Cumberland Valley School District


Cumberland Valley School District
Cumberland Valley School District
"Soaring to greatness, committed to excellence."
Address
6746 Carlisle Pike
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, Cumberland, 17050
United States
Information
Superintendent William Harner
Grades K-12
Kindergarten 537
Grade 1 492
Grade 2 557
Grade 3 593
Grade 4 556
Grade 5 613
Grade 6 571
Grade 7 598
Grade 8 686
Grade 9 601
Grade 10 636
Grade 11 629
Grade 12 665
Sports PIAA and club sports.
Mascot Eagles
Website

The Cumberland Valley School District is a large, suburban public school district located in Central Pennsylvania. It covers Hampden Township, Monroe Township, Middlesex Township and Silver Spring Township in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. It serves about 7,700 students and features three academic buildings and one administration building. The district operates seven Elementary Schools (K-5th), two Middle Schools (6th-8th) and Cumberland Valley High School (9th-12th).

In 2011, the district agreed to participate in a pilot program to develop a new way to evaluate teachers that, in part, takes into account student achievement. Several Cumberland County school districts are participating. [2] The pilot program had 104 K-12 entities, including: nine career and technical centers, nine charter schools and nine intermediate units. Beginning in January 2012, Cumberland County schools will use the new evaluation method and provide feedback to the Department of Education. This new evaluation will not be used to determine an educator’s official 2011-12 assessment.

The district is served by the Capital Area Intermediate Unit 15 which offers a variety of services including: a completely developed K-12 curriculum that is mapped and aligned with the Pennsylvania Academic Standards (available online), shared services, a group purchasing program and a wide variety of special education and special needs services.

In 2007, the Pennsylvania Legislature commissioned a Costing Out Study to identify the cost of public education. Cumberland Valley School District was recognized as achieving high percentages of students scoring either advanced or proficient on the annual PSSA math and reading tests; and having relatively low per-pupil expenditures.[3] Cumberland Valley School District was one of only 87 schools districts that were identified as high performing in student achievement of the Pennsylvania Academic Standards. Efficiency was gauged by administrative spending, number of teachers per pupil and maintenance/operation spending per pupil.[3]

Contents

Governance

The district is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve four year terms), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[4] The federal government controls programs it funds like Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills.

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the school board and district administration a "D-" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information and more.[5]

Schools

  • Middlesex Elementary School
  • Monroe Elementary School
  • Shaull Elementary School
  • Silver Spring Elementary School
  • Sporting Hill Elementary School

Academic achievement

The Cumberland Valley School District was ranked 23rd out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts, in 2011, by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking was based on student academic achievement on five years of PSSA results in: reading, writing, mathematics and three years of science. [6]

  • 2010 - 20th [7]
  • 2009 - 19th
  • 2008 - 24th
  • 2007 - 24th [8]

Graduation Rate:

In 2011 the graduation rate was 93%. [9] In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4 year cohort graduation rate. Cumberland Valley High School's rate was 91% for 2010.[10]

High school

In 2011 the high school achieved AYP status. In 2010 the high school achieved AYP status. [16]

PSSA Results
11th Grade Reading
  • 2011 - 89% on grade level, (2% below basic). 69.1% of 11th graders are on grade level. [17]
  • 2010 - 86%, State - 67%.[18]
  • 2009 - 85%, State - 65%[19]
  • 2008 - 85%, State - 65%
  • 2007 - 86%, State - 65% [20]
  • 2006 - 88%, State - 65% [21]
  • 2005 - 85%, State - 65% [22]
11th Grade Math:
  • 2011 - 82.5%, on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 60.3% of 11th graders are on grade level.
  • 2010 - 81%, State - 59%.
  • 2009 - 79%, State - 56% [23]
  • 2008 - 83%, State - 56%
  • 2007 - 80%, State - 53%
  • 2006 - 83%, State - 52%
  • 2005 - 77%, State - 51%

In 2010, Cumberland Valley High School 11th graders were ranked 36th among high schools and charter schools, in Pennsylvania, for mathematics academic achievement. [24]

11th Grade Science:
  • 2011 - 70% on grade level (2% below basic). State - 40% of 11th graders were on grade level.
  • 2010 - 68%, State - 39%.
  • 2009 - 65%, State - 40%. [25]
  • 2008 - 59%, State - 39% [26]

College remediation: According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 30% of Cumberland Valley High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[27] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[28] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

College Preparedness/AP/IB - The high school offers College in the Classroom opportunities for its students through an affiliation with HACC, Central Pennsylvania's Community College. In addition, the high school offers a total of 27 Advanced Placement courses. In 2010, 395 CV High School students took a total of 702 AP exams. Those numbers are up from 212 students and 401 tests in 2009, and 82 students and 169 tests in 2002. The IB Diploma Programme (International Baccalaureate Programme) is coming to Cumberland Valley. The first IB Diploma class will graduate in 2013 and will begin IB courses in the fall of 2011. </ref>[29]

Graduation requirements

The Cumberland Valley School Board has determined that 23 credits are required to graduate including: English 4 credits, Social Studies 4 credits, Mathematics 4 credits, Science 4 credits, Health and Physical education 2 credits, and Arts humanities 2 credits.[30]</ref>

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[31]

Special Education

In December 2008, the district reported that 13.3% of students or 1021 children received special education services.[32] The Cumberland Valley School District provides a variety of opportunities for the screening and evaluation of students thought to have disabilities. In kindergarten all students receive screenings on readiness as well as standardized indicators of early literacy.[33]

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[34]

Cumberland Valley School District received a $3,330,876 supplement for special education services in 2010.[35]

Gifted Education

The District Administration reported that 417 or 5.40% of its students were gifted in 2009.[36] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The primary emphasis is on enrichment and acceleration of the regular education curriculum. Students identified as gifted attending the High School have access to a variety of AP courses. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[37]

Budget

In 2011, the board and teachers' union arrived at an agreement on a four year, teachers' employment contract that includes an average salary increases of 3.15 percent each year. [38] In 2009, the district employed over 600 teachers with an average salary of $53,067 for 180 days of student instruction day. [39] Teachers work an 8 hour day. Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, 3 paid personal days, 10 paid sick days which accumulate, life insurance, retirement bonus and other benefits.[40] According to Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the state teacher retirement fund, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary. [41]

In 2007, the district employed 505 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $49,738 for 180 days worked.[42] As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked in the top 10 states in average teacher salaries. When adjusted for cost of living Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation.[43]

Cumberland Valley School District administrative costs per pupil was $534.98 in 2008. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil. [44] School Superintendent Harner was awarded a beginning salary of $150,000 when he was hired in 2008. This was the second highest superintendent salary out of the 28 school districts in the region.[45] The Pennsylvania School Board Association tracks salaries for Pennsylvania public school employees. It reports that in 2008 the average superintendent salary in Pennsylvania was $122,165.[46]

In 2008, the district reported an unreserved designated fund balance of $4,689,529.00 and a unreserved-undesignated fund balance of $6,578,986.00.[47]

In November 2009, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the district. The findings were reported to the administration and school board. [48]

In 2008 the district reported spending $12,902 per pupil which ranked 184th among 500 Pennsylvania school districts. The district's low student spending coupled with high academic achievement was lauded by the state's Costing Out Study in 2007. [49]

In June 2011, the Cumberland Valley School Board approved a $99. million budget. [50]

The district is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax - 1.6%, a local real property tax, a real estate transfer tax, and a per capita tax, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government.[51] Grants provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax regardless of the income level.[52]

Current budget information may be found on the district's web site at www.cvschools.org/business.

State basic education funding

In 2011-12, the Cumberland Valley School District will receive $9,848,655 in state Basic Education Funding. [53] Additionally, the district will receive $172,574 in Accountability Block Grant funding. [54] The Pennsylvania Department of Education reports that 875 pupils received a federal free and reduced lunch, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.

In 2010-2011, Cumberland Valley School District received an increase of 4.89% ($498,791) in Basic Education Funding for a total of $10,702,130. Four Cumberland County school districts received increases of less than 6% in Basic Education Funding in 2010-11. In Pennsylvania, 15 school districts received Basic Education Funding increases in excess of 10% in 2010. Camp Hill School District received a 13.99% increase while Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County received the highest with a 23.65% increase in funding.[55] One hundred fifty school districts were alloted the base 2% state funding increase in 2010-11. The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.[56]

In the 2009-2010 budget year the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 3.60% increase in Basic Education funding to the district for a total of $10,203,620. Seven county school districts received increases of less than 6% in Basic Education Funding in 2009-10. Shippensburg Area School District received an 8.43% increase. In Pennsylvania, over 15 school districts received Basic Education Funding increases in excess of 10% in 2009. Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received the highest with a 22.31% increase in funding. The state's Basic Education Funding to the Cumberland Valley School District in 2008-09 was $9,848,655.28.[57] The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.

Pennsylvania school districts also receive additional funding from the state through several other funding allocations including: Reimbursement of Charter School Expenditures; Special Education Funding; Secondary Career & Technical Education Subsidy; and Educational Assistance Program Funding. Plus all Pennsylvania school districts receive federal dollars for various programs including Special Education and Title I funding for children from low income families. In 2010 Pennsylvania spent over $24 billion for public education - local, state and federal dollars combined.

Accountability Block Grants

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, All Day Kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students, For the 2010-11 school year, the Cumberland Valley School District applied for and received $468,408 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district used the funding to provide all day kindergarten for the 6th year and for classroom based teacher coaches to improve instruction.[58] [59]

Classrooms for the Future grant

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006-2009. Cumberland Valley School District did not apply for funding in 2006-07. In 2007-08 received $247,473 and $279,455 in 2008-09 for a total funding of $526,928.[60]

Energy project grant

Cumberland Valley School District received a $160,000 solar energy program grant to purchase and install a combined heat and power solar photovoltaic thermal system in Silver Spring Township. The 1-megawatt rooftop and ground-mounted system at the Cumberland Valley High School campus will generate 1.4 million kilowatt hours of energy annually, which could save the school nearly $175,000 in energy costs every year. The total project cost is $5.6 million.[61]

Federal Stimulus Grant

The district received an extra $2,527,373 in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low income students.[62] This funding is for 2009-2011.

In 2009, the district reported that 798 students received free or reduced price lunches due to low family income. In 2008, there were 722 low income students.[63]

Race to the Top grant

Cumberland Valley School District officials did not apply for the Race to the Top federal grant.[64] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign in support of the grant. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[65] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[66]

Real estate taxes

In 2011, the Cumberland Valley School Board set the property taxes rate at 8.5700 mills for the 2011-12 school year. [67] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and government property. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts. [68] Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the Commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.

  • 2010-11 - 10.2520 mills. [69]
  • 2009-10 - 9.9640 mills. [70]
  • 2008-09 - 9.7210 mills. [71]
  • 2007-08 - 9.5540 mills. [72]

Act 1 Adjusted index

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. School districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2010-2011 school year is 2.9 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[73]

The Act 1 School District Adjusted Index for the Cumberland Valley School District 2006-2007 through 2011-2012.[74]

  • 2006-07 - 3.9%, Base 3.9%
  • 2007-08 - 3.4%, Base 3.4%
  • 2008-09 - 4.4%, Base 4.4%
  • 2009-10 - 4.1%, Base 4.1%
  • 2010-11 - 2.9%, Base 2.9%
  • 2011-12 - 1.4%, Base 1.4%
  • 2011-12 - 1.7%, Base 1.7% [75]

For the 2011-12 school year, the Cumberland Valley School Board applied for an exception to exceed the Act 1 Index due to escalating pension costs. Each year, the Cumberland Valley School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. [76]

According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction. [77]

Property Tax Relief

In 2009, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Cumberland Valley School District was $63 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 15,335 property owners applied for the tax relief. In Cumberland County, the highest amount of tax relief in 2009, went to Mechanicsburg Area School District at $140. The highest property tax relief, in Pennsylvania school districts, went to the residents of Chester Upland School District of Delaware County who received $632 per approved homestead.[78] The tax relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. In Cumberland County, 75.93% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009.[79]

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, so people who make substantially more than $35,000 may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This rebate can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.[80]

Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[81]

Wellness policy

Cumberland Valley School Board established a district wellness policy in 2006 - Policy 246.[82] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 - 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006."

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education and physical education that are aligned with the Pennsylvania State Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[83]

The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Extracurriculars

The district provides a wide variety of clubs, activities and sports. Eligibility is determined by school board policy[84] and Interscholastic Athletics Policy 123. Varsity and junior varsity athletic activities are under the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association.

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[85]

References

  1. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Enrollment and Projections for Cumberland Valley School District, July 2010
  2. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2011). "More Than 100 Entities Sign Up to Participate in Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot Program". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=512&objID=7234&PageID=1005857&mode=2&contentid=http://pubcontent.state.pa.us/publishedcontent/publish/cop_hhs/pde/single_web/no_workflow_requried/news_and_media/articles/more_than_100_entities_sign_up_to_participate_in_teacher_and_principal_evaluation_pilot_program.html. 
  3. ^ a b Augenblick, Palaich, and Associates, Inc. Costing Out the Resources Needed to Meet Pennsylvania’s Public Education Goals. November 2007
  4. ^ Pennsylvania School Code 2009
  5. ^ The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives. "The Pennsylvania Project". http://sunshinereview.org/index.php/Pennsylvania_school_districts. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2011,". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 2011. http://www2.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/events/pennsylvania_schools/statewiderank.html. 
  7. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2010,". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 30, 2010. http://www.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/feature/schools/statewide_rankings.html. 
  8. ^ "Three of top school districts in state hail from Allegheny County". Pittsburgh Business Times. May 23, 2007. http://pittsburgh.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/stories/2007/05/21/daily24.html. 
  9. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "CUMBERLAND VALLEY School District - District AYP Data Table". http://paayp.emetric.net/District/DataTable/c21/115211603. 
  10. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/pennsylvania_department_of_education/7237/info/757639. 
  11. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2010). "Cumberland Valley High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010 data table". Pittsburgh Business Times. http://paayp.emetric.net/School/Overview/c21/115211603/1701. 
  12. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2009). "Cumberland Valley School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2009". http://www.scribd.com/doc/30485300/Cumberland-Valley-School-Academic-Achievement-Report-Card-2009. 
  13. ^ Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children (2007). "High School Graduation Rates". http://www.scribd.com/doc/23571629/PA-High-School-Graduation-Info-by-School-District-2007. 
  14. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2006). "Cumberland Valley High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2006". http://www.scribd.com/doc/30410197/Cumberland-Valley-High-School-Academic-Achievement-Report-Card-2006. 
  15. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2005). "Cumberland Valley School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2005". http://www.scribd.com/doc/22274313/Cumberland-Valley-School-District-Report-Card-2005. 
  16. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education }Date=2011. "CUMBERLAND VALLEY High School - School AYP Overview". http://paayp.emetric.net/School/Overview/c21/115211603/1701. 
  17. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/school_assessments/7442. 
  18. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Report (September 14, 2010). 2010 "PSSAs: Reading, Math, Writing and Science Results". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/school_assessments/7442/2009_-2010_pssa_and_ayp_results/770183 2010. 
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  20. ^ Cumberland Valley School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2007
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  22. ^ Cumberland Valley School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2005
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  27. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 2009). "Pennsylvania College Remediation Report,". http://www.scribd.com/doc/18999134/College-Remediation-Report. 
  28. ^ National Center for Education Statistics
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ Cumberland Valley School Administration (2010). "Cumberland Valley Student Handbook". http://www.cvschools.org/high_school.cfm. 
  31. ^ "Pennsylvania Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". http://www.pacode.com/secure/data/022/chapter4/s4.24.html. 
  32. ^ Cumberland Valley ASD Special Education Data Report 2009
  33. ^ CSVD Special Education Services
  34. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Special Education Funding". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/education_budget/8699/proposed_special_education_funding_-/539261. 
  35. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Special Education Funding from Pennsylvania State_2010-2011". https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AvscmN--D7LbdEhsSW1pY3lxZnBfSWZEdnU2WE5hUWc&hl=en#gid=0. 
  36. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (Revised December 1, 2009 Child Count (Collected July 2010)). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School". http://penndata.hbg.psu.edu/BSEReports/docs/Ad_Hoc_Gifted_0910_from_Revised_Count.pdf. 
  37. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". http://www.pacode.com/secure/data/022/chapter16/chap16toc.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  38. ^ LIAM MIGDAIL-SMITH (February 27, 2011). "Cumberland Valley School District, teachers union reach tentative contract agreement". http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2011/02/cumberland_valley_school_distr_9.html. 
  39. ^ OpenPAgov.org (June 2011). "Cumberland Valley School District Payroll Report 2009". http://www.openpagov.org/k12_payroll.asp. 
  40. ^ "Cumberland Valley Professional Education Association Employment Contract". 2011. http://www.publicschoolspending.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/CUMBERLAND-VALLEY-SD-2007-11.pdf. 
  41. ^ The Patriot News (February 21, 2010). "Legislature must act on educators' pension hole.". http://www.pennlive.com/editorials/index.ssf/2010/02/post_24.html. 
  42. ^ Fenton, Jacob, (April 2010). "Average classroom teacher salary in Cumberland County, 2006-07". The Morning Call. http://projects.mcall.com/school_consolidation/state/county/0/10/. 
  43. ^ Teachers need to know enough is enough, PaDelcoTimes, April 20, 2010.
  44. ^ Fenton, Jacob. (Feb 2009). "Pennsylvania School District Data: Will School Consolidation Save Money?, The Morning Call,". http://projects.mcall.com/school_consolidation/state/county/0/10/. 
  45. ^ Pickel, Janet, (June 20, 2008). "CV schools chief to earn $150,000". The Patriot-News.. http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2008/06/cv_schools_chief_to_earn_15000.html. 
  46. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (October 2009). "Public School Salaries 11th edition,". http://www.psba.org/issues-advocacy/issues-research/school-salaries/index.asp. 
  47. ^ General Reserved Fund Balance by School District 1996-2008, Pennsylvania Department of Education Report 2008.
  48. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (NOVEMBER 2009). "CUMBERLAND VALLEY SCHOOL DISTRICT CUMBERLAND COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT". http://www.auditorgen.state.pa.us/Reports/School.html#Cumberland. 
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  50. ^ Paul Kiesow (May 20, 2011). "Cumberland Valley School Board OKs tentative budget with 2.9% tax increase". http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2011/05/cumberland_valley_school_board_9.html. 
  51. ^ What are the Local Taxes in Pennsylvania?, Local Tax Reform Education Project, Penn State Cooperative Extension web site. Accessed 2010.
  52. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue - Income Tax Forgiveness information 2010
  53. ^ PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 funding Report". http://www.scribd.com/doc/58929810/PA-Senate-Appropriations-Committee-Report-School-District-2011-12. 
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  56. ^ Governor's Budget Proposal 2010. Office of Budget, October 2009
  57. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Report on Funding by school district October 2009
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  61. ^ DCED Press Office (July 08, 2010). "DCED: Pennsylvania Invests $18 Million to Support Alternative Energy Projects; Help Businesses, Schools Conserve Energy, Cut Costs". http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/dced-pennsylvania-invests-18-million-to-support-alternative-energy-projects-help-businesses-schools-conserve-energy-cut-costs-98024789.html. 
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  63. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education District Basic Education Allocations Report 2009 & 2010
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  73. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education 2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines.
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  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452. 
  77. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/referendum_exceptions/7456/report_on_referendum_exceptions/510336. 
  78. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 1, 2009). "Tax Relief per Homestead 2009,". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335. 
  79. ^ [javascript:linksDisclaimer('/Department/Info/Performance/TipsForHomeowners022410.pdf') Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief, Auditor General Office, 2-23-2010.]
  80. ^ "Property Tax/Rent Rebate". http://www.revenue.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_rent_rebate_program/11410/sign-up_to_receive_a_form/581708. 
  81. ^ Tax Foundation (September 28, 2010). "New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners,". http://www.taxfoundation.org/news/show/26742.html. 
  82. ^ Cumberland Valley School Board Policy Manual
  83. ^ Nutrition Standards for Competitive Foods in Pennsylvania Schools for the School Nutrition Incentive, Pennsylvania Department of Education — Division of Food and Nutrition. July 2008
  84. ^ Cumberland Valley School Board Policy Manual Extracurriculars Policy 122
  85. ^ Home-Schooled, Charter School Children Can Participate in School District Extracurricular Activities, Pennsylvania Office of the Governor Press Release, November 10, 2005

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