- Ferdinand I of Portugal
Ferdinand I 17th century painting of Ferdinand I King of Portugal and the Algarve Reign 18 January 1367— 22 October 1383 Predecessor Peter I Successor John I King of Galicia Reign 1360 – 1371 Predecessor Peter I Successor Henry II Spouse Leonor Telles de Menezes Beatrice of Portugal House Capetian House of Burgundy Father Peter I Mother Constance of Peñafiel Born 31 October 1345
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 22 October 1383 (aged 37)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Carmo Convent, Lisbon, District of Lisbon, Portugal Religion Roman Catholicism
Ferdinand I (Fernando, Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃du]; Lisbon, 31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 in Lisbon), sometimes referred to as the Handsome (Portuguese: o Formoso, or o Belo ) or rarely as the Inconstant (Portuguese: o Inconstante), was the ninth King of Portugal and the Algarve, the second (but eldest surviving) son of Peter I and his wife, Constance of Castile. He succeeded his father in 1367.
On the death of Peter of Castile in 1369, Ferdinand, as great-grandson of Sancho IV by the female line, laid claim to the vacant throne, for which the kings of Aragon and Navarre, and afterwards John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (married in 1370 to Constance, the eldest daughter of Peter), also became competitors.
Meanwhile Henry II of Castile, Peter's illegitimate brother, who had defeated Peter, assumed his crown and took the field. After one or two indecisive campaigns, all parties were ready to accept the mediation of Pope Gregory XI. The conditions of the treaty, ratified in 1371, included a marriage between Ferdinand and Leonora of Castile. But before the union could take place Ferdinand had become passionately attached to Leonor Telles de Menezes, the wife of one of his own courtiers. Having procured a dissolution of her previous marriage, he lost no time in making Leonor his queen.
This strange conduct, although it raised a serious insurrection in Portugal, did not at once result in a war with Henry. However, the outward concord was soon disturbed by the intrigues of the duke of Lancaster, who prevailed on Ferdinand to enter into a secret treaty for the expulsion of Henry from his throne. The war which followed was unsuccessful; and peace was again made in 1373. On the death of Henry in 1379, the duke of Lancaster once more put forward his claims, and again found an ally in Portugal. According to the Continental annalists, the English proved as offensive to their allies as to their enemies in the field. So Ferdinand made a peace for himself at Badajoz in 1382. It stipulated that Beatrice, Ferdinand's daughter and heiress, would marry King John I of Castile, and thus secure the ultimate union of the two crowns.
Ferdinand left no male heir when he died on 22 October 1383, and the direct Burgundian line, which had been in possession of the throne since the days of Count Henry (about 1112), became extinct. The stipulations of the treaty of Badajoz were set aside, and John, Grand Master of the order of Aviz, Ferdinand's illegitimate brother, claimed the throne. This led to a period of war and political indefinition known as the 1383-1385 Crisis. John became the first king of the House of Aviz in 1385.
Marriages and descendants
Fernando married Leonor Telles (or Teles) de Menezes, formerly the wife of the late nobleman João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro, and daughter of Martin Alfonso Telles de Menezes (Martim Afonso Teles de Menezes). She gave him two sons who both died young, and one daughter.
Name Birth Death Notes By Leonor Telles de Menezes (c. 1340- 27 April 1386; married in 1371) Infanta Beatriz 1372 1408 Heiress of her father. Married King John (Juan) I of Castile. Infante Pedro (Peter) 1370 or 1380 1370 or 1380 Infante Afonso 1371 or 1382 1371 or 1382 Illegitimate offspring Isabel of Portugal 1364 1395 Countess of Gijón and Noreña through marriage to Alfonso, Count of Gijón and Noroña, illegitimate son of Henry II of Castile.
Ancestors of Ferdinand I of Portugal 16. Afonso III of Portugal 8. Denis of Portugal 17. Beatrice of Castile 4. Afonso IV of Portugal 18. Peter III of Aragon 9. Elizabeth of Aragon 19. Constance of Sicily 2. Peter I of Portugal 20. Alfonso X of Castile 10. Sancho IV of Castile 21. Violant of Aragon 5. Beatrice of Castile 22. Alfonso of Molina 11. María de Molina 23. Mayor Alonso de Meneses 1. Ferdinand I of Portugal 24. Ferdinand III of Castile 12. Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena 25. Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen 6. Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena 26. Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy 13. Beatrice of Savoy 27. Cecilia of Baux 3. Constance of Peñafiel 28. Peter III of Aragon 14. James II of Aragon 29. Constance of Sicily 7. Constance of Aragon 30. Charles II of Naples 15. Blanche of Anjou 31. Maria of HungaryFerdinand I of PortugalCadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 8 April 1320 Died: 18 January 1367 Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Portugal and the Algarve
After 1385: John I of Portugal
Monarchs of Portugal Afonsine Dynasty House of Aviz House of Aviz-Beja Philippine Dynasty House of Braganza House of Braganza-Coburg Infantes of Portugal 1st GenerationInfante Henrique • Sancho I • Infante João 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th GenerationInfante Afonso, Lord of Leiria • Afonso IV 6th GenerationInfante Afonso • Infante Dinis • Peter I • Infante João 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationAfonso, Prince of Portugal • Infante João • Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias^ • John III • Infante Luís, 5th Duke of Beja • Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso • Cardinal-Infante Afonso • Henry, The Cardinal-King • Infante Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães • Infante António • Infante Carlos 12th GenerationAfonso, Prince of Portugal • Manuel, Prince of Portugal • Filipe, Prince of Portugal • Infante Dinis • John Manuel, Prince of Portugal • Infante António 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th GenerationBalthasar Charles, Prince of Portugal and Asturias* • Infante Francisco Fernando* • Teodósio, 1st Prince of Brazil • Afonso VI • Peter II 16th GenerationJoão, 3rd Prince of Brazil • John V • Infante Francisco, 7th Duke of Beja • Infante António • Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém • 17th Generation 18th Generationnone 19th Generation 20th Generation 21st Generation 22nd Generation 23rd Generation 24th Generation^also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples, *also an infante of Spain, **claimant infante, ^^only prince or infante by marriage House of Burgundy-Portugal Henry, Count of PortugalSpouse(s)ChildrenAfonso Henriques · Urraca Henriques, Countess of Trastámara · Sancha Henriques, Lady of Braganza de Langroiva and Noman · Teresa Henriques · Henrique HenriquesGrandchildren Afonso I of PortugalSpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren Sancho I of PortugalSpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren Afonso II of PortugalSpouse(s)Urraca of CastileChildrenGrandchildren Sancho II of PortugalSpouse(s)NotesSancho had no children; he was desposed in 1247 and died the following year. Afonso III of PortugalSpouse(s)Matilda II of Boulogne · Beatrice of CastileChildrenGrandchildren Denis of PortugalSpouse(s)Saint Elizabeth of AragonChildrenGrandchildren Afonso IV of PortugalSpouse(s)Beatrice of CastileChildrenGrandchildren Peter I of PortugalSpouse(s)ChildrenIllegitimate
Beatrice, titular Queen of Portugal · Infante Pedro · Infante Afonso · Infante Fernando, Lord of Eça* · Infanta Maria Brites, Countess of Valencia de Campos* · Infanta Isabel Brites, Countess of Cigales and Buelna* · Infanta Joana, Lady of Buendía* · Infante Fernando, Lord of Cifuentes* · Infante Pedro, Lord of Colmenarejo* · Infanta Beatrice*
Ferdinand I of PortugalSpouse(s)ChildrenBeatrice, titular Queen of Portugal · Infante Pedro · Infante AfonsoGrandchildrenMiguel, Crown Prince of Portugal**Notes: *the descendants of King Peter I and Ines de Castro's children
were recognized as legitimate and were Infantes and Infantas
**also an Infante of Castile
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