- Salvador, Bahia
name = Salvador
settlement_type = Municipality
official_name = The Municipality ofSão Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos
nickname = "Capital da Alegria" (Capital of happiness) and "Roma Negra" (Black Rome).
motto = "Sic illa ad arcam reversa est" (And thus the dove returned to the ark)
imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Downtown Salvador as seen from the bay.
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Salvador in the
latd = 12 |latm = 58 |lats = 29 |latNS = S
longd = 38 |longm = 28 |longs = 36 |longEW = W
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_type2 = State
subdivision_name = flag|Brazil
subdivision_name1 = Northeast
leader_name = João Henrique Carneiro (
established_title = Founded
March 29, 1549
area_total_km2 = 706
population_total = 2,892,625 (3rd)
population_density_km2 = 4092.6
latd= |latm= |lats= |latNS=
longd= |longm= |longs= |longEW=
elevation_m = 8
postal_code_type = Postal Code
postal_code = 40000-000
blank_name = HDI (2000)
blank_info = 0.805 – high
website = [http://www.salvador.ba.gov.br/ Salvador, Bahia]
Salvador (historic name, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, in English: "Holy Savior of All Saints' Bay") is a
cityon the northeast coast of Braziland the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as "Brazil's capital of happiness" due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first colonial capital of Brazil, the city is one of the oldest in the country and in the New World; for a long time, it was also known as Bahia, and appears under that name (or as "Salvador da Bahia", "Salvador of Bahia" so as to differentiate it from other Brazilian cities of the same name) on many maps and books from before the mid-20th century. Salvador is the third most populous Brazilian city, after São Pauloand Rio de Janeiro, and it is the eighth most populous city in Latin America, after Mexico City, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Lima, Bogotá, Rio de Janeiroand Santiago of Chile.
The city of Salvador is notable in Brazil for its cuisine, music and architecture, and its metropolitan area is the wealthiest in the northeastern region of the country. Over 80% of the population of metropolitan region of Salvador has some
Black Africanancestry. The African influence in many cultural aspects of the city makes it the center of Afro-Brazilian culture. The historical center of Salvador, frequently called the Pelourinho, is rich in historical monuments dating from the 17th through the 19th centuries and has been declared a World Heritage Siteby UNESCOin 1985.
Salvador is located on a small, roughly triangular peninsula that separates
Todos os Santos Bayfrom the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay, which gets its name from having been discovered on All Saints' Day forms a natural harbor. Salvador is a major export port, lying at the heart of the "Recôncavo Baiano", a rich agricultural and industrial region encompassing the northern portion of coastal Bahia. The local terrain is diverse ranging from flat to rolling to hills and low mountains.
A particularly notable feature is the escarpment that divides Salvador into the "Cidade Alta" ("Upper Town") and the "Cidade Baixa" ("Lower Town"), the former some 85 m (275 ft) above the latter, [cite book|url=http://www.alovelyworld.com/webbresil/htmgb/bre012.htm|title=Geography|publisher=Aloveworld|location=Salvador, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2006|language=English] with the city's
cathedraland most administrative buildings standing on the higher ground. An elevator(the first installed in Brazil), known as "Elevador Lacerda" has connected the two sections since 1873, having since undergone several upgrades.
Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airportconnects Salvador with Brazilian cities and also operates international flights, and the city is home to the Federal University of Bahia.
source= [http://weather.uk.msn.com/monthly_averages.aspx?wealocations=wc:BRXX3272 MSN Weather]
Tourism and recreation
coastlineis one of the longest for cities in Brazil. There are 50 km (31 mi) of beaches distributed between the High City and the Low City, from Inema, in the railroad suburb to the Praia do Flamengo, on the other side of town. While the Low City beaches are bordered by the waters of the All Saints Bay(the country’s most extensive bay), the High City beaches, from Farol da Barra to Flamengo, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. The exception is Porto da Barra, the only High City beach located in the All Saints Bay.
hotels tend to be strung out along the orla (Atlantic seafront). Then you've got smaller hotels in Barra and Porto da Barra, others (generally less expensive) scattered along the principal thoroughfare of Avenida Sete de Setembro (shortened to "Avenida Sete" by the locals), and still others (usually inexpensive) in and around Pelourinho. If you're shopping for the bottom end of the spectrum in this area you have to be careful; some of these hotels are "by the hour" with all that that entails.
There are also pousadas (
guesthouses, or bed & breakfasts) in Barra, Pelourinho, and Santo Antônio (and other places as well, to be sure), and hostels (albergues) which are for the most part located in Pelourinho (though a lot of the "pousadas" in Barra are hostels as well).
The capital's beaches range from calm inlets, ideal for swimming, sailing, diving and underwater fishing, as well as open sea inlets with strong waves, sought by
surfers. There are also beaches surrounded by reefs, forming natural pools of stone, ideal for children.
Interesting places to visit near Salvador include:
* According to the British newspaper "
The Guardian", in 2007, Porto da Barra Beach was the 3rd best in the world. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/feb/16/beach.top10?page=2 Top 10 beaches of the world | Travel | guardian.co.uk ] ]
* The large island of
Itaparicain the Bay of All Saints - can be visited either by a car-ferry, or a smaller foot-passenger ferry which leaves from near the Mercado Modelo near the Lacerda Elevator.
* Linha Verde, or "green line" of towns and cities, with exquisite beaches, north of Salvador heading towards
Cachoeirain the "recôncavo" region - 2 hours by bus: a great centre of Candombléwith a pousada (inn) in the conventthere.
Morro de São Pauloin the Valença region across the Bay of All Saints - a lively island which can be reached by ferry from Salvador (1 hr), by plane, or by bus to Valença and then by 'Rapido' ('fast') speedboat or smaller ferry. Morro de São Paulo is formed by 5 villages of the Tinharé Island.
The city is served by many
shopping malls: Aeroclube Plaza Show, Caboatã Shopping, Casa Shopping Cidade, Out Let Center, Salvador Shopping, Shopping Baixo Dos Sapateiros, Shopping Barra, Shopping Boulevard 161, Shopping Brotas Center, Shopping Center Iguatemi, Shopping Center Lapa, Shopping Do Pelô, Shopping Imbuí Plaza, Shopping Itaigara, Shopping Orixás Center, Shopping Piedade, Shopping Sumaré.
Salvador has four
parks, green areas protected, as Jardim dos Namorados Park, Costa Azul Park, Park of the City, Park of Pituaçu.
Jardim dos Namorados is located right next to Costa Azul Park and occupies an area of 15 hectares in Pituba, where many families used to spend their vacations in the 1950s. It was inaugurated in 1969, initially as a leisure area. It underwent a complete renovation in the 1990s, with the construction of an amphitheater with room for 500 people,
sports courts, playgrounds and parkingfour cars and tourist buses.
Costa Azul Park occupies an area of approximately 55,000 square meters, and is located in the neighborhood that goes by the same name. It has
footballcourts, gymnastics equipment, cicloways, jogging tracks, two playgrounds with an area for bikes, sidewalks, restaurants, green areas, a parking lot with room for 150 vehicles and an amphitheater capable of receiving 600 people.
Park of the City is an important preservation area of
Atlantic forest. It was completed renovated in 2001, becoming a modern social, cultural and leisure place. The new park has 720 square meter of green area right in the middle of the city. Among the attractions are Praça das Flores (Flowers square), with more than five thousand ornamental plants, especially flowers. Besides its environment, the parkhas an infrastructurefor children, with a special schedule of events taking place every October.
The park has also a
medical station, special areas for encounters of students, tourists and senior citizens, a wide parking area with room for 270 vehicles, a 4,000 meter long jogging track, surrounding the entire parkand an amphitheater with capacity for 600 people, where several cultural activities happen. Leisure and Gymnastics equipment can be found as well and the security is done by Florestal Police.
Created by state decree in 1973, Pituaçu Park occupies an area of 450 hectares and is one of the few Brazilian ecological parks located in an
urban area. It is surrounded by Atlantic forest, with a good variety of plants and animals. There is also an artificial pond in the park, built in 1906 along with the Pituaçu Dam, whose purpose was to supply water to the city. The leisure options in Pituaçu are varied: From cycloboats rides on the pond, to an 18 km (11 mi) long cycloway circling the entire reserve. Completing this infrastructure there are a lot of options for childrento play, snack bars, ice creamparlors and restrooms. A museum is also located in the park. Espaço Cravo is an outdoor museum with 800 pieces created by Mario Cravo, comprising Totems, winged and three-dimensional figures, as well as drawings and paintings.
Portuguese languageis the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high schoolcurriculum. There are also international schools, such as the [http://www.escolapanamericana.com/faq.htm Pan American School of Bahia.]
The city has several universities:
Universidade Federal da Bahia(UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);
* [http://www.uneb.br Universidade do Estado da Bahia] (UNEB) (University of Bahia State);
* [http://www.ucsal.br Universidade Católica do Salvador] (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);
* [http://www.unifacs.br Universidade Salvador] (UNIFACS) (Salvador University);
* [http://www.ftc.br/ Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências] (College of Technology and Science);
* [http://www.cefetba.br Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica da Bahia] (Cefet-BA);
* [http://www.frb.br Faculdade Ruy Barbosa] (FRB) (Ruy Barbosa College);
* and many others.
The city has several
language schools of Portuguese for foreigners:
* [http://www.fala-brasil.com/learnportugueseinbrazil/salvador-bahia/index.php?language=br&sec=presentation Fala-Brasil]
* [http://www.portuguese-in-brazil.eu/eng/ Diálogo]
* [http://www.basicalingua.com/brazil-study-contents.htm Básica Língua]
* [http://www.sonia-portuguese.com/ Sônia Portuguese]
* and others.
Primary and secondary schools
schools of the city are Colégio Anglo-Brasileiro, Colégio Militar de Salvador, Colégio Anchieta, Colégio Oficina, Cefet, Colégio Miró, Colégio Antônio Vieira, Colégio Marista de Salvador, Colégio Módulo, Colégio Sartre, Colégio São Paulo, Colégio Cândido Portinari, Colégio Integral, Colégio São José, Colégio Alfred Nobel, Colégio Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Colégio Santíssimo Sacramento, Colégio Diplomata, Centro Educacional Nossa Senhora do Resgate, Colégio Gregor Mendel. [ [http://veja.abril.com.br/melhor_da_cidade/salvador/ensino.shtml Top High schools of Salvador] ]
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Historic Centre of Salvador da Bahia (Pelourinho)
State Party = BRA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = iv, vi
ID = 309
Region = Latin America and the Caribbean
Year = 1985
Session = 9th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/309The Historic Centre of Salvador was designated in 1985 a
World Heritage Siteby UNESCO. The city represents a fine example of 16th century urbanism with its higher administrative town and its lower commercial town, and a large portion of the city has retained the old character of its streets and colourful houses.
As the first capital of Portuguese America, Salvador cultivated slave labor and had its "pelourinhos" pillories installed in open places like the terreiro de Jesus and the squares know today as
Thomé de Souzaand Castro Alves. A "pelourinho" was a symbol of authority and justice,for some, and lashings and injustice for the majority. The one erected for a short time in what is now the Historical Center, and later moved to what is now the Praca da Piedade, ended up lending its name to the historical and architectural complex of Pelourinho, part of the city's historical center.
Since 1992, the Pelourinho neighborhood has been subject to a nearly US$ 100 million "restoration" that has led to the rebuilding of hundreds of buildings' facades and the expulsion of the vast majority of the neighborhood's Afro-descendent populace. This process has given rise to substantial political debate in
Bahiasince the Pelourinho's former residents have been for the most part excluded from the renovation's economic benefits (reaped by a few).
Salvador's considerable wealth and status during colonial times (as capital of the colony during 250 years and which gave rise to the Pelourinho) is reflected in the magnificence of its colonial palaces, churches and convents, most of them dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. These include:
Cathedral of Salvador: Former Jesuitchurch of the city, built in the second half of the 17th century. Fine example of Manneristarchitecture and decoration.
* Convent and Church of São Francisco: Franciscan convent and church dating from the first half of the 18th century. The
Baroquedecoration of the church is among the finest in Brazil.
* Church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim:
Rococochurch with Neoclassical inner decoration. The image of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim is the most venerated in the city, and the Feast of Our Lord of Good Ending ("Festa de Nosso Senhor do Bonfim") in January is the most important in the city after Carnival.
* Mercado Modelo (Model Market): In 1861, at the Cayrú Square, the Customs Building was constructed, with a rotunda (large circular room with a domed ceiling) at the back end, where ships anchored to unload their merchandise. In 1971, a market began to operate in the Customs Building, and thirteen years later, it caught fire,
burned down, and underwent reform. Today, there are 200 stands with a variety of arts and crafts made in Bahiaas well as other states in northeastern region of Brazil, two restaurants, and several bars that serve typical drinks and appetizers.
* Elevador Lacerda (Lacerda Elevator): Inaugurated in 1873, this elevator was planned and built by the businessman Antônio Francisco de Lacerda, The four elevator cages connect the 72 meters (236 ft) between the
Thomé de Souza Squarein the upper city, and the Cayru Square in the lower city. In each run, which lasts for 22 seconds, the elevator transports 128 persons, 24 hours a day.
Its rich, historical and cultural aspects were inherited by the miscigenation of such ethnic groups as Native-Indian, African, and European. This mixture can be seen in the
religion, golden cuisine, cultural manifestations, and customs of Bahia's joyful, hospitable people. These unique characteristics arouse curiosity in everyone's minds.
As the capital of
colonial Braziluntil 1763, Salvador was an important cultural centre since the 16th century, as reflected in the large number of prominent literary figures associated with colonial Salvador, usually educated in the religious schools of the convents of the city and in the University of Coimbrain Portugal. "Frei Vicente do Salvador" (1564-1635), a Bahia-born Franciscan friar who studied in the Jesuit School of Salvador, was the author of the first book on Brazilian history written by a Brazil-born author. Gregório de Mattos, born in Salvador in 1636, was also educated by the Jesuits. He became the most important Baroque poet in colonial Brazil for his religious and satirical works. Father António Vieirawas born in Lisbon in 1608, but was raised and educated in the Jesuit school of Salvador and died in the city in 1697. His erudite sermons have earned him the title of best writer of the Portuguese languagein the Baroque era.
independence of Brazil(1822), Salvador continued to play an important role in Brazilian literature. Significant 19th century writers associated with the city include Romantic poet Castro Alves(1847-1871) and diplomat Ruy Barbosa(1849-1923). In the 20th century, Bahia-born Jorge Amado(1912-2001), although not born in Salvador, helped popularize the culture of the city around the world in novels such as " Jubiabá", " Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos", and " Tenda dos Milagres", the settings of which are in Salvador.
In Salvador, religion is a major contact point between European and African influences. Salvador was the seat of the first
bishopricin colonial Brazil (established 1551), and the first bishop, "Pero Fernandes Sardinha", arrived already in 1552. The Jesuits, led by the Manuel da Nóbrega, also arrived in the 16th century and worked in converting the Indigenous peoplesof the region to Roman Catholicism.
Many religious orders came to the city, following its foundation:
Franciscans, Benedictinesand Carmelites. Subsequently to them are created the Third Orders, the Brotherhoods, and Fraternities, which were composed mainly of professional and social groups. The most prominent of these orders were the Terceira do Carmo Order and the de São Francisco Order, founded by white men, and the Nossa Senhora do Rosário and São Beneditino Brotherhoods, composed of black men. In many churches maintained by religious men, were housed the Santíssimo Sacramento brotherhoods.
Besides these organizations, the expansion of
Catholicismin the city was consolidated through social care work. Santa Casa the Misericórdia was one oh the institution that did this kind of work, maintaining hospitals, shelters for the poor and the elderly, as well providing assistance to convicts and to those who would face death penalties. The convents, on their part, were cultural and religious formation centers, offering seminar coursed that often were attende by the lay.
Even with the present evolution, and the growth of
Protestantismand other religions in the city, the catholic faith remains as one of its most distinctive features, drawing a lot of people to its hundreds of churches. Some aspects, like the use of Portuguese in the Masses, the simplification of the liturgy, and the adoption of "pop" religious songs are key factors to the triumph of Catholicism. In the Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos Church, Masses are held in the Yorubá language, making use of African chants and typical clothes, which attract many people from the black communities.
Most enslaved Africans in Bahia were brought from
Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the Yoruba-speaking nation ("Iorubá" or "Nagô" in Portuguese) from present-day Nigeria. The enslaved were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but their original religion - Candomblé- has survived in spite of prohibitions and persecutions. The enslaved Africans managed to preserve their religion by attributing the names and characteristics of their Candomblé deities to Catholic saints with similar qualities.
Hence, as former pagan Christians once associated Pagan deities with the saints, enslaved Africans in Bahia transformed their faiths into a syncretic form of religion that still attempts to please both their own roots and the faith imposed by their masters and those caught in between both traditions. Thus, up to today, even nominal Catholics take part in Candomblé rituals in the "terreiros"or "centros". Candomblé is based on the cult of the
Orishas("Orixás"), like Obatala("Oxalá"), father of humankind; Ogoun("Ogum"), god of the war and iron; Yemanja("Iemanjá"), goddess of the sea, rivers and lakes.
These religious entities have been syncretised with some Catholic entities. For instance, Salvador's Feast of Bonfim, celebrated in January, is dedicated to both Our Lord of Bonfim (
Jesus Christ) and Oxalá. Another important feast is the Feast de Yemanja every February 2nd, on the shores of the borough of Rio Vermelho in Salvador, on the day the church celebrates Our Lady of the Navigators. December 8, Immaculate Conception Day for Catholics, is also commonly dedicated to Yemanja' with votive offerings made in the sea throughout the Brazilian coast.
syncretismis defined as the combination of two or more creeds. In Brazil, especially in Bahia, it came up as a solution for the slaves who were prohibited of practicing their religion, so they pretended to be worshiping catholic saints while in reality they were venerating their own deities. Hence, associating an orixá (Candoblé deity) to a catholic was a strategy used by black people to maintain their beliefs and rituals alive, while they fooled their masters, making them believe that their devotion was to the catholic saints.
The lives of
catholic saintsand their own physical features, portrayed on sculptures and drawings, made the identification with the orixás easier. Salvador is a citywhere different ethnic and cultural aspects are mixed up, but religious syncretism remains as one of its most intriguing features. Its ancient churches are a proof of the power of Catholicism, which was brought by the Portuguese and forced upon Blacks and Indigenous.
The local cuisine, spicy and based on seafood (shrimp, fish), strongly relies on typically African ingredients and techniques, and is much appreciated throughout Brazil and internationally. The most typical ingredient is "azeite-de-dendê", an oil extracted from a palm tree ("Elaeis guineensis") brought from
West Africato Brazil during colonial times.
Using the milky
coconut juice, they prepared a variety of sea- foodbased dishes, such as Ensopados, Moquecas and Escabeche. The sugar canebagasse was mixed with molasses and Rapadura, in the creation of coconut desserts like Cocada Branca and Preta. The remaining of the Portuguese Stew sauce was mixed with maniocflour to make a mush, which is a traditional Indian dish. In the markets of Salvador, it is possible to find stands selling typical dishes of the colonial era. In the Sete Portas Market, customers eat Mocotó on Friday nights since the 1940s, when the market was inaugurated. In the restaurants of Mercado Modelo (Model Market), Sarapatel, stews and several fried dishes are served regularly. In the São Joaquim, Santa Bárbara and São Miguel markets, there are stands selling typical food. They are also sold at stands located on the beaches, specially crab stews and oysters. The restaurants that sell typical dishes are located mostly along the seashoreand in Pelourinho. They prepare a wide variety of recipes that take palm tree oil.
Traditional dishes include "caruru", "
vatapá", " acarajé", "bobó-de-camarão", " moqueca" baiana, and "abará". Some of these dishes, like the acarajé and abará, are also used as offerings in Candomblérituals. An acarajé is basically a deep-fried " bread" made from mashed beans from which the skins have been removed (reputedly feijão fradinho "black-eyed peas" but in reality almost always the less expensive brown beans so ubiquitous in Bahia). But Salvador is not only typical food. Other recipes created by the slaves were the Haussá Rice (rice and jerked beefmowed together), the Munguzá, used as offering to the Candomblé deity Oxalá (who is the father of all deities, according to the religion) pleased the matrons very much. So did the Bolinhos the Fubá, the Cuscuz (cornmeal) and the Mingau (porridge). According to Arany Santana, the Ipetê (used in the rituals to the deity Oxum) became the Shrimp Bobó (a kind of mush), and the Akará (honoring the deities Xangô and Iansã) became the world-famous Acarajé. Who comes here also has a large number of restaurants specialized on international cuisine. There also places that serve dishes from other states of Brazil, especially from Minas Geraisand the Northeast region.
Capoeirais a unique mix of danceand martial artof Afro-Brazilian origin, combining agile dance moves with unarmed combat techniques. Its origins go back to the times of slavery, and Salvador is considered the centre of origin of the modern capoeira branches. In the first half of the 20th century, Salvador-born masters Mestre Bimbaand Mestre Pastinhafounded capoeira schools and helped standartise and popularise the art in Brazil and the world.
Capoeira practices are accompanied by special music and songs.
Musical instruments used in capoeira music include the caxixi, atabaqueand berimbau, percussion instruments of African origin. Capoeira has moved from the senzalas and quilombos of Brazilto New York, Berlin, Australia, and just about every place in between.
Greecethere was the museion, the place where "the knowledge of mankind was kept". From this source, which was dedicated to muses and considered a temple, the Greek peopletook the knowledge necessary to improve their quality of life. The artistic, cultural and social heritage of Salvador is preserved in museums as well. From Museu de Arte da Bahia (MAB), which is the oldest in the State, to Museu Náutico, the newest, the first capital of Brazil preserve unique pieces of history. Every museum in the sate is an unusual journey. The collection have such an immense symbolical value that no financial figure could ever measure.
Even so, the importance of Salvador's
museums has drawn the interest of experts from Braziland abroad. There we can find valuable pieces of religious art, ornamental items from the old manors and also objects that belonged to the old families and public figures of the state. The Arte Sacra and Abelardo Rodrigues museums are must - see programs. They both have the biggest sacra art collection in the country. Another obligatory tour is to Museu de Arte da Bahia.
Museu de Arte da Bahia has paintings, Chinese porcelain, furniture and sacra images from the 17th and 18th centuries. Museu Costa Pinto has private – owned items such as, pieces of art, crystal objects, furniture from the 18th and 19th centuries, tapestry, sacra pieces and Chinese porcelain. The golden jewelry and the 27 ornamental
silverbuckles are the most precious in the entire collection.
museumis Museu da Cidade, where many items that help to preserve the heritage of old Salvador are kept. There we can find thematic objects that belonged to public personalities in the state like dolls, orixá statues and religious images. There is also an art gallery located inside of the museums. There is also Fundação Casa de Jorge Amado, with pictures, objects and the life's stories of the author of memorable novels that portray old Bahia like, Gabriela – Cravo e Canela, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, O País do Carnaval and Tieta do Agreste.
Some churches and
monasteriesalso have museums located in their premises. Examples of this are the Carmo da Misericórdia and São Bento Museums. After the renovation of the Forts, were created Museu Náutico, in Forte de Santo Antonio da Barra (Farol da Barra) and Museu da Comunicação, in Forte São Diogo. Other important museums that are scattered through Salvador are: Museu do Cacau, Museu geológico do Estado, Museu tempostal, Solar do Ferrão, Museu de Arte Antiga e Popular Henriqueta M Catharino, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal and Museu das Portas do Carmo.
According to the
Guinness Book of Records, the carnivalor "Carnaval" of Salvador de Bahia is the biggest street party on the planet. For an entire week, almost 2 million people celebrate throughout 25 kilometers (15 miles) of streets, avenues and squares. The direct organisation of the party involves the participation of 25 thousand people. Its dimensions are gigantic. Salvador receives an average of 800 thousand visitors from municipalities located as far as 150 kilometers (93 miles) away, from several States of Braziland from a number of other countries ( Europe, United States of Americaand many others).
Rei Momo: The
Kingof Carnival, Momo, is handed the keys to the city in the morning, on the Thursday before Fat Tuesday, and the party officially begins. Camarotes: These grandstands line the street in the neighborhood of Campo Grande. Watch the show from here without being trampled by the crowd. Trios Eléctricos: Outfitted with deafening sound systems, these 60-foot-long trucks carry a kick line of gyrating, scantily clad dancers along with the city's best-loved performers, among them Ivete Sangalo, Daniela Mercury, Cláudia Leitte, Chiclete com Banana, Carlinhos Brown, and others. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE5DB143BF937A25751C0A965958260 Carnival of Salvador in The New York Times] ]
The music played during Carnaval includes
Axéand Samba-reggae. Many "blocos" participate in Carnaval, the "blocos afros" like Malé Debalé, Olodum and Filhos de Gandhi being the most famous of them. Carnival is heavily policed. Stands with five or six seated policeofficers are erected everywhere and the streets are constantly patrolled by police groups moving in single file. The Osmar Circuit: goes from Campo Grande to Castro Alves square, The Downtown Circuit, in Downtown and Pelourinho, and The Dodô Circuit; goes from Farol da Barra to Ondina, along the coast. The Osmar circuit is the oldest circuit. It is also where the event's most traditional groups parades. In Dodô, where the artist box seats are located, the party becomes lively toward the end of the afternoonand it continues until morning.
The three Carnival Circuits are:
* The Campo Grande - Praça Castro Alves Circuit, also called the "Osmar" Circuit, or simply the "Avenidas" ("Avenues");
* The Barra - Ondina Circuit, also called the "Dodô" Circuit;
* The Pelourinho Circuit, also called the "Batatinha" ("Little potato") Circuit.
Funk and Bahia Funk Dances
Funk has become a musical genre in Brazil that exemplifies how many influences, in and out of Brazil, merged with Brazilian culture in the 20th century to form a new hybrid sound.
Funkoriginated as a black American form of music that started in the 1960s and included artists like James Brownand The Funk Brothers. The music spread across the world finding its way to Brazil, showing that North American and black North American influences were already conspicuous in the musical cultures of Brazilians.Sansone, Livio. "The Localization of Global Funk in Bahia and Rio." In Brazilian Popular Music & Globalization, 143. London: Routledge, 2002] In travelling to Brazil, it reached Rio de Janeiro, a city "that played a key role in the soul and funk phenomena".
funkwas embraced by many parts of Brazil, its sound would eventually become localized so the music would differ from city to city. This difference can be viewed with the funk scenes in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. The music and the environment are all representative of the city where one listens to funk music.
For instance, the
musicplayed in Salvador at a Black Bahia Funk Ball is more American than its counterpart in Rio de Janeiro. Music material from Rio, which sells reasonably well around Rio, is poorly known in Salvador and, in any case, held to be inferior and "less modern" than funk sung in English. Another difference can be seen with the funk dancehalls. The Ball incorporates the entire setting, which entails the attire, the slang, the specific way of dancing break, the decoration, the organization of permanent dance groups. [Osmundo Pinho. "Ethnographies of the Brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization in Salvador." In Estudos Feministas. 2006. University of Campinas] These dancehalls are a place for everyone to come together to have fun before the start of another work week. Even the dance rivalries are not true rivalries in the sense that the dance groups do not physically fight one another. The group members do all their battling on the dance floor, using their dance moves as their weapons to demonstrate their dance skill and superiority.
Salvador is home to a vibrant
theaterscene. Among the many theaters are: Castro Alves Theatre (TCA),Sala do Côro (mini Theatre in Castro Alves Theatre), IRDEB Theatre (TV Educativa), SENAC Theatre(Pelourinho), ICÉIA Theatre,Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal Theatre(Pelourinho), Barra Theatre,Espaço Xisto Theatre,Maria Betânia Theatre, Jorge Amado Theatre,Diplomata Theatre,Sesi Rio Vermelho Theatre,Vila Velha Theatre,XVIII Theatre,ISBA Theatre,Santo Antônio Theatre, ACBEU Theatre,Anchieta Theatre,Nazaré Theatre,ICBA Theatre,Gamboa Theatre,Gregório de Mattos Theatre,Módulo Theatre,Miguel Santana Theatre,Cultural Theatre,Cine Casa do Comércio Theatre,Dias Gomes Theatre (Sindicato dos Comerciários), Plataforma Theatre.
books that arrived in Salvador, were brought by the Jesuits, who came with Tomé de Souza. The first librariesor bookstores that appeared were under the control of the religious missionaries and were mostly composed of books on religion. Areas combining leisureand culture, Salvador's libraries are an entertainment option for tourists and researchers. Some of these spaces have religious origins, some of them are templesof knowledgeaccessible only to a few, due to the fragility of the relics they contain.
Benedictine, Carmelites, Franciscansand Capuchinorders have in Salvador, titles related to fundamental aspects of the state's history, being important for a comprehensive view of the political, religious, moral and artistic formation of the city. Conversely to the restrictive religious libraries, the public libraries and the ones linked to institutions that give incentive to cultureand information, provide the general public with a variety of titles. Salvador's librariesare: Arquivo Histórico Municipal, Biblioteca Acbeu, Biblioteca Aloísio da França Rocha, Biblioteca Anísio Teixeira, Biblioteca da Fundação João Fernandes da Cunha, Biblioteca do Centro Cultural Prof. Ademar Cardoso, Biblioteca do Museu de Arte da Bahia, Biblioteca do Serviço Social do Comércio, Biblioteca Juracy Magalhães Júnior, Biblioteca Ministro Coqueijo Costa, Biblioteca Monteiro Lobato, Biblioteca Mosteiro de São Bento da Bahia, Biblioteca Pública do Estado da Bahia, Centro de Documentação Cultural sobre a Bahia, Gabinete Português de Leitura.
The handcraft legacy of Bahia, which was strongly influenced by the three people responsible for the construction of its cultural and ethnic identity. Using only raw materials (
straw, leather, clay, wood, seashells and beads), the most rudimentary crafts are reasonably unexpensive. Other pieces are created with the use of metals like gold, silver, copperand brass. The most sophisticated ones are ornamented with precious and semi-precious gems. The craftsmen and women generally choose religion as the main theme of their work. appears in the atabaque drums, the rain sticks, the water drums and the famous berimbau, along with other typical instruments.
More than just
artists, craftsmen and women are inventors. A clear example of this is the international reputation of Salvador as a city where musical instruments that produce unique sounds are made. These instruments are frequently used by world famous artists in their recording sessions. A place to see Salvador's handcrafts production is Mercado Modelo, which is the biggest handcraft center in Latin America. [ [http://www.portalmercadomodelo.com.br/ Model Market of Salvador] ] Pieces can also be purchased at Instituto de Artesanato de Mauá and at Instituto do Patrimônio Artístico e Cultural (IPAC). These are organizations that promote typical artin Bahia. In Pelourinho there are a variety of stores selling souvenirs to visitors.
Human Rights & Gay Rights
Salvador is also home to the oldest, continuous
gay rightsand human rightsorganization in Brazil, the Grupo Gay da Bahia(GGB). Established by Dr. Luiz Mottin 1980 and currently headed by Marcelo Cerqueira, GGB has played a central role in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality movement both in Bahia and across Brazil, and has helped to educate the local population on HIV and AIDS prevention and human rights abuses. The Gruppo Gay da Bahia has been active and organizes weekly gatherings in the old quarter Pelourinho (Historic Centre of Salvador). Salvador's gay prideparade is now one of the largest in Brazil, approximately 300,000 people. [ [http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Brasil/0,,MUL101147-5598,00.html Gay pride of Salvador] ]
The city offers many options: 4 gay
night clubs (Off Club, Tropical, Originaly and Queens); 6 gay saunas(Esgrima, Sauna Rio's, Sauna Campos, Sauna Olympus, Sauna Phoenix and Thermas Persona); gay bars(Beco dos Artistas, Da Vinci, Babalotin, and many others); [ [http://www.oxentesalvador.com.br/main/index_gls.jsp Gay life in Salvador] ] gay beaches (Porto da Barra and Praia dos Artistas). [ [http://www.globalgayz.com/g-brazil-sal.html Gay Beaches in the city] ]
Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airportis located in an area of more than 6 million square meters between sand dunes and native vegetation. The road route to the airport has already become one of the city's main scenic attractions. And lies 20 km (12 mi) north of Downtown Salvador. In 2007, the airport handled 5,920,573 passengers and 91,043 aircraft movements, [ [http://www.infraero.gov.br/upload/arquivos/movi/mov.operac.1207.pdf Airport statistics for 2007 (Infraero) - Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport] ] placing it 5th busiest airport in Brazil in terms of passengers. The airport's use has been growing at an average of 14% a year and now is responsible for more than 30% of passenger movement in Northeastern Brazil. Nearly 35 thousand people circulate daily through the passenger terminal. The airport generates more than 16 thousand direct and indirect jobs, to serve a daily average of over 10 thousand passengers, 250 takeoffs and landings of 100 domestic and 16 international flights.
There are good
cafesand fast foodrestaurants at the airport. A baroffers alcoholic or soft drinks. There are several shops in the terminal building selling a variety of items, including fashion clothing, jewellery, giftitems and books and magazines. There is also a pharmacyin the terminal building. Buses between the city centre and the airport are fairly frequent. Take the Praça da Sé (Sé Square)/Aeroporto bus. It is much cheaper than going by taxi. Buses also go to Rodoviária ( Bus Terminal), which is the city's main bus station and located 5 km (3 mi) from the city centre. The car parkof the airport, is located near the terminal building and has parking spaces for 600 cars.
The International Airlines are: Lufthansa, TAP, United Airlines, American Airlines, Alitália, Air France, Air Europa, Ibéria, Aerolíneas Argentinas, LanChile. In addition to domestic and regional services, the airport has non-stop flights to
Miami, Madrid, Frankfurt, Lisbon, London, Montevideo, Santiago, Buenos Aires, and Asunción. Its IATA airport codeis SSA and it is the sixth busiest airport in the country, the first in northeastern Brazil, behind Congonhas International, Guarulhos International, Juscelino Kubitschek International, Santos Dumont Regional and Galeão International.
With cargo volume that grows year after year following the same economic development rhythm implemented in the State, the Port of Salvador, located in the
Bahia de Todos os Santos, holds status as the port with the highest movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruitexporter in Brazil. The port's facilities operate from 8am to noon and from 1h30am to 5h30pm.
The ability to handle high shipping volume has positioned the port of Salvador for new investments in technological modernization, and the port is noted for implementing a high level of operational flexibility and competitive rates. The goal of port officials is to offer the necessary
infrastructurefor the movement of goods, while simultaneously meeting the needs of international importers and exporters.
Salvador currently has a Metro System under construction. The Metro is projected to have two lines and will be integrated with
busand rail services. The first stage of the metro was to have been ready in 2006 (or, with delays, by early 2007).
BR-101and BR-116 federal highways cross Bahiafrom north to south, connecting Salvador to the rest of the country. At the Feira de Santanajunction, take the BR-324 state highway. The capital of Bahia is served by several coach companies from almost every Brazilian state. BR-242, starting at São Roque do Paraguaçu (transversal direction), is linked to BR-116, bound to the middle–west region. Among the state highways stands BA-099, which makes connection to the north coast and BA-001, which makes connection to the south of Bahia. Buses provide direct service to most major Brazilian cities, including Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Brasília, as well as regional destinations. In 2007, the city had 586,951 vehicles, the largest number of North and Northeastern Brazil. [ [http://www.sim.salvador.ba.gov.br/indicadores/index.php Salvador City Hall - Number of Vehicles] ]
highways connect the city to the national highway system. Running north from the Farol ( lighthouse) de Itapoã are hundreds of miles of wonderful beaches. These beaches are accessible via the "Linha Verde" (Green Line), a (toll) road, kept in excellent condition, running parallel to the coast, with access roads leading off to the coast itself. The roadruns along dunes of snow-white sand, and the coast itself is an almost unbroken line of coconut palms. The communities along this coast range from primitive fishing villages to sophisticated Praia do Forte.
Aracaju: 356 km (221 mi);
Maceió: 632 km (392 mi);
Recife: 839 km (521 mi);
João Pessoa: 949 km (589 mi);
*Natal: 1126 km (699 mi);
Fortaleza: 1389 km (863 mi);
Belo Horizonte: 1430 km (888 mi);
Brasília: 1540 km (956 mi);
Rio de Janeiro: 1730 km (1074 mi);
São Paulo: 1960 km (1217 mi);
Curitiba: 2385 (1481 mi);
Florianópolis: 2682 (1666 mi);
Porto Alegre: 3090 km (1920 mi).
Although the creation of Salvador was masterminded by the
Kingdom of Portugaland its project conducted by the Portuguese engineerLuís Dias (who was responsible for the city's original design), the continuous growth of the capital through the decades was completely spontaneous. The walls of the city-fortress could not hold the expansion of the city, towards the Carmo and the area where now stands Castro Alves Square. At the time of its foundation, Salvador had only two squares and the first neighborhood ever built here was the Historic City Center. Pelourinho and Carmo came subsequently, created as a consequence of the growing need of space that the religious orders had. With the rapid expansion, the neighborhoods grew and many of them were clustered in the same area, so today there aren't accurate records as to their exact number. For urban management purposes, the city is currently divided on 17 political-administrative zones. However, due to their very cultural relevance and to postal conveniences, the importance of the neighborhoods of Salvador remains intact. They represent the city's lively atmosphere and its cosmopolitancharacter. Salvador is divided into a number of distinct neighborhoods, with the most well known districts being Pelourinho, the Historic Centre, Comércio, and Downtown, all located in West Zone.
Barra, with its Farol da Barra, beautiful
beaches and which is where one of the Carnival circuits begins, Barra is home of the Portuguese Hospital and Spanish Hospital, the neighborhood is located in South Zone. Vitória, a neighborhood with many high rise buildings, is located in South Zone.
Campo Grande, with its Dois de Julho Square and the monument to Bahia's independence, is also located in South Zone, as is Graça, an important residential area. and the site where the Barra-Ondina Carnival circuit ends, the neighborhood is home of the Spanish Club, is also a neighborhood in the South Zone.
Itaigara, Pituba, Horto Florestal, Caminho das Árvores, Loteamento Aquárius, Brotas, Stiep, Costa Azul, Armação, Jaguaribe and Stella Maris are the wealthiest neighborhoods in the East Zone. Rio Vermelho, a neighborhood with a rich architectural history and numerous restaurants and bars, is located in the South Zone. Itapoã, known throughout Brazil as the home of
Vinicius de Moraesand for being the setting of the song "Tarde em Itapoã", is located in East Zone.
The Northwest area of the city in along the Bay of All Saints, also known as "Cidade Baixa" ("Lower city"), contains the impoverished suburban neighborhoods of
Periperi, Paripe, Lobato, Liberdade, Nova Esperança, and Calçada. The neighborhood of Liberdade (Liberty) has the largest proportion of Afro-Brazilians of Salvador and Brazil. [ [http://www.smec.salvador.ba.gov.br/net/piraja/liberdad.htm Liberdade Neighborhood] ]
Salvador provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. The Fonte Nova Stadium, also known as Estádio Octávio Mangabeira is a football stadium inaugurated on
January 28 1951in Salvador, Bahia, with a maximum capacity of 66,080 people. The stadium is owned by the Bahia government, and is the home ground of Esporte Clube Bahia. Its formal name honors Octávio Cavalcanti Mangabeira, a civil engineer, journalist, and former Bahia state governor from 1947 to 1954. The stadium is nicknamed Fonte Nova, because it is located at Ladeira das Fontes das Pedras. Esporte Clube Bahiaand Esporte Clube Vitóriaare Salvador's main football teams. Esporte Clube Bahia has won 2 national titles - Brazil's Cup in 1959 and the Brazilian League in 1988 - while Esporte Clube Vitória was a runner up in the Brazilian league in 1993. Salvador is one of 18 candidates cities to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cupawarded to Brazil.
Salvador has two large green areas for the practice of
golf. Cajazeiras Golf and Country Club has a 18-hole course, instructors, caddies and equipment for rent. Itapuã Golf club, located in the area of the Sofitel Hotel, has a 9-hole course, equipment store, caddies and clubs for rent. Tennisis very popular among Salvador's elites, with a great number of players and tournaments in the city's private clubs. Brasil Open, the country’s most important tournament happens every year in Bahia.
During the last decades,
volleyballhas grown steadily in Salvador, especially after the gold medal won by Brazil in the 1992 Summer Olympicsin Barcelona. The most important tournaments in Bahiaare the State Championship, the State League tournament and the Primavera Games, and the main teams are Associação Atlética da Bahia, Bahiano de Tênis, and Clube the Regatas Itapagipe. There are also beach volleyballevents. Salvador has housed many international tournaments and some of the local players are among the best in the world. Federação Bahina de Voleibol (the state league) can inform the schedule of tournaments. Bowlingis practiced both by teenagers and adults in Salvador. Boliche do Aeroclube and Space Bowling are equipped with automatic lanes as well as a complete bar infrastructure. Bahia's basketballleague exists since 1993 and has 57 teams. The sport is very popular in the city of Salvador, especially among students. [ [http://www.asbacsalvador.com.br/basquete.htm Basketball in Salvador] ] There are several courts scattered across the city, where is possible to play for free, like the one located at Bahia Sol square, where people with spinal cord lesions play. [ [http://www.digidata.com.br/fbbm/clip.php?consulta=sim&atual=Clipping&codcli=587 Brazilian Federation of Basketball] ] There are also several gymnasiums, in clubs like Bahiano de Tênis and Associação Atlética and the Antonio Balbino Gymnasiums (popularly known as "Balbininho"), which is an arena that can hold up to 7,000 people.
Todos os Santos Bay and Salvador's climatic conditions are ideal for competition and recreational
sailing. The city is equipped with good infrastructurefor practice of sailing, such as rentaland sale of dock space, boat maintenance, restaurants, snack bars, convenience stores, nautical products stores, boat rental agencies, VHF and SSB communication systems, events, and total assistance to crews. The large number of sailing events organized by clubs and syndicates, like oceanic races and typical boats (wooden fishing boats and canoes) races, demonstrates the sport's growing force. Currently, Salvador has a national racing schedule with dozens of events, also receiving the Mini Transat 6,50 and Les Illes du Soleil races. Rowing boatraces started in the city more than a hundred years ago. [ [http://www.campos.rj.gov.br/noticia.php?id=15339 Rowing boat in Salvador] ] It was originally practiced by young men from traditional families, who spent their summervacations there. The sportis a leisure option in Cidade Baixa (the lower part of the city). Esporte Clube Vitóriaand Clube São Salvador were the pioneers in the sport. Nowadays, these two entities and also Clube de Regatas Itapagipe lead the competitions that take place in the city. With the recent renovation of the Dique do Tororó area, Salvador received new lanes for the practice of the sport.
The human development of Salvador varies greatly by locality, reflecting the city's spatial segregation and vast socioeconomic inequalities. There are neighborhoods that had very high human development indexes in 2000 (equal to or greater than the indexes of some
Scandinavian countries), but also those in the lower range (in line with, for example, North Africa). [cite book|url=http://www.pnud.org.br/pobreza_desigualdade/reportagens/index.php?id01=2497&lay=pde|title=HDI|publisher=PNUD|location=Salvador, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2008-01-09|year=2000|language=Portuguese]
Neighborhoods and localities champions:
*Itaigara (0.971) - "(Greater than flag|Iceland, flag|Norway - 0.968)"
*Caminho das Árvores - Iguatemi (0.968) - "(Equal to flag|Iceland, flag|Norway - 0.968)"
*Caminho das Árvores/Pituba - Loteamento Aquárius (0.968) - "(Equal to flag|Iceland, flag|Norway - 0.968)"
*Brotas - Santiago de Compostela Street (0.968) - "(Equal to flag|Iceland, flag|Norway - 0.968)"
*Pituba - Paulo VI Avenue, Nossa Senhora da Luz Square (0.965) - "(Greater than flag|Australia - 0.962)"
Neighborhoods and localities in last place:
*Rural Zone - Areia Branca, CIA Airport-Ceasa (0.652) - "(Greater than flag|Namibia - 0.650)"
Neighborhoods with high human development
In 2000, 55 neighborhoods in Salvador had a high human development. [ [http://www.pnud.org.br/arquivos/Mapa_IDHM2000.jpgNeighborhoods by HDI] ]
*(0.901 - 0.971): Barra, Brotas, Caminho das Árvores, Campo Grande, Canela, Costa Azul, Graça, Horto Florestal, Iguatemi, Imbuí, Itaigara, Jaguaribe, Ondina, Patamares, Pituba, Stella Maris, Vitória, and others.
*(0.851 - 0.900): Barris, Bonfim, Garcia, Federação, Ribeira, Rio Vermelho, Stiep, and others.
*(0.801 - 0.850): Amaralina, Boca do Rio, Historic Centre, Itapuã, Nazaré, Pituaçu, Uruguai, Praia Grande, and others.
Daniela Mercury, musician.
Raul Seixas, musician.
Ruy Barbosade Oliveira, writer, jurist and politician.
Itamar Franco, politician.
Antônio Carlos Magalhães, politician.
Adriana Lima, supermodel.
Gregório de Mattos, poet.
Tony Kanaan, race car driver.
Dorival Caymmi, singer.
Dias Gomes, playwright.
Wagner Moura, actor.
Lázaro Ramos, actor.
Ivete Sangalo, singer.
Caetano Veloso, singer.
Gilberto Gil, singer.
Gal Costa, singer.
Maria Bethânia, singer.
Carlinhos Brown, singer.
Jorge Amado, writer.
Antônio Carlos Vovô, leader of Ilê Aiyê Afro Bloco.
Salvador's sister cities are:cite web |url=http://www.secri.salvador.ba.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=40&Itemid=47 |title=Mayor's International Council Sister Cities Program |publisher=Salvador, Bahia |accessdate = 2008-08-17]
* [http://www.salvador.ba.gov.br/ city website]
* [http://www.salvadordabahia.ba.gov.br/index_anim.asp?idLinguagem=2 city Tourism Portal]
*en icon [http://www.braziltour.com/site/en/home/index.php Brazilian Tourism Portal]
* [http://www.ucsal.br - Catholic University of Salvador]
* [http://www.ufba.br - Federal University of Bahia]
* [http://www.escolapanamericana.com/indexeng.asp Escola Pan Americana da Bahia] - (Pan American School of Bahia
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