January 3


January 3

Day Perihelion occurs around this date.

Events

*1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon.
*1496 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine.
*1521 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull "Decet Romanum Pontificem".
*1749 - Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont.
*1777 - American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.
*1815 - Austria, the United Kingdom, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia.
*1823 - Stephen F. Austin receives a grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico.
*1834 - The government of Mexico imprisons Stephen F. Austin in Mexico City.
*1848 - Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Republic of Liberia.
*1861 - American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States.
*1868 - Meiji Restoration in Japan: The Tokugawa shogunate is abolished; agents of Satsuma and Chōshū seize power.
*1870 - The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
*1888 - The refracting telescope at the Lick Observatory, measuring 91 cm in diameter, is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time.
*1899 - The first known use of the word automobile, was seen in an editorial in "The New York Times".
*1921 - Turkey makes peace with Armenia.
*1924 - English explorer Howard Carter discovers the sarcophagus of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, near Luxor, Egypt.
*1925 - Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.
*1932 - Martial law is declared in Honduras to stop revolt by banana workers fired by United Fruit.
*1933 - Minnie D. Craig becomes the first female elected as Speaker of the North Dakota House of Representatives, the first female to hold a Speaker position anywhere in the United States.
*1938 - The March of Dimes is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
*1944 - World War II: Top Ace Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington is shot down in his Corsair by Captain Masajiro Kawato flying a Zero.
*1945 - World War II: Admiral Chester W Nimitz is placed in command of all U.S. Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan.
*1947 - Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time.
*1953 - Frances Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress.
*1956 - A fire damages the top part of the Eiffel Tower.
*1957 - The Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch.
*1958 - The West Indies Federation is formed.
*1959 - Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. State.
*1961 - The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba.
* 1961 - The SL-1, a government-run reactor near Idaho Falls, Idaho, leaks radiation, killing three workers.
*1962 - Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.
*1977 - Apple Computer is incorporated.
*1988 - Margaret Thatcher becomes the longest-serving British Prime Minister in the 20th Century.
*1990 - Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces.
*1993 - In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).
*1994 - An Aeroflot Tupolev TU-154 crashes and explodes after takeoff from Irkutsk, Russia, killing 125 people including one on the ground.
*1997 - The People's Republic of China announces it will spend $27.7 billion USD to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys.
*1999 - The Mars Polar Lander was launched.
* 1999 - Israel detains, and later expels, 14 members of Concerned Christians.
*2004 - Flight 604, a Boeing 737 owned by Flash Airlines, an Egyptian airliner, plunges into the Red Sea, killing all 148 people on board.
*2007 - National Express has its worst ever coach crash just outside Heathrow Airport.

Births

*106 BC - Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher (d. 43 BC)
*1196 - Emperor Tsuchimikado of Japan (d. 1231)
*1698 - Pietro Metastasio, Italian poet (d. 1782)
*1710 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. 1796)
*1719 - Francisco José Freire, Portuguese historian (d. 1773)
*1722 - Fredric Hasselquist, Swedish naturalist (d. 1752)
*1733 - Sir Richard Arkwright, English industrialist and inventor (d. 1792)
*1760 - John Storm, American Revolutionary soldier (d. 1835)
*1778 - Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski, Polish bishop (d. 1861)
*1793 - Lucretia Mott, American women's rights activist (d. 1880)
*1802 - Charles Pelham Villiers, British House of Commons member (d. 1898)
*1803 - Douglas William Jerrold, British playwright (d. 1857)
*1806 - Henriette Sontag, German soprano (d. 1854)
*1810 - Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie, French geographer (d. 1897)
*1819 - Charles Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland (d. 1900)
*1836 - Sakamoto Ryoma, Japanese revolutionary (d. 1867)
*1840 - Father Damien, Flemish missionary (d. 1889)
*1855 - Hubert Bland, English socialist (d. 1914)
*1861 - William Renshaw, British champion tennis player (d. 1904)
*1862 - Sir Matthew Nathan, British Governor of Queensland and other places (d. 1939)
*1865 - Henry Lytton, British actor and opera singer (d. 1936)
*1870 - Henry Handel Richardson, Australian author (d. 1946)
*1873 - Ichizo Kobayashi, Japanese businessman (d. 1957)
*1876 - Wilhelm Pieck, first President of East Germany (d. 1960)
*1879 - Grace Coolidge, First Lady of the United States (d. 1957)
*1883 - Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1967)
*1884 - Raoul von Koczalski, Polish pianist and composer (d. 1948)
*1886 - Josephine Hull, American actress (d. 1957)
*1887 - August Macke, German painter (d. 1914)
* 1887 - Helen Parkhurst, American educator (d. 1973)
*1892 - J. R. R. Tolkien, British writer (d. 1973)
*1894 - ZaSu Pitts, American actress (d. 1963)
*1897 - Marion Davies, American actress (d. 1961)
*1898 - Carlos Keller, Chilean fascist politician (d. 1974)
*1901 - Ngô Đình Diệm, President of South Vietnam (d. 1963)
*1905 - Anna May Wong, American actress (d. 1961)
* 1905 - Ray Milland, Welsh actor (d. 1986)
*1909 - Victor Borge, Danish entertainer (d. 2000)
*1910 - Frenchy Bordagaray, American baseball player (d. 2000)
*1911 - John Sturges, American director (d. 1982)
*1912 - Renaude Lapointe, Canadian journalist and senator (d. 2002)
* 1912 - Armand Lohikoski, Finnish director (d. 2005)
*1916 - Betty Furness, American actress (d. 1994)
* 1916 - Maxene Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (d. 1995)
* 1916 - Bernard Greenhouse, American cellist
*1917 - General Vernon Walters, U.S. military officer, diplomat (d. 2002)
* 1917 - Roger W. Straus, Jr., American publisher (d. 2004)
*1920 - Renato Carosone, Italian musician (d. 2001)
*1921 - John Russell, American actor (d. 1991)
*1922 - Bill Travers, English actor and director (d. 1994)
* 1922 - Ronald Smith, British pianist (d. 2004)
*1923 - Hank Stram, American football coach (d. 2005)
* 1923 - Charles Tingwell, Australian actor
*1924 - André Franquin, Belgian cartoonist (Gaston Lagaffe) (d. 1997)
* 1924 - Nell Rankin, American singer (d. 2005)
* 1924 - Doug Ellis, British entrepreneur
*1926 - George Martin, British producer
*1929 - Sergio Leone, Italian director (d. 1989)
* 1929 - Ernst Mahle, Brazilian composer
*1930 - Marcel Dubé, Quebec playwright
* 1930 - Robert Loggia, American actor
*1932 - Coo Coo Marlin, American race car driver (d. 2005)
* 1932 - Dabney Coleman, American actor
*1935 - Raymond Garneau, French Canadian politician and businessman
*1936 - David Vine, British sports commentator
*1937 - Seri Wangnaitham, Thai dancer and choreographer (d. 2007)
*1939 - Nikos Alefantos, Greek football manager
* 1939 - Janice Crosio, Australian politician
* 1939 - Bobby Hull, Canadian hockey player
* 1939 - Ruben Reyes, Filipino Supreme Court jurist
*1941 - Van Dyke Parks, American musician
*1942 - John Thaw, British actor (d. 2002)
* 1942 - John Marsden, Australian lawyer, gay activist (d. 2006)
*1944 - David Atherton, English conductor
* 1944 - Blanche d'Alpuget, Australian novelist, biographer and second wife of Bob Hawke
*1945 - Stephen Stills, American musician
*1946 - John Paul Jones, British musician (Led Zeppelin)
* 1946 - Cissy King, American entertainer
*1949 - Sylvia Likens, American torture victim (d. 1965)
*1950 - Victoria Principal, American actress
*1951 - Gary Nairn, Australian politician
*1952 - Jim Ross, American wrestling announcer
*1954 - Dean Hart, Canadian wrestler (d. 1990)
* 1954 - Ned Lamont, American businessman
*1955 - Palmolive, English musician (The Slits, The Raincoats)
*1956 - Mel Gibson, Australian actor and director
* 1956 - Willy T. Ribbs, American race car driver
*1957 - Bojan Križај, Slovenian skier
*1958 - Shim Hyung-rae, South Korean filmmaker
*1960 - Sandeep Marwah Founder of Film City, Noida, India
*1962 - Francesca Lia Block, American author
*1963 - Vic Grimes, American professional wrestler
* 1963 - Jerome Young, American professional wrestler
* 1963 - Alex Wheatle MBE, black British novelist
*1964 - Bruce LaBruce, Canadian filmmaker
*1966 - Martin Galway, Northern Ireland composer
*1969 - Michael Schumacher, German seven-time F1 World Champion
*1970 - Mahaya Petrosian, Iranian actress
* 1970 - Christian Duguay, American comic actor
* 1970 - Matt Ross, American actor
*1971 - Cory Cross, Canadian ice hockey player
*1972 - Yoon Chan, South Korean actor
* 1972 - Nichole Nordeman, American singer
*1974 - Alessandro Petacchi, Italian cyclist
*1975 - Thomas Bangalter, French DJ (Daft Punk)
* 1975 - Jason Marsden, American actor
* 1975 - Danica McKellar, American actress
*1976 - Angelos Basinas, Greek footballer
* 1976 - Alisen Down, Canadian actress
* 1976 - Dinara Drukarova, Russian actress
* 1976 - Nicholas Gonzalez, American actor
*1977 - Lee Bowyer, English footballer
* 1977 - A.J. Burnett, American baseball player
* 1977 - Mayumi Iizuka, Japanese voice actress (seiyū)
* 1977 - Michelle Stephenson, English singer (The Spice Girls)
*1978 - Kimberley Locke, American singer
* 1978 - Park Sol-mi, South Korean actress
* 1978 - Dominic Wood, English children's television presenter and magician
* 1978 - Mike York, American ice hockey player
*1979 - Francesco Bellissimo, Italian mangaka
*1980 - Rob Arnold, American guitarist (Chimaira)
* 1980 - Liya Kebede, Ethiopian model
* 1980 - Angela Ruggiero, American ice hockey player
* 1980 - David Tyree, American football player
*1981 - Eli Manning, American football player
* 1981 - Chris Blais, California racecar driver
*1985 - John David Booty, American football player
*1986 - Lloyd Polite, American R&B singer
* 1986 - Jacob Timpano, Australian soccer player
*1988 - Rodrigo de la Cadena, Mexican artist and performer
*1989 - Alex D. Linz, American actor
* 1989 - Anya Kop, Russian model and America's Next Top Model contestant

Deaths

*235 - Pope St Anterus (b. unknown)
*1098 - Walkelin, first Norman bishop of Winchester (b. unknown)
*1322 - King Philip V of France (b. 1293)
*1437 - Catherine of Valois, wife of Henry V of England (b. 1401)
*1543 - Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Portuguese explorer (b. 1499)
*1571 - Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1505)
*1641 - Jeremiah Horrocks, English astronomer (b. 1618)
*1656 - Mathieu Molé, French statesman (b. 1584)
*1670 - George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, English soldier (b. 1608)
*1690 - Hillel ben Naphtali Zevi, Lithuanian rabbi (b. 1615)
*1701 - Prince Louis I of Monaco (b. 1642)
*1743 - Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena, Italian architect and designer (b. 1657)
*1779 - Claude Bourgelat, French veterinary surgeon (b. 1712)
*1785 - Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer (b. 1706)
*1795 - Josiah Wedgwood, English potter (b. 1730)
*1813 - Bennelong, Australian aboriginal interlocutor between his tribe and the British settlers (b. c. 1764)
*1826 - Louis Gabriel Suchet, French marshal (b. 1770)
*1875 - Pierre Larousse, French editor (b. 1817)
*1882 - William Harrison Ainsworth, English novelist (b. 1805)
*1895 - James Merritt Ives, American lithographer with Nathaniel Currier (b. 1824)
*1903 - Alois Hitler, father of Adolf Hitler (b. 1837)
*1911 - Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek author (b. 1851)
*1915 - James Elroy Flecker, English author (b. 1884)
*1916 - Grenville M. Dodge, American Civil War Union Army Major General (b. 1831)
*1923 - Jaroslav Hasek, Czech novelist (b. 1883)
*1927 - Carle David Tolmé Runge, German physicist (b. 1856)
*1931 - Joseph Joffre, French general (b. 1852)
*1933 - Wilhelm Cuno, 6th Chancellor of the Weimar Republic (Germany) (b. 1876)
* 1933 - Jack Pickford, Canadian actor (b. 1896)
*1943 - Sir Walter James, Premier of Western Australia (b. 1863)
*1944 - Jurgis Baltrušaitis, Lithuanian poet (b. 1873)
*1945 - Edgar Cayce, American psychic (b. 1877)
* 1945 - Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski, Polish writer (b. 1879)
*1946 - William Joyce, American Nazi propagandist (executed) (b. 1906)
*1950 - Emil Jannings, Swiss actor (b. 1884)
*1956 - Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian composer (b. 1864)
* 1956 - Joseph Wirth, 5th Chancellor of the Weimar Republic (Germany) (b. 1876)
*1967 - Mary Garden, Scottish singer (b. 1874)
* 1967 - Jack Ruby, American killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (b. 1911)
*1969 - Howard McNear, American actor (b. 1905)
* 1969 - Jean Focas, Greco-French astronomer (b. 1909)
*1970 - Gladys Aylward, British missionary in China; portrayed by Ingrid Bergman in "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness" (b. 1902)
*1974 - Gino Cervi, Italian actor (b. 1901)
*1979 - Conrad Hilton, American hotelier (b. 1887)
*1980 - Lucien Buysse, Belgian cyclist (b. 1892)
* 1980 - Joy Adamson, Czech conservationist (b. 1910)
*1981 - Princess Alice of Albany (b. 1883)
*1988 - Rose Ausländer, German poet (b. 1901)
* 1988 - Joie Chitwood, American racedriver & Daredevil (b. 1912)
*1989 - Sergei Lvovich Sobolev, Russian mathematician (b. 1909)
*1990 - Arthur Gold, American pianist, half of Gold and Fizdale duo (b. 1917)
*1992 - Dame Judith Anderson, Australian actress (b. 1897)
*1993 - Johnny Most, American sports announcer (b. 1923)
*1994 - Heather Sears, British actress (b. 1935)
*2002 - Juan García Esquivel, Mexican band leader (b. 1918)
* 2002 - Freddy Heineken, Dutch beer executive (b. 1923)
*2003 - Sid Gillman, American football coach (b. 1911)
*2004 - Des Corcoran, Premier of South Australia (b. 1928)
* 2004 - Leon Wagner, American baseball player (b. 1934)
*2005 - Koo Chen-fu, Chinese negotiator (b. 1917)
* 2005 - Will Eisner, American comic book artist (b. 1917)
* 2005 - JN Dixit, Indian government official (b. 1936)
*2006 - Steve Rogers, Australian rugby league footballer (b. 1954)
* 2006 - Bill Skate, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea (b. 1954)
*2007 - William Verity Jr., United States Secretary of Commerce 1987-1989 (b. 1917)
* 2007 - Michael Yeats, Irish Fianna Fáil senator 19611981 and son of W.B. Yeats (b. 1921)
* 2007 - Sir Cecil Walker, Ulster Unionist Member of Parliament for North Belfast 19832001 (b. 1924)
* 2007 - Earl Reibel, Canadian ice hockey forward Detroit Red Wings (b. 1930)
* 2007 - Janos Furst, Hungarian orchestral conductor (b. 1935)
*2008 - Werner Dollinger, German politician and economist (b. 1918)
* 2008 - Aleksandr Abdulov, Russian actor (b. 1953)
* 2008 - Natasha Collins, British actress and television presenter (b. 1976)
* 2008 - Yo-Sam Choi, South Korean boxer/former WBC light flyweight champion (b. 1972)

Holidays and observances

*Feast day of St Genevieve
*Festival in honour of Pax, Roman Empire
*The tenth night and ninth day of Christmas in Western Christianity
* January 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/3 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Jan&day=03 On This Day in Canada] ----


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