Galena


Galena

Infobox mineral
name = Galena
category = Sulfides
boxwidth =
boxbgcolor =



imagesize = 150
caption = Galena crystal from Galena, Kansas
formula = lead sulfide (PbS)
molweight =
color = Lead gray, silvery
habit = Cubes and octahedra, tabular and sometimes skeletal crystals
system = Isometric hexoctahedral
twinning =
cleavage = Cubic
fracture = Flat (when cubic) to even
mohs = 2.5 - 2.75
luster = Metallic
refractive = Opaque
opticalprop =
birefringence =
pleochroism = None
streak = Lead gray
gravity = 7.4 - 7.6
density =
melt =
fusibility = 2
diagnostic =
solubility =
diaphaneity =
other =

Galena is the natural mineral form of lead sulfide. It is the most important lead ore mineral.

Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite.

Lead ore deposits

Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. In addition zinc, cadmium, antimony, arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Within the weathering or oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally occurring bacteria and archaea, in a process similar to bioleaching. [ [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBT-4D75MX0-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f0a90eb652838f319a5aba270e7c76ae Hydrometallurgy. "Kinetics and mechanism of the bacterial and ferric sulphate oxidation of galena"] ]

Galena deposits are found in Wales, Germany, France, Romania, Austria, Belgium, Italy, Gorno northern Italy, Spain, Scotland, England, Australia, and Mexico. Noted deposits include those at Freiberg, Saxony; Cornwall, Derbyshire, and Cumberland, England; the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia; and Broken Hill, Australia. Galena also occurs at Mount Hermon in Northern Israel. In the United States it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in similar environments in Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. Galena also was a major mineral of the zinc-lead mines of the tri-state district around Joplin in southwestern Missouri and the adjoining areas of Kansas and Oklahoma. Galena is also an important ore mineral in the silver mining regions of Colorado, Idaho, Utah and Montana. Of the latter, the Coeur d'Alene district of northern Idaho was most prominent.

Galena is the official state mineral of the U. S. states: Missouri and Wisconsin.

Galena uses

One of the earliest uses of galena was as kohl, which in Ancient Egypt, was applied around the eyes to reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies, which were a potential source of disease. [Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Art of Medicine in Ancient Egypt." (New York: The Museum, 2005), p. 10, ISBN 1-58839-170-1]

Galena is a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0.4 eV which found use in early wireless communication systems. For example, it was used as the crystal in crystal radio sets, in which it was used as a point-contact diode to detect the radio signals. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire, which was known as a "cat's whisker". Making such wireless sets was a popular home hobby in the North of England during the 1930s. Derbyshire was one of the main areas where Galena was mined. Scientists that were linked to this application are Karl Ferdinand Braun and Sir Jagdish Bose. In modern wireless communication systems, galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices, though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.

ee also

*List of minerals

References

* Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. (1985) "Manual of Mineralogy", Wiley, 2nd ed., pp. 274–276, ISBN 0-471-80580-7
* [http://webmineral.com/data/Galena.shtml Webmineral data]
* [http://www.mindat.org/min-1641.html Mindat with location data]
* [http://franklin-sterlinghill.com/dunn/ch21/galena.stm Franklin and Sterling Hill] mineral deposits
* [http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/galena.pdf Mineral Data Publishing - PDF]

Notes

External links

* [http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HEC/CSEM/lead/ Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM): Lead Toxicity]
* [http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts13.html ToxFAQs: Lead]
* [http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photolead.html Mineral information institute] entry for lead


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  • Galena — steht für: die alte römische Bezeichnung für das Mineral Galenit (Bleiglanz) Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Galena (Arizona) Galena (Arkansas) Galena (Colorado) Galena (Idaho) Galena (Illinois) Galena (Indiana) Galena (Kansas) Galena (Maryland) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Galena — Galena, AK U.S. city in Alaska Population (2000): 675 Housing Units (2000): 259 Land area (2000): 17.874774 sq. miles (46.295451 sq. km) Water area (2000): 6.092414 sq. miles (15.779280 sq. km) Total area (2000): 23.967188 sq. miles (62.074731 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena — General Categoría Minerales sulfuros Clase 2.CD.10 (Strunz) Fórmula química Pb …   Wikipedia Español

  • galenă — GALÉNĂ s.f. Sulfură naturală de plumb, folosită ca redresor la aparatele de radio fără lămpi, la prepararea unor vopsele etc. – Din fr. galène. Trimis de gall, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  GALÉNĂ s. (chim.) sulfură de plumb. Trimis de siveco,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Galena — Ga*le na, n.[L. galena lead ore, dross that remains after melting lead: cf. F. gal[ e]ne sulphide of lead ore, antidote to poison, stillness of the sea, calm, tranquility.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Med.) A remedy or antidote for poison; theriaca.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Galena, AK — U.S. city in Alaska Population (2000): 675 Housing Units (2000): 259 Land area (2000): 17.874774 sq. miles (46.295451 sq. km) Water area (2000): 6.092414 sq. miles (15.779280 sq. km) Total area (2000): 23.967188 sq. miles (62.074731 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena, IL — U.S. city in Illinois Population (2000): 3460 Housing Units (2000): 1821 Land area (2000): 3.734739 sq. miles (9.672929 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000524 sq. miles (0.001358 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.735263 sq. miles (9.674287 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena, IN — U.S. Census Designated Place in Indiana Population (2000): 1831 Housing Units (2000): 638 Land area (2000): 2.649128 sq. miles (6.861210 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.649128 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena, KS — U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 3287 Housing Units (2000): 1471 Land area (2000): 4.552979 sq. miles (11.792162 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.048870 sq. miles (0.126573 sq. km) Total area (2000): 4.601849 sq. miles (11.918735 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena, MD — U.S. town in Maryland Population (2000): 428 Housing Units (2000): 202 Land area (2000): 0.354258 sq. miles (0.917524 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.354258 sq. miles (0.917524 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Galena, MO — U.S. city in Missouri Population (2000): 451 Housing Units (2000): 215 Land area (2000): 0.683641 sq. miles (1.770623 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.683641 sq. miles (1.770623 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places


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