- Physical education
Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P.E.) or gymnastics (gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting. Physical Education has 5 components:
- Cardiovascular Fitness is the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver oxygen-rich blood to working to working muscles during sustained physical activity.
- Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a heavy resistance.
- Muscular Endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or hold a particular position for an extended period of time.
- Flexibility is a degree to which an individual muscle will lengthen.
- Body Composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass.
Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of activities. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or Frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing. Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about lacrosse (in, say, Arizona, USA), students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.E. teachers.There are four aspects of P.E. which is physical, mental, social, and emotional.
Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, P.E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics. We also need gym strips to get more marks at p.e subject. Change your clothes , too. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health also. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification. This push towards Health education, is beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self esteem and stress and anger management.
In America, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades. Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.
In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut - leaving educators and students to address these needs in other ways.
In Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take 3hours of PE through primary and secondary schools. Students really want to get good grades in PE because universities look to how good he/she did in PE.
In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as extra-curricular activities. Since middle school to secondary school the pupils has to participate in PE classes 2 hours a week.
In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every school week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, 'captain's ball' and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/ Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.6 km for primary [10-12 year-olds]/2.4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze and fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.
In Malaysia, pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, basketball and tennis are available. Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher. In most secondary schools, physical exams are rarely done, schools record pupils' heights, weights and how many push-ups they can do.
In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.
In Poland, pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education. Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses.
Adapted Physical Education
Adapted Physical Education or APE, is a sub-discipline of physical education, focusing on inclusion and students with special needs.
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Physical education — Physical Phys ic*al, a. 1. Of or pertaining to nature (as including all created existences); in accordance with the laws of nature; also, of or relating to natural or material things, or to the bodily structure, as opposed to things mental, moral … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
physical education — ► NOUN ▪ instruction in physical exercise and games, especially in schools … English terms dictionary
physical education — ☆ physical education n. instruction in physical exercise and in the care and hygiene of the human body; esp., a course in gymnastics, athletics, etc., as in a school or college … English World dictionary
physical education — systematic instruction in sports, exercises, and hygiene given as part of a school or college program. [1830 40] * * * Training in physical fitness and in skills requiring or promoting it. In the U.S. it is required in most primary and secondary… … Universalium
physical education — China pays great attention to physical education (PE). The State Council’s ‘Regulations on Physical Education in Educational Institutions’ (1990) defines PE as a programme to build students’ physical health; to increase their knowledge of… … Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture
physical education — noun training in the development of and care for the human body; stresses athletics; includes hygiene (Freq. 2) • Hypernyms: ↑education * * * noun [noncount] : sports and exercise taught in schools He teaches physical education at the high school … Useful english dictionary
physical education — N UNCOUNT Physical education is the school subject in which children do physical exercises or take part in physical games and sports. Syn: PE, games … English dictionary
physical education — noun An element of an educational curriculum concerned with bodily development, strength, physical co ordination, and agility. The physical education instructor also served as the coach of the track team … Wiktionary
physical education — fizinis ugdymas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Fizinių ypatybių, gebėjimų, reikalingų sudėtingai žmogaus veiklai, ugdymas fiziniais pratimais. atitikmenys: angl. physical education; physical training vok. Körpererziehung, f; … Sporto terminų žodynas
physical education — fizinis lavinimas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Judėjimo įgūdžių, fizinių ypatybių ir kompleksinių gebėjimų tobulinimas fiziniais pratimais. atitikmenys: angl. physical education vok. körperliche Bildung, f; Leibeserziehung … Sporto terminų žodynas