built rigid dirigible ZR-1 USS "Shenandoah", which flew in 1923, while USS "Los Angeles" (ZR-3) was under construction. The ship was christened on
20 Augustin Lakehurst, New Jerseyand was the first to be inflated with helium, which was still so rare at the time that "Shenandoah" contained most of the world's reserves. When "Los Angeles" was delivered, she was at first filled with helium borrowed from ZR-1. Other airships were the USS Akron (ZRS-4)and the USS Macon (ZRS-5).
Economically, it was surprising that even in the 1930s, Zeppelins could compete with other means of transatlantic transport. Their advantage was the ability to carry significantly more passengers than other contemporary aircraft, while providing conveniences like the luxury of ship voyages. Less importantly, the technology was potentially more energy-efficient than heavier-than-air designs. On the other hand, operating the giants was quite involved, especially in terms of personnel. Often the crew would outnumber passengers on board, and on the ground large teams were necessary to assist starting and landing. Also, to accommodate Zeppelins like "Hindenburg" (which was more than five times as long as the height of the
Statue of Libertywithout the pedestal), very large hangars were required at airports. Today, with large, fast, and more cost-efficient fixed-wing aircraft, it is unknown whether huge airships can operate profitably in regular passenger transport though, as energy costs rise, attention is once again returning to these lighter than air vessels as a viable alternative. At the very least, the idea of comparatively slow, "majestic" cruising at relatively low altitudes and in comfortable atmosphere certainly has retained some appeal. There have been some niches for airships in and after World War II, such as long-duration observations, antisubmarine patrol, platforms for TV camera crews, and advertising; these, however, generally require only small and flexible craft, and have thus generally been better fitted for cheaper blimps.
It has periodically been suggested Zeppelins could be employed for
cargo transport, especially delivering extremely heavy loads to areas with poor infrastructure. One recent enterprise of this sort was the " Cargolifter" project, in which a hybrid (thus not entirely Zeppelin-type) airship even larger than "Hindenburg" was projected. Around 2000, this idea was realized, when the CargoLifter AG constructed the world's largest cantilever shop hall measuring convert|360|m|ft long, convert|210|m|ft wide and convert|107|m|ft high about convert|60|km|mi south of Berlin. In May 2002, the project was stopped for financial reasons; the company had to file bankruptcy. Although no rigid airships are currently used for heavy lifting, hybrid airships are being developed for such purposes. John McPhee's "The Deltoid Pumpkin Seed" is the story of one company attempting this.
A small company in Germany is currently examining the possibility of building a cruise airship, for now known as the Zeppelin ET (for Euro Tour); it will be able to carry passengers on week-long cruises at comfort levels and prices comparable to those of luxury sea cruises of similar duration. However, although this airship bears the name "Zeppelin", it is not a rigid but a semi-rigid airship (even though "zeppelin" has come to be almost a synonym for rigid airship). The project is still in its early stages and nothing practical has resulted as of 2004Fact|date=September 2007.
In the 1990s, the successor of the original Zeppelin company in
Friedrichshafen, the "Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik GmbH", reengaged in airship construction. The first experimental craft (later christened "Friedrichshafen") of the type " Zeppelin NT" flew in September 1997. Though larger than common blimps, the "Neue Technologie" (new technology) Zeppelins are much smaller than their giant ancestors and not actually Zeppelin-types in the classical sense; they are sophisticated semi-rigids. Apart from the greater payload, their main advantages compared to blimps are higher speed and excellent maneuverability. Meanwhile, several "Zeppelin NT" have been produced and operated profitably in joyrides, research flights and similar applications.
In June 2004, a Zeppelin NT was sold for the first time to a
Japanese company, Nippon Airship Corporation, for tourism and advertising mainly around Tokyo. It was also given a role at the 2005 Expo in Aichi. The aircraft began a flight from Friedrichshafen to Japan, stopping at Geneva, Paris, Rotterdam, Munich, Berlin, Stockholmand other European cities to carry passengers on short legs of the flight. However, Russian authorities denied overflight permission so the airship had to be dismantled and shipped to Japan rather than following the historic "Graf Zeppelin" flight from Germany to Japan.
The Art Deco Spire of Empire State Building was designed originally to serve as a Dirigible Terminal for Zeppelins and other dirigibles to dock. [cite web
title = ESB in the News
month = July | year = 2000
url = http://www.esbnyc.com/tourism/tourism_facts_esbnews_july2000.cfm]
Use in exploration
In November 2005,
De Beers, the diamond mining company, launched an airship exploration program over the remote Kalahari desert. A Zeppelin, loaded with high-tech equipment, is used to find potential diamond mines by scanning the local geography for low-density rock formations — so-called kimberlite pipes. On 21 September2007, the airship was severely damaged by a whirlwind while in Botswana. One crew member, who was on watch aboard the moored craft, was slightly injured but released after overnight observation in hospital.
The history of Zeppelins is of particular interest to stamp collectors. Many nations issued high-denomination Zeppelin stamps, intended for
frankingof Zeppelin mail. Among the rarest of Zeppelin covers are those carried during the fateful flight of the "Hindenburg". An airship museum is planned to open in Suffolk, England. Fact|date=November 2007
Zeppelins have been an inspiration to music, cinematography and literature. In 1934, the calypsonian, Attila the Hun recorded "Graf Zeppelin", commemorating the airship's visit to Trinidad while on its way from
Rio de Janeiroto Chicagofor the World Fair. In cinematography, Zeppelins have been depicted several times, including "Zeppelin" (UK, 1971) about a German-English soldier( Michael York) and a German scientist( Elke Sommer) participating in a German Zeppelin mission in World War I; " Darling Lili" (US, 1970); "The Hindenburg" (US, 1975) a disaster filmof the ill-fated last trip of "LZ 129"; and a short appearance in the films " The Assassination Bureau" (UK 1968)," A View To A Kill" (UK, 1985), " Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (US, 1989), " The Rocketeer" (US, 1991), " Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow" (US, 2004), " A Very Long Engagement" (France, 2004) and " Flyboys" (USA, 2007). Zeppelins have also served as an inspiration to the Crimson Skiescomputer/video game series where the airship is re-imagined as an integral segment of international commerce. Also in Max Brooks' novel, " World War Z(An Oral History of the Zombie War)", the United States uses advanced command and control Zeppelins (as a flying command post) to oversee military operation in white zones (i.e., areas that have not been completely pacified). Airships also make appearances in some fantasyworlds, usually in the form of a small regular ship lifted to the air by a huge balloon. In the RPG-Series " Final Fantasy", there is some kind of airship in every game. In the " MMORPG" " World Of Warcraft", you can take Zeppelin transports from and to certain cities, usually for long distances such as crossing an ocean or an entire continent. Zeppelins are also heavily portrayed as vicious weapons of war in the steampunk anime Steamboyin which they are equipped from anything from steam powered manipulators to high capacity bomb chutes.
Led Zeppelinreceived their name, after The Whodrummer, Keith Moon, joked that the band would go down like a "lead zeppelin". The name was changed to Led Zeppelinso Americans would say it correctly.Fact|date=July 2008
Zeppelins are commonly used as a moving headquarters for villains in common culture. Examples include
Timesplitters, A View to a Kill, His Dark Materials, and Patria.
steampunkgenre of science fiction has adopted the zeppelin as something of a mascot. They are representative of general steampunk themes with their grand scale, Victorian aesthetics, and failure to be put into common use. They are often portrayed either as massive and imposing transports or powerful flying gunships (standing up to much more fire than a real zeppelin). (See the Captain Bastable trilogy: " The Warlord of the Air", "The Land Leviathan", and "The Steel Tsar" by Michael Moorcock).
List of Zeppelins
List of airships of the United States Navy
Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen
* (General information)
* Dooley, Sean C., [http://biblion.epfl.ch/EPFL/theses/2004/2986/EPFL_TH2986_screen.pdf The Development of Material-Adapted Structural Form] - [http://biblion.epfl.ch/EPFL/theses/2004/2986/EPFL_TH2986_app_screen.pdf Part II: Appendices] . THÈSE NO 2986 (2004),
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
* Eckener, Hugo. 1938. Count Zeppelin: The Man and His Work, translated by Leigh Fanell, London -- Massie Publishing Company, Ltd. -- (ASIN: B00085KPWK) ( [http://spot.colorado.edu/~dziadeck/airship/schwartz.htm online extract pages 155-157, 210-211] )
*Lehmann, Ernst A.; Mingos, Howard. The Zeppelins. The Development of the Airship, with the Story of the Zepplins Air Raids in the World War. [http://www.hydrogencommerce.com/zepplins/zeppelin6.htm Chapter VI THE NORTH SEA PATROL -- THE ZEPPELINS AT JUTLAND] (online chapter)
* editors of German wikipedia, [http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=LZ_7&oldid=48156554 LZ 7]
* Rich Archbold and Ken Marshall, "Hindenburg, an Illustrated History", 1994 ISBN 0-446-51784-4
* William F. Althoff, "USS Los Angeles: The Navy's Venerable Airship and Aviation Technology ", 2003, ISBN 1-57488-620-7
* Peter Brooks, "Zeppelin: Rigid Airships 1893-1940 ", 2004, ISBN 0-85177-845-3
*Manfred Griehl and Joachim Dressel, "Zeppelin! The German Airship Story", 1990 ISBN 1-85409-045-3
*Ces Mowthorpe, "Battlebags: British Airships of the First World War", 1995 ISBN 0-905778-13-8
* McPhee, John, "The Deltoid Pumpkin Seed", 1992 ISBN 978-0374516352
* Ian Castle, "London 1914-17 - The Zeppelin Menace", ISBN 978-184603-245-5
* [http://www.ezep.de/index.html eZEP.de] — The webportal for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia
* [http://www.ezep.de/zsg/zsg.html Zeppelin Study Group] — Research group for airship memorabilia and Zeppelin mail
* [http://www.ezep.de/zpj/zpj.html Zeppelin Post Journal] — Quarterly publication for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia
* [http://www.Zeppelin-nt.de/index_e.htm Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik GmbH] — The original company, now developing the "Zeppelin NT"
* [http://www.airshipventures.com Airshipventures.com] — Bringing "Zeppelin NT" airships to the USA
* [http://www.zeppelintours.com zeppelintours.com] — Zeppelin airship flights
* [http://www.postogtelemuseet.dk/zeppex/en/enFront.html Zeppelin Exhibition] — An online exhibition about zeppelins by Post & Tele Museum, Denmark
* [http://www.richthofen.com/dark_autumn/ Dark Autumn: The 1916 German Zeppelin Offensive]
* [http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=201580 History of zeppelin development] , Andrew Czernek (Omnivorous-GA), "Early Airship Design and Development", May 9, 2003
* [http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=215947 Diesel engines in zeppelins] , Andrew Czernek (Omnivorous-GA), "Aircraft Propulsion," June 11, 2003
* [http://news.com.com/Zeppelin+seeks+hidden+diamond+stashes+in+Kalahari/2100-11395_3-6067495.html?tag=nefd.top Zeppelin seeks hidden diamond stashes in Kalahari] from
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/fromthearchive/story/0,,1865541,00.html How the Zeppelin was destroyed Wednesday September 6, 1916 The Guardian]
* [http://www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/Philo/Geschichte/MMAG/MMAG_Zeppelin/index.htm Zeppelin im Krieg] University of Constance, online multimedia presentation in the Zeppelin-Museum Friedrichshafen (German)
*US patent|0621195, "Navigable balloon". March 14, 1899. Ferdinand Graf Zeppelin.
*patent|US |1217657, "Method of destroying aircraft", Filed April 11, 1916. Joseph A. Steinmetz
*patent|US |1449721, "Light weight girder". Filed June 28, 1920. Karl Arnstein.
*patent|US |1474517, "Airship". Filed Aug 19, 1922; Issued November 20, 1923. Julius Erhardt
*patent|US |1724009, "Rigid airship with separate gas cells". Filed November 27, 1922; Issued August 1929. Hugo Eckener
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Look at other dictionaries:
Zeppelin NT — im Flug Zeppelin NT (Zeppelin Neuer Technologie) ist eine Luftschiff Baureihe, die seit den 1990er Jahren in Friedrichshafen gefertigt wird. Die Luftschiffe des NT Typs sind die größten aktiven Luftschiffe und die einzigen mit einem inneren… … Deutsch Wikipedia
zeppelin — [ zɛplɛ̃ ] n. m. • 1907; du nom du constructeur, le comte de Zeppelin ♦ Grand dirigeable rigide à carcasse métallique que les Allemands construisirent de 1900 à 1937. ● zeppelin nom masculin (de Zeppelin, nom propre) Dirigeable rigide, construit… … Encyclopédie Universelle
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Zeppelin TV — Tipo Producción de programas y series de televisión y reality shows Fundación 1992 Sede Madrid Sitio web … Wikipedia Español
Zeppelin — Sm (lenkbares Luftschiff) erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Onomastische Bildung. Benannt nach dem Namen des deutschen Konstrukteurs F. Graf von Zeppelin. Die Übertragung des Personennamens auf das Luftschiff ist aber offenbar im Englischen erfolgt, wo… … Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache
zeppelin — (n.) 1900, from Ger. Zeppelin, short for Zeppelinschiff Zeppelin ship, after Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838 1917), German general who perfected its design … Etymology dictionary
Zeppelin — ep pe*lin (ts[e^]p p[ e]*l[=e] ; Angl. z[e^]p p[ e]*l[i^]n), n. A dirigible balloon of the rigid type, consisting of a cylindrical trussed and covered frame supported by internal gas cells, and provided with means of propulsion and control. It… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
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Zeppelin — ► NOUN historical ▪ a large German dirigible airship of the early 20th century. ORIGIN named after Ferdinand, Count von Zeppelin (1838 1917), German airship pioneer … English terms dictionary
zeppelin — [zep′ə lin, zep′lin] n. [after Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838 1917), Ger general who designed the original] [often Z ] any rigid airship: commonly used from 1900 to 1937 … English World dictionary
Zeppelin — Zeppelin, ein altes, ursprünglich mecklenburgisches u. pommersches, jetzt in Württemberg begütertes Geschlecht, wo es die Güter Aschhausen u. Buchhof besitzt; es erhielt 1792 die Würde als Reichsgrafen u. 1808 als Reichserbpanner des Königreichs… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon