- ATI Technologies
Infobox Defunct Company
company_name=ATI Technologies Inc.
fate=Acquired by AMD
Markham, Ontario, Canada
key_people=Adrian Hartog, president, AMD Canada
Rick Bergman, Sr. VP and GM
Graphics cards Graphics processing units Motherboard chipsets Video capture cards
homepage= [http://ati.amd.com/ ati.amd.com]
ATI Technologies Inc. (ATI) was a major designer and supplier of
graphics processing units, motherboard chipsets, and video display cards. In 2006, the company was acquired by Advanced Micro Devices(AMD), although the ATI brand was retained for certain products.
ATI was a
fabless semiconductor companyconducting in-house research and developmentand outsourcingthe manufacturing and assembly of its products. Its main competitor was NVIDIAin the graphics and handheld market. The flagship product, the Radeonseries of graphics cards, directly competes with NVIDIA's GeForce. The two companies' dominance of the market forced other manufacturers into niche roles.
The company was founded as Array Technologies Incorporated in 1985 by immigrants Kwok Yuen Ho [ [http://www.ati.com/designpartners/media/bios/kyho.html K.Y. Ho biography on ATI website] ] of
Guangzhou, and Benny Lau and Lee Ka Lau of Hong Kong. [ [http://www.giving.utoronto.ca/chairs/showchairs.asp?ID=19 University of Toronto Division of University Advancement page] , retrieved February 28, 2008] Working primarily in the OEM field, it produced integrated graphics cards for large PC manufacturers like IBMand Commodore. By 1987, it had grown into an independent graphics card retailer, introducing EGA Wonder and VGA Wonder graphic card product lines under its brand that year. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Weblets/0,,7832_10554,00.html?redir=AAMD04#1980 History of AMD at AMD.com] ] In May 1991, the company released Mach8, its first product able to process graphics without the CPU. Mach32 debuted in 1992 and offered improved memory bandwidth and GUI acceleration performance. ATI Technologies Inc. went public in 1993 with stock listed at NASDAQand Toronto Stock Exchange.
In 1994, the Mach 64 accelerator debuted, powering the Graphics Xpression and Graphics Pro Turbo. It offered hardware support for YUV-to-RGB
color spaceconversion in addition to hardware zoom, early techniques of hardware-based video acceleration.
ATI introduced its first combination of 2D and 3D accelerator under the name 3D Rage. This chip was based on the Mach 64 but it featured elemental 3D acceleration. The ATI Rage line powered almost the entire range of ATI graphics products. In particular, the Rage Pro was one of the first viable 2D-plus-3D alternatives to
3Dfx's 3D-only Voodoo chipset. 3D acceleration in the Rage line advanced from the basic functionality within the initial 3D Rage to a more advanced DirectX 6.0 accelerator in the 1999 Rage 128.
The All-in-Wonder product line introduced in 1996 was the first combination of integrated graphics chip with
TV tuner cardand the first chip that enabled to display computer graphics on a TV set. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Weblets/0,,7832_10554,00.html?redir=AAMD04#1990 History of AMD - 1996 at AMD.com] ] The cards featured 3D acceleration powered by ATI's second generation 3D Rage II, 64-bit 2D performance, TV-quality video acceleration, analog video capture, TV tuner functionality, flicker-free TV-out and stereo TV audio reception.
ATI made an entrance into the mobile computing sector by introducing 3D-graphics acceleration to
laptops in 1996. The Mobility product line had to meet requirements different from desktop PC, such as minimized power usage, reduced heat output, TMDS output capabilities for laptop screens, and maximized integration. In 1997, ATI acquired Tseng Labs's graphics assets, which included 40 engineers.
The Radeon line of graphics products was unveiled in 2000. The initial Radeon
graphics processing unitwas an all-new design with DirectX 7.0 3D acceleration, video acceleration, and 2D acceleration. Technology developed for a specific Radeon generation could be built in varying levels of features and performance in order to provide products suited for the entire market range. The range stretches from the high-end Radeon HD 3000/4000 series, which support DirectX 10.1 Unified shader modeltechnology, to Mobility Radeon products for laptops, and to the budget series, such as Radeon X1300. Later generations expanded this to include flexibility for easy construction of both integrated and discrete parts from the same technology. [TeamB3D. [http://www.beyond3d.com/content/interviews/39/3 Sir Eric Demers on AMD R600] , Beyond3D, June 14, 2007: p.3.]
In 2000, ATI acquired
ArtX, which engineered the Flipper graphics chip used in the Nintendo GameCubegame console. They have also created a modified version of the chip (codenamed Hollywood) for the successor of the GameCube, the Wii. ATI was contracted by Microsoftto create the graphics core (codenamed Xenos) for the Xbox 360. Later in 2005, ATI acquired Terayon's Cable Modem Silicon Intellectual Property strengthening their lead in the consumer digital television market. [ [http://apps.ati.com/ir/PressReleaseText.asp?compid=105421&releaseID=671557 press release] ] K. Y. Ho remained as Chairman of the Board until he retired in November 2005. Dave Orton replaced him as the President and CEO of the organization.
On July 24, 2006, AMD and ATI announced a plan to merge together in a deal valued at $5.4 billion. The merger closed on October 25, 2006. [ [http://ir.ati.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=105421&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=921365&highlight= Press Release] ] The acquisition consideration included over $2 billion financed from a loan and 56 million shares of AMD stock. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Corporate/VirtualPressRoom/0,,51_104_543~113656,00.html AMD page] ] ATI retained its name, logos and trademarks. ATI's then CEO Dave Orton was made the Executive Vice President of Visual and Media Businesses. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Corporate/InvestorRelations/0,,51_306_14668,00.html AMD 2006 December Analyst Day page] ]
It was reported that in December 2006 AMD/ATI, along with its main rival NVIDIA, received subpoenas from the
United States Department of Justiceregarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry. [web cite |url=http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9584_22-6140041.html |title=Justice Dept. subpoenas AMD, NVIDIA |publisher=New York Times|date= 01 December 2006]
In July 2007, AMD announced the resignation of Dave Orton. ATI, a subsidiary of AMD, is called the Graphics Product Group (GPG) inside the company. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Corporate/InvestorRelations/0,,51_306_15086,00.html AMD 2007 Analyst Day page] ] The top-level management of the Graphics Product Group consists of Rick Bergman, Senior Vice President and General Manager and Adrian Hartog, Senior Vice President and General Manager of Consumer Electronics Group. Both report to Héctor de Jesús Ruiz, CEO and
Chairmanof AMD. [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Corporate/AboutAMD/0,,51_52_570,00.html Corporate Information - Executive Biographies at AMD.com] ]
In addition to developing high-end GPUs (originally called a VPU, visual processing unit, by ATI) for PCs, ATI also designs embedded versions for laptops (Mobility Radeon), PDAs and
mobile phones ( Imageon), integrated motherboards (Radeon IGP), set-top boxes ( Xilleon) and others.
ATI promotes some of its products with the fictional "Ruby" female character, a "mercenary for hire." [ [http://ati.de/ruby/index.html Ruby's Headquarters at ATI.de] ] Computer animated videos produced by RhinoFX about Ruby on a mission (being a sniper, saboteur, hacker and so on) are displayed at large technology shows such as
Computer graphics chipsets
*Graphics Solutions - Series of 8-bit ISA cards with MDA, Hercules and CGA compatibility. Later versions added EGA support.
*EGA / VGA Wonder -
IBM"EGA/VGA-compatible" display adapters ( 1987)
*Mach Series - Introduced ATI's first 2D GUI "Windows Accelerator". As the series evolved, GUI acceleration improved dramatically and early video acceleration appeared.
*Rage Series - ATI's first 2D and
3D acceleratorchips. The series evolved from rudimentary 3D with 2D GUI acceleration and MPEG-1capability, to a highly competitive Direct3D6 accelerator with then "best-in-class" DVD ( MPEG2) acceleration. The various chips were very popular with OEMs of the time. The Rage II was used in the first ATI All-In-Wondermulti-function video card, and more advanced All-In-Wonders based on Rage series GPUs followed. (1995–2004)
**Rage Mobility - Designed for use in low-power environments, such as notebooks. These chips were functionally similar to their desktop counterparts, but had additions such as advanced
power management, LCD interfaces, and dual monitor functionality.
RadeonSeries - Launched in 2000, the Radeon line is ATI's brand for their consumer 3D accelerator add-in cards. The original "Radeon DDR" was ATI's first DirectX 7 3D accelerator, introducing their first hardware T&L engine. ATI often produced 'Pro' versions with higher clock speeds, and sometimes an extreme 'XT' version, and even more recently 'XT Platinum Edition (PE)' and 'XTX' versions. The Radeon series was the basis for many ATI All-In-Wonder boards.
**Mobility Radeon - A series of power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops. They introduced innovations such as modularized RAM chips,
DVD(MPEG2) acceleration, notebook GPU card sockets, and "PowerPlay" power management technology.
ATI CrossFire- This technology was ATI's response to NVIDIA's SLI platform. It allowed, by using a secondary video card and a dual PCI-E motherboard based on an ATI Crossfire-compatible chipset, the ability to combine the power of the two video cards to increase performance through a variety of different rendering options. There is an option for additional PCI-E video card plugging into the third PCI-E slot for gaming physics, or another option to do physics on the second video card. [ [http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=5634 DailyTech report] ]
FireGL- Launched in 2001, following ATI's acquisition of FireGL Graphics from Diamond Multimedia. Workstation CAD/CAM video card, based on the Radeon series.
FireMV- For workstations, featuring multi-view, a technology for the need of multiple displays for workstations with 2D acceleration only, usually based on the low-end products of the Radeon series.
Personal computer platforms and chipsets
*IGP 3x0, Mobility Radeon 7000 IGP - ATI's first chipsets. Included a DirectX 7-level 3D graphics processor.
*9100 IGP - 2nd generation system chipset. IXP250 southbridge. It was notable for being ATI's first complete motherboard chipset, including an ATI-built southbridge. It included an updated DirectX 8.1 class graphics processor. [Gavrichenkov, Ilya. [http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/chipsets/display/ati-igp9100.html ATI RADEON 9100 IGP Integrated Chipset Review] , X-bit Labs, December 1, 2003.]
*Xpress 200/200P -
PCI Express-based Athlon 64and Pentium 4chipset. Supports SATAas well as integrated graphics with DirectX9.0 support, the first integrated graphics chipset to do so. [Wasson, Scott. [http://techreport.com/reviews/2004q4/radeon-xpress200/index.x?pg=1 ATI's Radeon Xpress 200 chipset] , Tech Report, November 8, 2004.]
Xpress 3200- similar to " Xpress 200", but designed for optimal CrossFire performance.
**AMD 580X CrossFire chipset - AMD edition of "Xpress 3200" renamed, due to AMD acquisition of ATI.
*690G, Xpress 1250 - for AMD and Intel platforms. Includes DirectX 9 graphics processor improved over "Xpress 200" [ [http://ati.amd.com/products/radeonxpress1250dsk/index.html ATI product page of Xpress 1250] ] and industry first native HDMI implementation on motherboards.
AMD 700 chipset series- exclusively for AMD processors, this is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (790FX), enthusiast chipset (790X), IGP (790GX, 780G, 740G) and single graphics card variants (770, 740) aimed at mainstream and value computing systems available.
In addition to the above chipset ATI has announced that a deal has been struck with
CPUand Motherboardmanufacturers as of 2005, particularly Asusand Intel, to create onboard 3D Graphics solutions for Intel's new range of motherboards that will be released with their range of Intel Pentium M-based desktop processors, the Intel Coreand Intel Core 2processors, the D101GGC and D101GGC2 chipset (codenamed "Grand County" [PDFlink| [http://cache-www.intel.com/cd/00/00/32/94/329441_329441.pdf Intel Boxed Desktop Board Quick Guide (December 2006)] |15.7 KiB ] ) based on the Radeon Xpress 200 chipset. However, high-end boards with integrated graphics processor (IGP) will still use IntelGMA integrated graphics processors. The deal with Intel was deemed to be officially ended with the purchase of ATI Technologies from AMD in July 2006, with Intel announcing SiS IGP chipset (D201GLY chipset, codenamed "Little Valley") for entry-level desktop platform, replacing the "Grand County" series chipsets.
Multimedia and Digital TV solutions
All-In-Wonderseries - A series of multimedia graphics cards which incorporating TV tuner and Radeonfamily graphics cards onto one add-in card, who, after being seemingly discontinued was relaunched as All-In-Wonder HD on June 26, 2008.
**TV Wonder and HDTV Wonder - a chipset family providing TV reception of various analog TV and digital TV signals (
PAL, NTSC, ATSC, DVB-Tand so on) with first generation AVIVOtechnology, also supporting CableCARD, and Clear QAM technologies.
**Theatre - a family of
QAMand VSB demodulators for the Digital Cable ready and ATSC environments.
Xilleon- A 32-bit MIPS processor featuring hardware decoding of MPEG2, H.264and VC-1encoding and decoding.
*Remote Wonder, wireless remote control series for ATI multimedia products. Operates using radio frequency, away from mainstream implementations using infrared.
Console graphics solutions
*Flipper - The
Nintendo GameCubecontains a 3D accelerator developed by "ArtX, Inc", a company acquired by ATI during the development of the GPU. Flipper is similar in capability to a Direct3D7 accelerator chip. It consists of 4 rendering pipelines, with hardware T&L, and some limited pixel shader support. Innovatively the chip has 3 MiBof embedded 1T-SRAMfor use as ultra-fast low-latency (6.2 ns) texture and framebuffer/ Z-bufferstorage allowing 10.4 GB/second bandwidth (extremely fast for the time). Flipper was designed by members of the Nintendo 64Reality Coprocessor team who moved from SGI. The Flipper team went on to have a major hand in development of the Radeon 9700.
Xenos- Microsoft's Xbox 360video game console contains a custom graphics chip produced by ATI, known as "R500", "C1", or more often as "Xenos". Some of these features include the embedded DRAM ( eDRAM). The Xenos also features the “True Unified Shader Architecture” which dynamically loads and balances pixel and vertex processing amongst a bank of identically capable processing units. This differs greatly from past-generations PC graphics chips that have separate banks of processors designed for their individual task (vertex/fragment). Another feature presented in Xenos is the hardware surface tessellation to divide a surface into smaller triangles, similar to TruFormin terms of functionality, which is an advanced feature as it is not presented even in the most up-to-date DirectX 10 specification. The latest-generation Radeon R600GPU core inherited most of the features presented in Xenos, except eDRAM.
*Hollywood - Successor to Flipper. Part of
Nintendo's latest gaming console, Wii.
Imageon- System-on-a-chip(SoC) design introduced in 2002 to bring integrated 2D and 3D graphics to handhelds devices, cellphones and Tablet PCs. Current top-of-line product is the Imageon 2298 which includes DVD quality recording and playback, TV output, and supports up to a 12 megapixelcamera, with another line of Imageon products, the 2300 series supporting OpenGLES 1.1+ extensions. The Imageon line was rebranded under AMD, after AMD acquired ATI in Q3 2006, as AMD Imageon.
*Imageon TV - Announced in February 2006, allowing handhelds devices to receive digital broadcast TV (
DVB-H) signals and enables watching TV programs on these devices, the chipset includes tuner, demodulator, decoder, and a full software stack, operates alongside the Imageonchip.
*Besides full products, ATI has also supplied 3D and 2D graphics components to other vendors, specifically the
Qualcomm[ [http://brew.qualcomm.com/bnry_brew/pdf/brew_2007/Tech-303_Ligon.pdf page 10 and 15] ] MSM7000 series SoC chips of handheld and upcoming Freescalei. MX processors [ [http://www.dailytech.com/Freescale+Licenses+AMD+Technologies/article8909.htm DailyTech report] , retrieved September 17, 2007] .
*ATI claimed in May 2006, that it had sold over 100 million [ [http://www.theinquirer.net/?article=31938 The Inquirer report] ] 'cell phone media co-processors,' significantly more than ATI's rival NVIDIA, and announced in February 2007 that the firm had shipped a total of 200 million of Imageon products since 2003 [ [http://www.amd.com/us-en/Corporate/VirtualPressRoom/0,,51_104_543~115795,00.html AMD press release] , retrieved July 27, 2007] .
High Performance Computing
AMD FireStream, originally ATI Firestream, and previously rebranded as AMD Stream Processor for short period of time, utilizing the stream processingconcept, together with Close to Metal(CTM) hardware interface.
ATI graphics drivers
ATI currently provides proprietary drivers, called ATI Catalyst, for
Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows XP, Mac OS X, and Linux. Linux users have the option of both the old proprietary (R200 and above) and new open source (R480 and below) drivers.
In an interview with AMD official Hal Speed, it was suggested that AMD were strongly considering making at least the functional part of the ATI drivers open source. [ [http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/08/02/32OPcurve_1.html 'AMD talks about ATI' at InfoWorld.com] ] However, at least until the merger with AMD was complete, ATI had no plans to release their drivers as open source code:
Comparison of ATI chipsets
Comparison of ATI Graphics Processing Units
Fglrx– Linux display driver used for ATI video cards
* Video In Video Out (VIVO)
* [http://ati.amd.com/products/ AMD's Graphics Division]
* [http://game.amd.com/ AMD GAME! - AMD's gaming website]
* [http://www.ati.com/companyinfo/milestones/CorporateMilestones.pdf ATI Corporate Milestones document]
* [http://firingsquad.com/features/atihistory/ FiringSquad's History of ATI]
* [http://www.amd.com/us-en/0,,3715_14197_14198,00.html?redir=goBG01 Official AMD ATI Merger Site on AMD Website]
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