Physical education


Physical education
PE equipment in Calhan, Colorado.

Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P.E.) or gymnastics (gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting.[1] Physical Education has 5 components:

  1. Cardiovascular Fitness is the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver oxygen-rich blood to working to working muscles during sustained physical activity.
  2. Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a heavy resistance.
  3. Muscular Endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or hold a particular position for an extended period of time.
  4. Flexibility is a degree to which an individual muscle will lengthen.
  5. Body Composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass.

Contents

Trends

Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of activities. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or Frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing. Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about lacrosse (in, say, Arizona, USA), students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.E. teachers.There are four aspects of P.E. which is physical, mental, social, and emotional.

Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity.[2] While teaching students sports and movement skills, P.E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics. We also need gym strips to get more marks at p.e subject. Change your clothes , too. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health also. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification. This push towards Health education, is beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self esteem and stress and anger management.

In America, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades. Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.

In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders.[3] Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut - leaving educators and students to address these needs in other ways.

Worldwide

In Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take 3hours of PE through primary and secondary schools. Students really want to get good grades in PE because universities look to how good he/she did in PE.

In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as extra-curricular activities. Since middle school to secondary school the pupils has to participate in PE classes 2 hours a week.

In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every school week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, 'captain's ball' and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/ Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.6 km for primary [10-12 year-olds]/2.4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze and fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.

In Malaysia, pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, basketball and tennis are available. Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher. In most secondary schools, physical exams are rarely done, schools record pupils' heights, weights and how many push-ups they can do.

In Scotland, pupils are expected to do at least two periods of PE in first, second, third and fourth year. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary.[citation needed]

Some countries include Martial Arts training in school as part of Physical Education class. These Filipino children are doing karate.

In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their Physical Education curriculum.[4][5][6][7][8]

In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.[9]

In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight.[10]

In Poland, pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education.[11] Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses.[12]

Adapted Physical Education

Adapted Physical Education or APE, is a sub-discipline of physical education, focusing on inclusion and students with special needs.

See also

References

  1. ^ Anderson, D. (1989). The Discipline and the Profession. Foundations of Canadian Physical Education, Recreation, and Sports Studies. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
  2. ^ Pangrazi, Robert (2007) "Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children" 15th ed.
  3. ^ Vanderbilt Television News Archive http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/program.pl?ID=483834
  4. ^ Jack & Jill School rules Nopsscea karatedo events[dead link]
  5. ^ Is Arnis De Mano dead in the Philippines?[dead link]
  6. ^ "Regional Commissions and Chapters International Modern Arnis Federation Philippines Mindanao Commission". Imafp.com. http://www.imafp.com/Chapters/IMAFP_commissions/IMAFP_mindanao.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  7. ^ Mindanao Times News 2007 - Davao City 8000, Philippines: We learn from our children[dead link]
  8. ^ "Sunday Inquirer Magazine: Life Lessons from Karate". Showbizandstyle.inquirer.net. 2008-12-14. http://showbizandstyle.inquirer.net/sim/sim/view/20081214-177923/Life-Lessons-from-Karate. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  9. ^ "Create Development". http://www.createdevelopment.co.uk. 
  10. ^ "Create Development". http://www.createdevelopment.co.uk. 
  11. ^ "Dz.U. 2002 nr 15 poz. 142. Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu z dnia 12 lutego 2002 r. w sprawie ramowych planów nauczania w szkołach publicznych.". Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych. http://isip.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20020150142. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  12. ^ "Standardy kształcenia dla poszczególnych kierunków studiów i poziomów kształcenia". Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej. http://www.bip.nauka.gov.pl/bipmein/index.jsp?place=Lead07&news_cat_id=117&news_id=982&layout=1&page=text. Retrieved 31 October 2010.