House of Burgundy

House of Burgundy

:"This article is about the ducal house which ruled Portugal, for the comital house which ruled in Castile and León, see Anscarids."The House of Burgundy ( _pt. Casa de Borgonha, pron. IPA2|buɾ.'ɣo.ɲɐ) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, descending from Robert, Duke of Burgundy, a younger son of Robert II of France.

The House ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1032-1361. The main line of the dynasty ended with the death in 1361 of Philip I, Duke of Burgundy. His duchy was inherited by John II of France, whose mother had been a member of the House of Burgundy.

Notable members of the main line of the House of Burgundy include:
* Robert I, Duke of Burgundy
* Henry, Count of Portugal
* Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy
* Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy
* Margaret of Burgundy, the first wife and Queen of Louis X of France
* Jeanne of Burgundy, the first wife and Queen of Philip VI of France
* Philip I, Duke of Burgundy

The Portuguese Branch

Called the Afonsine Dynasty ("Dinastia Afonsina", pron. IPA2|ɐ.fõ.'si.nɐ), the Portuguese branch of the House of Burgundy was a cadet branch, descending from Henry, Count of Portugal. Henry was a younger son of Henry of Burgundy, the son and heir of Robert I of Burgundy who died before he could inherit the Duchy.

The younger Henry, having little chance of inheriting any land or titles, had joined the reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 12th century. After conquering Galicia and northern Portugal on behalf of Alfonso VI of Castile, he was married to Alfonso's illegitimate daughter, Teresa, and given the County of Portugal as a fief under Leon. His son, Afonso Henriques, became King of Portugal after defeating his mother in the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. It was only in 1179 that Pope Alexander III recognized Portugal as an independent state, recognition, at the time, needed for total acceptance of the kingdom in the Christian world.

The kings that succeeded Afonso I continued the process of Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula, controlled by Moors. Afonso III conquered Algarve and adopted the title of "king of Portugal and the Algarves".

The borders of Portugal were defined in the Treaty of Alcanizes (1297) when king Denis, son of Afonso III, started a process of development of the kingdom's land. In 1383 Beatrice, princess of Portugal and heir to the throne married John I of Castile. When Ferdinand I (her father) died during the same year the kingdom entered a period of anarchy called the 1383-1385 Crisis, threatened with a possible annexation by Castile. This period ended in 1385 with the victory of the Portuguese in the Battle of Aljubarrota and a new dynasty began with John I, Master of Aviz (illegitimate son of Peter I), thus called the House of Aviz.

Kings of the House of Burgundy

* Afonso Henriques (Afonso I), "The Conqueror" (1139-1185)
* Sancho I, "The Populator" (1185-1211)
* Afonso II, "The Fat" (1211-1223)
* Sancho II, "The Pious" (1223-1248)
* Afonso III, "The Bolognian"(1248-1279)
* Denis, "The Farmer" (1279-1325)
* Afonso IV, "The Brave" (1325-1357)
* Peter I, "The Cruel" or "The Just" (1357-1367)
* Ferdinand I, "The Beautiful" or "The Inconstant" (1367-1383)

ee also

* List of Portuguese monarchs
* Kings of Portugal family tree
* House of Aviz
* The Establishment of the Monarchy in Portugal
* The Consolidation of the Monarchy in Portugal
* Timeline of Portuguese history

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