Lead ore
Gold ore
Cart for carrying ore from a mine on display at the Historic Archive and Museum of Mining in Pachuca, Mexico.

An ore is a type of rock that contains minerals with important elements including metals. The ores are extracted through mining; these are then refined to extract the valuable element(s).

The grade or concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighted against the contained metal value of the rock to determine what ore can be processed and what ore is of too low a grade to be worth mining. Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or "native" metals (such as native copper) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth's crust or "noble" metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold. The ores must be processed to extract the metals of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals. Ore bodies are formed by a variety of geological processes. The process of ore formation is called ore genesis.


Ore deposits

An ore deposit is an accumulation of ore. This is distinct from a mineral resource as defined by the mineral resource classification criteria. An ore deposit is one occurrence of the particular ore type. Most ore deposits are named according to either their location (for example, the Witswatersrand, South Africa), or after a discoverer (e.g. the kambalda nickel shoots are named after drillers), or after some whimsy, an historical figure, a prominent person, something from mythology (phoenix, kraken, serepentleopard, etc.) or the code name of the resource company which found it (e.g. MKD-5 is the in-house name for the Mount Keith nickel ).

Classification of ore deposits

Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed via the study of economic geology, or ore genesis. The classifications below are typical.

Hydrothermal epigenetic deposits

Granite related hydrothermal

  • IOCG or iron oxide copper gold deposits, typified by the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit
  • Porphyry copper +/- gold +/- molybdenum +/- silver deposits
  • Intrusive-related copper-gold +/- (tin-tungsten), typified by the Tombstone, Arizona deposits
  • Hydromagmatic magnetite iron ore deposits and skarns
  • Skarn ore deposits of copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, etcetera

Nickel-cobalt-platinum deposits

Volcanic-related deposits

Metamorphically reworked deposits

  • Podiform serpentinite-hosted paramagmatic iron oxide-chromite deposits, typified by Savage River, Tasmania iron ore, Coobina chromite deposit
  • Broken Hill Type Pb-Zn-Ag, considered to be a class of reworked SEDEX deposits

Carbonatite-alkaline igneous related

Sedimentary deposits

Close-up of Banded Iron Formation specimen from Upper Michigan. Scale bar is 5.0 mm.

Sedimentary hydrothermal deposits

Astrobleme-related ores


Some ore deposits in the world
Some additional ore deposits in the world

The basic extraction of ore deposits follows the steps below;

  1. Prospecting or exploration to find and then define the extent and value of ore where it is located ("ore body")
  2. Conduct resource estimation to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit
  3. Conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work.
  4. Conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, technical and financial risks and robustness of the project and make a decision as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation.
  5. Development to create access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment
  6. The operation of the mine in an active sense
  7. Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use


Ore and metal imports in 2005

Ores (metals) are traded internationally and comprise a sizeable portion of international trade in raw materials both in value and volume. This is because the worldwide distribution of ores is unequal and dislocated from locations of peak demand and from smelting infrastructure.

Most base metals (copper, lead, zinc, nickel) are traded internationally on the London Metal Exchange, with smaller stockpiles and metals exchanges monitored by the COMEX and NYMEX exchanges in the United States and the Shanghai Futures Exchange in China.

Iron ore is traded between customer and producer, though various benchmark prices are set quarterly between the major mining conglomerates and the major consumers, and this sets the stage for smaller participants.

Other, lesser, commodities do not have international clearing houses and benchmark prices, with most prices negotiated between suppliers and customers one-on-one. This generally makes determining the price of ores of this nature opaque and difficult. Such metals include lithium, niobium-tantalum, bismuth, antimony and rare earths. Most of these commodities are also dominated by one or two major suppliers with >60% of the world's reserves. The London Metal Exchange aims to add uranium to its list of metals on warrant.

The World Bank reports that China was the top importer of ores and metals in 2005 followed by the USA and Japan.[citation needed]

Important ore minerals

See also

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  • öre — öre …   Dictionnaire des rimes

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  • Øre — is the one hundredth subdivision of the Norwegian krone, Danish krone, Swedish krona and Icelandic króna currency units. But note that the corresponding subdivision of the Swedish krona is called öre, in the Faroe Islands oyra (plural oyru(r) )… …   Wikipedia

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  • Ore — Ore, n. [AS. [=o]ra; cf. [=a]r brass, bronze, akin to OHG. [=e]r, G. ehern brazen, Icel. eir brass, Goth. ais, L. aes, Skr. ayas iron. [root]210. Cf. {Ora}, {Era}.] [1913 Webster] 1. The native form of a metal, whether free and uncombined, as… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • öre — s.f. Monedă divizionară în Danemarca, Norvegia şi Suedia, valorând a suta parte dintr o coroană. [< fr. öre < cuv. scandinav]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 29.06.2005. Sursa: DN  ÓRE s. f. monedă divizionară în Danemarca, Norvegia şi Suedia, a… …   Dicționar Român

  • ore — [o: US o:r] n [U and C] [: Old English; Origin: ar] rock or earth from which metal can be obtained ▪ iron ore ▪ veins of rich ore …   Dictionary of contemporary English

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