Type 23 frigate


Type 23 frigate
HMS Somerset (F82).jpg
HMS Somerset
Class overview
Name: Type 23 class
Builders: Yarrow Shipbuilders and Swan Hunter
Operators:  Royal Navy
 Chilean Navy
Preceded by: Type 22 frigate
Succeeded by: Type 26 frigate (planned)
In commission: 24 November 1987
Completed: 16
Active: 13 (Royal Navy) & 3 (Chilean Navy)
General characteristics
Class and type: Frigate
Displacement: 4,900 tonnes[1]
Length: 133 m (436 ft 4 in)[1][2]
Beam: 16.1 m (52 ft 10 in)[1][2]
Draught: 5 m (16 ft 5 in)[3]
18 ft (5.5 m) screws[2]
24 ft (7.3 m) sonar[2]
Propulsion: CODLAG with four 1510 kW (2,025 shp) Paxman Valenta 12CM diesel generators powering two GEC electric motors delivering 2980kW (4000 shp) and two Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A delivering 23,190 kW (31,100 shp) to two shafts
Speed: 28 knots HMS Sutherland achieved 34.4 knots during high-speed trials (November 2008)
Range: 14,485 km (9,000 miles) at 15 knots
Complement: 185[1] or 181 (13 officers)[2]
Armament:

Anti-air missiles;
Sea Wolf GWS.26 VLS with a total of 32 anti-air missiles.

Anti-ship missiles;
2 x quadruple Harpoon launchers for 8 anti-ship missiles.

Anti-submarine torpedoes;
2 x twin 12.75 in (324 mm) tubes for Stingray ASW torpedoes. A total of 24 torpedoes.[4]

Guns;
1 x 4.5-inch Mk 8 DP gun
2 x 30mm DS30M Mk 2 systems or 30mm DS30B
2 x M 232 Mk 44 7.62mm miniguns
4 x 7.62 GPMGs

Decoys;
4 x 6-barrel Seagnat decoy launchers

DFL2/3 offboard decoys
Aircraft carried:

1 x Lynx HMA8 or Merlin HM1 helicopter Armed with

  • anti-submarine Stingray torpedoes
  • anti-ship Sea-Skua missiles

The Type 23 frigate is a class of frigate built for the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. All the ships were first named after British Dukes, thus the class is also known as the Duke class. The first Type 23 was commissioned in 1989, and the sixteenth, HMS St Albans was launched in May 2000 and commissioned in June 2002. They form the majority of the Royal Navy's destroyer and frigate fleet.

Three of the frigates have been sold to Chile and serve with the Chilean Navy. The remaining thirteen remain in service with the Royal Navy.

Contents

Design

Intended role

When first conceived in the late 1970s, the Type 23 was intended to be a light anti-submarine frigate to counter Soviet nuclear submarines operating in the North Atlantic. The Type 23 would be replacing the Leander class frigates (which had entered service in 1960s) and the Type 21 frigate (a general purpose design that recently entered service) as "the backbone of the Royal Navy's surface ship anti-submarine force".[5] Although not intended to replace the Type 22 frigate, reductions in the size of the Navy due to the 1998 Strategic Defence Review led to HMS St Albans replacing HMS Coventry, a Type 22 frigate.[6]

The ships were intended to carry a towed array sonar to detect Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic and carry a Westland Lynx or EHI Merlin helicopter to attack them.[7] It was initially proposed that the frigates would not mount defensive armament. Instead the Sea Wolf missile system was to be carried by Fort Victoria class replenishment oilers, one of which was to support typically four Type 23s. The Fort class oilers would also provide servicing facilities for the force's helicopters; the Type 23 would have facilities only for rearming and refuelling them.

Evolution

As a result of lessons learned from the Falklands War, the design grew in size and complexity to encompass the Vertical Launch Sea Wolf (VLS) system with an extra tracking system as a defence against low-flying aircraft and sea-skimming anti-ship missiles such as Exocet.[7] With the addition of Harpoon surface-to-surface missiles and a medium calibre gun for naval gunfire support, the Type 23 had evolved into a more complex and balanced vessel optimised for general warfare, which introduced a host of new technologies and concepts to the Royal Navy. These included extensive radar cross section reduction design measures, automation to substantially reduce crew size, a Combined diesel-electric and gas (CODLAG) propulsion system providing very quiet running for anti-submarine operations along with excellent range, vertical launch missile technology and a fully distributed combat management system.

The Vertical Launch Sea Wolf surface-to-air missile system was designed for and first deployed on the Type 23. Unlike conventional Sea Wolf, the missile is boosted vertically until it clears the ship's superstructure and then turns to fly directly to the target. Consequently, the ship's structure does not cause no-fire zones that would delay or inhibit missile firing in a conventionally launched system.

HMS Norfolk was the first of the class to enter service, commissioned into the Fleet on 1 June 1990 at a cost of £135.449 million GBP, later vessels cost £60–96 million GBP.[8]

Refit

The class are currently going through mid-life refits which last 12-18 months and cost £15-20m. Aside from refurbishment of the mess decks and drive train, the ships are being fitted with a transom flap which can add up to 1 knot to the top speed[9] and reduce fuel consumption by 13%, and Intersleek anti-fouling paint which added 2 knots to the top speed of Ark Royal.[10] Although the top speed of the Duke class is commonly quoted as 28 knots, the caption of an official Navy photo suggests that Lancaster was capable of 32 knots even before her mid-life refit;[11] Edinburgh managed over 34 knots after her refit.[12] The Sea Wolf Mid Life Update (SWMLU) improves the sensors and guidance of the missiles, point defences are further improved with new remotely-operated 30mm guns, and Mod 1 of the Mk8 main gun has an all-electric loading system and a smaller radar cross-section. The communications and command systems are also upgraded. Iron Duke will be the first to receive the Type 997 Artisan main radar during her refit in 2012-13,[13] and the class will replace Sea Wolf with the CAMM(M) variant of the Common Anti-Air Modular Missile from 2016.[14] CAMM has a longer range (25 kilometres (16 mi) compared to 8 km) and can be packed much more tightly, with up to four CAMM fitting into the space occupied by one Sea Wolf.[15]

Nomenclature

Although the Type 23 is officially the "Duke" class, and includes such famous names as HMS Iron Duke, (which had been the name of the battleship HMS Iron Duke, Admiral Jellicoe's flagship at the Battle of Jutland), five of the names had previously been used on classes known as the "County class": Kent and Norfolk were names given both to 1960s guided missile destroyers and Second World War-era County class heavy cruisers, while Monmouth, Lancaster, Kent and Argyll revived names carried by First World War-era Monmouth class armoured cruisers. This use of Ducal and County names broke a tradition of alphabetical names for escort ships which had run in two – not unbroken – cycles from the L-class destroyers of 1913 to the Daring-class destroyers of 1950; this progression was revived with the Amazon-class Type 21 frigates of 1972–75, and continued with B and C names for most of the Type 22 frigates of 1976–89. However, the D names have since been used for the new Type 45 Daring-class destroyers now entering service from 2009.

Specifications

Type 23 propeller, specially designed to reduce underwater noise.

Weapon Systems

  • 4 x J+S Ltd 324 mm (2 twin) fixed torpedo tubes with BAE Sting Ray torpedoes
  • NATO Seagnat, Type 182 and DLF3 countermeasures launchers
Aircraft

Electronic Systems

Note: Type 23's Search Radar will be replaced by BAE Systems Insyte Artisan 3D Radar. The radar also equips the Albion and Ocean class Assault Ships, and will be on the two future Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. The project was worth £100 Million and the contract was announced in 4 August 2008.[16]

Command system

The first few Type 23 frigates entered service without a computerised command system, so the Secretary of State for Defence was asked "what ability those type 23 frigates not fitted with an automated command and control system will possess to identify aircraft as either friendly or hostile." The reply given was that: "The classification of an aircraft as friendly or hostile is based on information from a variety of sources including the ships identification friend or foe (IFF) system and other sensors. In T23 frigates not fitted with a command system this information will be available but will not be correlated automatically."[17]

Crew size

"When first commissioned the complement of crew carried by Type 23 frigates was 173. The current [February 1998] complement is 171." "There are no plans to reduce the complement of Type 23 frigates by refitting with less manpower-intensive equipment. Manning implications are taken into consideration when the Operational Requirement for future ships is considered; however, the size of the complement is affected by other considerations such as the manpower needed for damage control and fire-fighting."[18]

Helicopters

As reported by the Navy in January 2006, all the ships were operating one helicopter each. The Lynx Mark 3 was operated by HMS Sutherland, and the Lynx Mk 8 was operated by the Argyll, Montrose, Saint Albans, Iron Duke, Kent, Portland, Somerset, and Grafton.[19][20] HMS Lancaster, Monmouth, Westminster and Northumberland operated the Merlin Mk 1.[20] By 2010, Sutherland was operating a Merlin.[21]

Sonar 2087

Five Type 23 frigates, HM Ships Montrose, Monmouth, Iron Duke, Lancaster and Argyll are not scheduled to receive Sonar 2087. These ships will be employed across the normal range of standing strategic, home and overseas commitments. These include Fleet Ready Escort duties around home waters, operational deployments to the Gulf and Arabian Sea, and standing tasks in the South Atlantic (APT(S)), Caribbean (APT(N)) and within NATO's Standing Maritime Group in the Mediterranean (SNMG2). They will also continue to contribute to the UK's Maritime Joint Rapid Reaction Force (JRRF) held at high readiness for contingent operations, and deploy on pre-planned activities as JRRF elements within a Task Group."[22]

As of July 2010, six of the thirteen Type 23s in service are equipped with 2087 Sonar,[23] and MoD "plan to fit a further two with it by 2013. Following the withdrawal from service of the Nimrod MR2, other assets, including the Type 23, are providing cover for some of its tasks."[24]

Flagship role

Unlike the Types 22 and 45, the "Type 23 frigate does not have the capability or configuration to act as flagship and is not tasked in this way."[25]

Construction programme

Prior to the Falklands War the cost of the Type 23 frigates was estimated at £75 million (September 1980 prices)[26] Changes following the experiences in the Falklands, including improved damage control and fire precautions[27] led to an increased cost estimated at £110 million (1984–85 prices)[26] By 2001, the Ministry of Defence said the cost of HMS Norfolk was £135.449 million and the remaining ships would have a final cost between £60 million and £96 million each[5]

The Ministry of Defence said in 1998 that the Merlin ASW helicopter was costing them £97M each (this was for an order for 44 airframes), and that this was 57% of the cost of Type 23.[28] From this it can be calculated that the cost of Type 23 was £ 170.1M each.

The costs in the table below are in two columns:

  • Original hull cost. "Other costs, such as those for Government furnished equipment, are not held centrally for each ship and could be provided only at disproportionate cost."[29]
  • Estimated building cost. This is a phrase used in Defence Estimates, and before that in Navy Estimates. It does not include the armament, or government furnished equipment.[30]

The Government's declared policy for construction contracts for Type 23 was "...competition, the aim being to secure best value for money for the defence budget." while maintaining "sufficient warship-building capacity to meet likely future defence requirements and a competitive base"[17]

Pennant Name (a) Hull builder Ordered Laid down Launched Accepted into service[31] Commissioned Original hull cost Estimated building cost[30]
F230 Norfolk Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 29 October 1984[32] 14 December 1985[33] 10 July 1987[33][34] 1 June 1990[33][34] £112.03M[29] £142M[35]
£135.449M[5]
F231 Argyll Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 1 September 1986[32] 20 March 1987[2][34] 8 April 1989[2][34] 17 April 1991[36] 31 May 1991[2][34] £118.95M[29]
F229 (ex-F232)[33] Lancaster Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 1 September 1986[32] 18 December 1987[2][34] 24 May 1990[2][34] 1 May 1992[2] £119.71M[29]
F233 Marlborough Swan Hunter.[29] 1 September 1986[33] 22 October 1987[33][34] 21 January 1989[33][34] 7 March 1991[36] 14 June 1991[33][34] £118.43M[29] £120M[35]
F234 Iron Duke Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 11 July 1988[32] 12 December 1988[2][34] 2 March 1991[2][34] 20 May 1993[2][34] £109.77M[29]
F235 Monmouth Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 11 July 1988[32] 1 June 1989[2][34] 23 November 1991[2][34] 24 September 1993[2][34] £111.66M[29]
F236 Montrose Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] 11 July 1988[32] 1 November 1989[2][34] 31 July 1992[2][34] 2 June 1994[2] £117.29M[29]
F237 Westminster Swan Hunter.[29] December 1989[33] 18 January 1991[2][34] 4 February 1992[2] 13 May 1994[2][34] £112.68M[29]
F238 Northumberland Swan Hunter.[29] December 1989[33] 4 April 1991[2][34] 4 April 1992[2][34] 29 November 1994[2] £114.73M[29]
F239 Richmond Swan Hunter.[29] December 1989[33] 16 February 1992[2] 6 April 1993[2][34] 22 June 1995[2] £116.2M[29]
F82 Somerset Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] January 1992[33] 12 October 1992[2][34] 25 June 1994[2][34] 20 September 1996[2] £114.14M[29]
F80 Grafton Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] January 1992[33] 13 May 1993[33][34] 5 November 1994[33] 29 May 1997[33] £115.56M[29] £79M[35]
F81 Sutherland Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] January 1992[33] 14 October 1993[2][34] 9 March 1996[2] 4 July 1997[2] £143.58M[29]
F78 Kent Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd.[29] February 1996[33] 16 April 1997[2] 27 May 1998[2] 8 June 2000[2] £108.42M[29]
F79 Portland Marconi Marine.[29] [Formerly Yarrow.] February 1996[33] 14 January 1998[2] 15 May 1999[37] 15 December 2000[37] 3 May 2001[2] £92.06M[29]
F83 St Albans BAE Systems Marine.[29] [Formerly Yarrow.] February 1996[33] 18 April 1999[2] 6 May 2000[2] 6 June 2002[2] £106.82M[29]

Running costs

Date Running cost What is included Citation
1987–88 £3.6 million Estimate of the annual running costs for a type 23 frigate. These costs include personnel, fuel, spares and so on, and administrative support services, but exclude new construction, capital equipment, and refit-repair costs. [38]
2001–02 £10.3 million "Average annual operating costs, based on historic costs over the last two full financial years are given in the table. The figures include manpower, maintenance, fuel, stores and other costs (such as harbour dues), but exclude depreciation and cost of capital." [39]
2002–03 £10.3 million
2007-08 £26.18 million "The Type 23 Class of Frigates, comprising 13 vessels, has a combined annual operating cost of £340.3M." "This is based on information primarily from Financial Year 07/08 the last year for which this information is available, and includes typical day-to-day costs such as fuel and manpower and general support costs covering maintenance, repair and equipment spares. Costs for equipment spares are also included, although these are based on Financial Year 08/09 information as this is the most recent information available. Costs for weapon system support are not included as they could only be provided at disproportionate cost." [40]
2009-10 £24.14 million The average running cost per class for Type 23 was £313.8 million. "These figures, based on the expenditure incurred by the Ministry of Defence in 2009-10, include maintenance, safety certification, military upgrades, manpower, inventory, satellite communication, fuel costs and depreciation." [41]

Known refits

  • HMS Iron Duke was due to start refit at Rosyth Royal Dockyard in spring 2001.[42]
  • "HMS Montrose's refit at Rosyth is planned for completion in February 2004 and following associated sea trials, she is expected to be ready for operational deployment later that month. The final refit cost will be agreed once all work is completed, but is expected to be just under £23 million. This exceeds the original budget as it now reflects possible changes in labour rates and takes into account additional work identified after the budget had been set."[43]

Refits completed since 1997

HM Ship Refit dates Approx. duration Contracted price[44] Final cost Source
Argyll Jun 2003 – Nov 2003 24 weeks £5.6 million £5.6 million [45]
Lancaster May 2004 – Dec 2004 32 weeks £7.6 million £7.6 million [45]
Somerset May 2006 – Jun 2007 56 weeks £11.9 million £11.9 million [45]
Portland May 2006 – Jan 2007 44 weeks £8.7 million £8.7 million [45]
Richmond Aug 2005 – Sep 2006 56 weeks £9.4 million £9.4 million [45]
Kent Jan 2005 – Jun 2005 24 weeks £5.8 million £5.8 million [45]

Contracts placed under the SSS Programme

HM Ship Refit dates Duration Contracted price incl. profit and growth Out-turn cost excl. profit Final cost (£m) Source
Iron Duke Feb 2007 – Nov 2007 40 weeks £10.8 million [45]
St Albans May 2007 – Jul 2008 60 weeks £15.4 million [45]

Availability

In February 1998, it was stated that: "Type 23 frigates achieved approximately 85–89 per cent average availability for operational service in each of the last five years with the exception of 1996 when the figure dropped to just over 80 per cent due to a number of ships experiencing a particular defect. This discounts time spent in planned maintenance."[18]

Disposal

On 21 July 2004, in the Delivering Security in a Changing World review of defence spending, Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that HMS Norfolk, Marlborough and Grafton were to be paid off. In 2005 it was announced that these three vessels would be sold to the Chilean Navy, to be delivered in 2008. In September 2005 BAE Systems was awarded a £134 million GBP contract to prepare the frigates for transfer.

The Marlborough, Norfolk and Grafton were sold to Chile for a total of £134 million.[35] The letter of intent for purchase was signed in December 2004, followed by a formal contract on 7 September 2005.[46]

The Norfolk was handed over by the Defence Logistics Organisation and BAE Systems and commissioned into the Chilean Navy on 22 November 2006, and named Almirante Cochrane (FF-05) (after Lord Cochrane, a naval hero to both the British and Chileans). The Grafton was delivered to Chilean Navy on 28 March 2007 at Portsmouth and renamed Almirante Lynch (FF-07). The Marlborough was delivered to Chilean Navy on 28 May 2008 at Portsmouth and renamed Almirante Condell (FF-06).

Name RN Home port Out-of-service date
(as planned in 2006)
Out-of-service date
(as announced in 2009)
Actual out-of-service date Name after sale abroad New home port Commissioned by foreign navy Status
HMS Norfolk Devonport[33] FY2005-06 Almirante Cochrane FF-05 Valparaiso 22 November 2006[46] Active Chilean Navy
HMS Marlborough Portsmouth[33] FY2005-06 Almirante Condell FF-06 Valparaiso 2008[46] Active Chilean Navy
HMS Grafton Portsmouth[33] Non-operational from 31 March 2006.[20] Almirante Lynch FF-07 Valparaiso 28 March 2007[46] Active Chilean Navy
HMS Argyll Devonport[33] 2019[22] 2023[47] Active RN
HMS Lancaster Portsmouth[33] 2019[22] 2024[47] Active RN
HMS Iron Duke Portsmouth[33] 2020[22] 2025[47] Active RN
HMS Monmouth Devonport[33] 2021[22] 2026[47] Active RN
HMS Montrose Devonport[33] 2021[22] 2027[47] Active RN
HMS Westminster Portsmouth[33] 2028[47] Active RN
HMS Northumberland Devonport[33] 2029[47] Active RN
HMS Richmond Portsmouth[33] 2030[47] Active RN
HMS Somerset Devonport[33] 2031[47] Active RN
HMS Sutherland Devonport[33] 2033[47] Active RN
HMS Kent Portsmouth[33] 2034[47] Active RN
HMS Portland Devonport[33] 2035[47] Active RN
HMS St. Albans Portsmouth[33] 2036[47] Active RN

The Royal Navy’s current Type 22 and Type 23 frigates will be replaced by the Future Surface Combatant programme, of which the first vessel (of the C1/Type 26 variant) is planned to enter service around 2020.[48]

Type 23 frigates in fiction

  • HMS Westminster was used for the Type 23 interior shots in the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies in three different roles as HMS Chester, HMS Devonshire and HMS Bedford. For the exterior shots a Type 23 model was constructed.
  • The ITV series Making Waves was set aboard the Type 23 frigate HMS Suffolk (which was portrayed by HMS Grafton).
  • HMS Montrose and HMS Monmouth were used to portray the interior and exterior shots of the fictional HMS Monarch for the film Command Approved[49] which is the centre piece of Action Stations at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, Portsmouth, England.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d www.royalnavy.mod.uk Type 23 Frigates, accessed 28 March 2010
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships 2008–2009, pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9 page 862.
  3. ^ The Royal Navy Handbook, 2003, Ministry of Defence, page 42
  4. ^ http://website.lineone.net/~david-carrington/Militaria/RoyalNavy/Major.htm
  5. ^ a b c Hansard 5 Jul 2001: Column: 245W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence, 5 July 2001.
  6. ^ Hansard 11 Jul 2000: Column: 449W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence when he planned to withdraw the Type 22 Batch II frigates from service. His answer was:
    • "HMS Sheffield 2012 – to be superseded by a T45 Destroyer
    • HMS Coventry 2001 – to be superseded by HMS St. Albans, a T23 Frigate".
  7. ^ a b "Defence;Where's the cache?". The Economist: p. 21. 10 July 1982. 
  8. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 5 Jul 2001". Hansard (Official Report). HM Government. 5 July 2001. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo010705/text/10705w05.htm. Retrieved 23 July 2007. 
  9. ^ "A Forth for good". Navy News: p. 6. September 2008. http://publishing.yudu.com/Anav2/NavyNewsSept08/resources/6.htm?skipFlashCheck=true. 
  10. ^ "The Royal Navy's Fleet". Royal Navy Matters (Royal Navy): p. 52. 2010. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/News-and-Events/Reference-Library/~/media/Files/Navy-PDFs/News-and-Events/Naval%20Publications/royal_navy_matters2010.pdf. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  11. ^ http://www.defenceimagedatabase.mod.uk/ image 45139105.jpg (taken 12 September 1999) is captioned "DUKE CLASS TYPE 23 FRIGATE F229 HMS LANCASTER STEAMING AT 32 KNOTS."
  12. ^ "HMS Sutherland - More About The Ship". Royal Navy. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/The-Fleet/Ships/Frigates-and-Destroyers/Type-23-Frigates/HMS-Sutherland/Sutherland-Info. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "New Royal Navy Type 997 radar is put through its paces on the Isle of Wight". 13 September 2011. http://www.baesystems.com/Newsroom/NewsReleases/autoGen_111813102928.html. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "Press Information - CAMM". MBDA Systems. June 2011. http://www.mbda-systems.com/mediagallery/files/CAMM-family_background.pdf. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  15. ^ Sweetman, Bill (23 May 2011). "CAMM On Path To Replace Seawolf". http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/blogs/defense/index.jsp?plckController=Blog&plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost&plckPostId=Blog%3A27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post%3A1718c0a6-bc66-4b43-b2fd-4836fc144228. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  16. ^ http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.13459/changeNav/6568 Royal Navy News and Events:Navy to Get New Radar
  17. ^ a b Hansard HC Deb 2 November 1989 vol 159 cc333-4W Questions to Secretary of State for Defence, 2 November 1989.
  18. ^ a b Hansard 10 Feb 1998: Column: 195, 10 Feb 1998 : Column: 196 Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence about the manning and availability of warships, 10 February 1998.
  19. ^ Grafton was non-operational from 31 March 2006.
  20. ^ a b c Hansard 10 Jan 2006: Column 505W—continued Question to the Secretary of State for Defence how many helicopters are carried by each of the Type 23 frigates, broken down by type of helicopter, 10 January 2006.
  21. ^ Torpedo run for HMS Sutherland 26 July 2010
  22. ^ a b c d e f Hansard 17 July 2006: Column 220W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the five Type 23 frigates which are not to be fitted with Sonar 2087, 17 July 2006.
  23. ^ Hansard 23 Jun 2010, Column 237W
  24. ^ Hansard, 13 July 2010, Column 601W.
  25. ^ Hansard 17 Mar 2011, Column 511W
  26. ^ a b HC Deb 11 January 1985 vol 70 c561W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence about Type 23 frigates, 11 January 1985.
  27. ^ Hansard HC Deb 19 July 1983 vol 46 cc179-263
  28. ^ Warship World, Spring 1998, pub Maritime Books, page 13. This figure of £97 million each included research and development costs.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Hansard 13 March 2008: Column 667W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the outturn cost of each Type 23 frigate, 13 March 2008.
  30. ^ a b "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, First Outfits)." – Text from Defences Estimates
    "They do not include other costs, such as those for Government Furnished Equipment (GFE)—as they are not held centrally for each ship and could be provided only at disproportionate cost." Bob Ainsworth, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, 16 July 2008.
  31. ^ The term used in Navy Estimates and Defence Estimates is "accepted into service". Hansard has used the term acceptance date. Leo Marriott in his various books uses the term "completed", as does Jane's Fighting Ships. These terms all mean the same thing: the date the Navy accepts the vessel from the builder. This date is important because maintenance cycles, etc. are generally calculated from the acceptance date.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc358-61W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence asking him to list the Royal Navy vessels built in each of the past 15 years, showing the cost of each and the yards in which they were constructed.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships 2002–2003, pub Jane's Information group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8 page 776.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Gardiner, Robert Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995, pub Conway Maritime Press, 1995, ISBN 0-85177-605-1 page 525.
  35. ^ a b c d Hansard 24 May 2007 : Column 1388W—continued Question to the Secretary of State for Defence which naval vessels have been sold by the Royal Navy in the last five years; what the (a) vessel type, (b) service cost and (c) destination country was in each case; and if he will estimate the (i) original costs of each vessel and (ii) financial gains accrued to public funds as a result of each sale, 24 May 2007.
  36. ^ a b Hansard HC 23 May 1991 Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence about building programme for Type 23, 23 May 1991.
  37. ^ a b "HMS Portland". Type 23 Frigates. royalnavy.mod.uk. 2009. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/operations-and-support/surface-fleet/type-23-frigates/hms-portland/. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  38. ^ Hansard HC Deb 10 March 1989 vol 148 c44W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the annual running costs for different classes of frigate and destroyer.
  39. ^ Hansard HC Deb 9 September 2003 vol 410 cc346-7W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence ab out the average operating cost of(a) batch 3 type 22, (b) type 23 and (c) type 42 destroyers, 9 September 2003.
  40. ^ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090909/text/90909w0024.htm Hansard 9 Sep 2009, Column 2001W
  41. ^ [http://services.parliament.uk/hansard/Lords/ByDate/20101124/writtenanswers/part003.html Hansard 24 November 2010 Written Answers.
  42. ^ Hansard 11 Jul 2000: Column: 449W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about which of the Type 23 Frigates are due for refit in the next 12 months, 11 July 2000.
  43. ^ Hansard 5 Mar 2003: Column 1031W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about HMS Montrose's refit, 5 March 2003.
  44. ^ Out-turn cost data are not required for completed contracts as the price is agreed as part of the contract negotiations.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h 25 Nov 2008 : Column WA280
  46. ^ a b c d Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships 2008–2009, pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9 page 111.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hansard 3 Mar 2009 : Column 1446W—continued Question to the Secretary of State for Defence what the (a) in-service dates and (b) current out-of-service dates are for each (i) submarine, (ii) frigate and (iii) destroyer in the Royal Navy, 3 March 2009.
  48. ^ 3 Mar 2009 : Column 1445W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence what the (a) in-service dates and (b) current out-of-service dates are for each (i) submarine, (ii) frigate and (iii) destroyer in the Royal Navy, 3 March 2009.
  49. ^ www.imdb.com

References

  • The Encyclopedia of Warships, From World War Two to the Present Day, General Editor Robert Jackson

External links


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