- Timeline of the history of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islandshave a complex history stretching over five hundred years. Active exploration and colonisation began in the 18th century but a self-supporting colony was not established till the latter part of the 19th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as due to their strategic position in the 18th century their sovereignty was claimed by the French, Spaniards, British and Argentines at various points.
The strategic importance of the
Falkland Islandswas negated by the opening of the Panama Canalin 1914. Nevertheless, the continued sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdomand Argentinaled to the Falklands Warin 1982.
Pope Alexander VIissues a Papal bull, the Inter caetera, that divides the New Worldbetween Spainand Portugal.
Treaty of Tordesillasbetween Spainand Portugalagree the terms of the Papal Bull modifying the dividing line.
Amerigo Vespucci( Florence/ Spain) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
Binot Paulmier de Gonneville(France) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
Esteban Gómez(Spain) with the ship "San Antonio" of Magellan's Spanish expedition, sights islands that may have been the Falkland Islands. Islands are shown in the cartography of the epoch, possibly the most remarkable of these are those of Turkish Admiral Piri Reiswhich show Antarcticain remarkable detail (some 300 years before the official discovery).
*1525: Pedro Vega (Spain) Captain of the "Anunciada", part of Frey Garcia Jofre de Loaysa's expedition, possible sighting.
*1529: Diego de Ribero produces a map indicating islands in the position of the Falklands. Information this is based on is likely to have come from
*1535: Simon de Alcazaba (Spain) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
*1540: Ferdinand Camargo (Spain) shelters in islands that may have been the Falklands.
*1541: The "Sanson" islands are indicated on the Map XV del Islario (atlas) de Alonso de Santa Cruz in a position corresponding to the Falklands.
*1543: Juan Bautista Agnese produces a nautical chart indicating the "Sanson" Islands in a position corresponding to the Falklands.
*1562: A map showing the "Sanson" islands is produced. Original author may be either Diego Gutiérrez or Bartholome Olives.
*1571: A map produced by Fernao Vaz Dourado shows islands in the correct position of the Falklands.
*1577: The "Sanson" Islands are indicated on the Martinez nautical chart.
*1580: The "Sanson" Islands are indicated on the Olives nautical chart. Possible circumnavigation by Sir Francis Drake.
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa(Spain) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
*1590: Islands are shown on contemporary Spanish and Italian charts.
*1592: John Davis (
England), member of the second English expedition of Cavendish, shelters among islands that may have been the Falklands. The Falklands motto "Desire the right" is in part based on Davis' ship "Desire"
Richard Hawkins(England) maps the northern coastline, naming the islands "Hawkins Maydenlande" after himself and Queen Elizabeth. Whether the islands were in fact the Falklands is disputed.
Sebald de Weert( Netherlands) sights the islands. This is widely accredited as the first sighting of the islands.
*1604: Treaty of London between Spain and England. Terms largely favourable to Spain set aside "what had been able to acquire previously to its signature".
*1670: Treaty of Madrid. Spain recognised British possessions in the Caribbean Sea, and each country agreed to refrain from trading in the other's territory.
*1675: South Georgia is sighted by Anthony de la Roche.
*1684: Dampier, Cook and Cowley
England. Dampier publishes an accurate position for the islands but Cowley's account contains an inaccurate position convert|230|mi|km North leading to the legend of Pepys Island(sometimes confused with South Georgia).
John Strong(England) landed, and named the sound and eventually the entire island group after Viscount Falkland, Admiralty Commissioner.
*1696: Dampier returns to circumnavigate the islands.
*1701: Gouin de Beauchesne (
*1708: Roger Woodes (Great Britain)
Treaty of Utrechtbetween Spain, France and Great Britain may have recognised Spanish sovereignty over the islands
*1740: George Anson (Great Britain)
*1749: Anson proposes an expedition to find Pepys Island and establish a base on the Falkland Islands. Expedition is abandoned, possibly as a result of Spanish objections.
Louis de Bougainville(France) founded a naval base at Port Louis, East Falkland. The French named them the "Îles Malouines", so-called from when the islands were briefly occupied by fishermen from St Malo. Many of the settlers were Acadiansleft homeless by the Great Expulsionin Nova Scotia.
*1765: Ignorant of de Bougainville's presence,
John Byron(Great Britain) claims Saunders Island and other islands for Britain. Britain builds a settlement on Saunders Island the following year.
*1766: France and Spain reach agreement: French forces are to leave, and Spain agrees to pay for the installations built by de Bougainville.
*1767: Fort St Louis is formally transferred to the Spanish Crown and renamed Puerto Soledad. Bougainville receives compensation for his efforts in establishing the colony. The first Spanish Governor, Don Felipe Ruiz Puente, is appointed.
*1769: British and Spanish ships encounter one another whilst surveying the island. Each accuse the other of having no lawful reason for being in the islands.
*1771: That dispute was settled, with Spain retaining Puerto Soledad and Great Britain Port Egmont. Spain returns all goods and chattels seized and makes restitution. The Spanish later claim a secret agreement was reached whereby the British would leave the island, this is denied by the British and no documentary proof of the agreement has ever been produced.
*1774: The British decide to abandon many overseas settlements due to the economic pressures of the American War of Independence.
*1775: Captain Cook discovers South Georgia and takes formal position on behalf of King George III.
*1776: The British finally depart the islands but leave behind a plaque re-asserting British dominion. Spain ruled the islands as part of the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plataafter 1776.
Nootka Convention. Britain conceded Spanish sovereignty over all Spain's traditional territories in the Americas. Whether or not the islands were included is disputed.
*1806: Spain recalls Governor Juan Crisostomo Martinez from the islands but leaves behind a plaque re-asserting Spanish dominion.
*1807: Settlers on the Island face near starvation after the British occupy Montevideo and enforce a blockade.
*1811: The Spanish evacuate Puerto Soledad, the islands become the domain of sealers and whalers.
*1813: "Isabella" under Captain Higton is wrecked on Eagle Island now known as Speedwell Island. 6 sailors undertake the hazardous voyage to the River Plate in an open longboat. The remaining crew are rescued by the American sealer "Nanina" under Captain Barnard. Whilst Barnard seeks additional supplies, the British crew seize "Nanina" and maroon the Americans.
*1814: After being marooned for 18 months Barnard is rescued by the British
whalers "Asp" and "Indispensible".
*1816: The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, later called
Argentina, claimed independence from Spain.
South Shetland Islandsare discovered by Captain William Smith who claims possession for King George III.
*1820: After an 8 month voyage, and with the ship in a poor state, the Argentine frigate, "Heroína", puts into the islands in October. On 6 November Captain Jewett raises the flag and claims the islands for the
United Provinces of the River Plate.
South Orkney Islandsare discovered by Captain George Powell who claims possession for King George IV.
United Provinces of the River Plateappoints Don Pablo Areguati as Commandant of Puerto Soledad. An appointment in name only as he never sets foot on the islands.
*1824: Vernet and his partner Pachego attempt an expedition to the islands. The venture is a failure.
United Kingdomrecognised Argentina's independence from Spain.
*1826: Vernet's first attempt to establish a settlement. Expeditions fails due to Brazilian blockade and conditions encountered on the islands.
*1828: The Argentine settlement was established.
*1829: Argentina named
Luis Vernetas the islands' governor. Britain protested.
*1831: After a dispute over fishing rights with a
United Statesvessel, the Argentine authorities arrested and detained the vessel's captain. The US responded by shelling the islands, destroying the settlement, and repatriating most of the settlers. The US declares the islands free from Government.
*1832: Argentina appoints a new Governor, who is murdered by residents.
United Kingdomtook over the islands again but Argentina maintained its claim. (See Re-establishment of British rule on the Falklands (1833).) William Dixon is named as the British representative and Matthew Brisbane returns to take over Vernet's settlement at Port Louis. Charles Darwin's first visit to the islands. In August, Antonio Rivero leads a gang of creoles and Gauchos who murder key members of the settlement.
*1834: Installation of the first British resident, Lt Henry Smith. Smith arrests Rivero's gang, restores the settlement and renames it Ansons Harbour. Charles Darwin's second visit.
*1838: Lt Lowcay replaces Lt Smith.
*1839: Lt Lowcay is replaced by Lt Robinson, in December Robinson is relieved by Lt Tyssen. Vernet is refused permission to return to the islands and the British renege on promises made in 1833. G.T.Whittington forms a company to exploit fishery and agriculture, petitions the British Government to colonise the islands.
*1840: The British approve the formation of a colony on the islands.
*1841: General Rosas offers to relinquish any claim to sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in return for the relief of the Argentine debt to
City of Londoninterests. The British decline the offer. Lt Governor Moody is appointed as the first British Governor of the Islands, a Letters Patentestablishes the legal framework for the colony.
*1843: Work begins on the new town of Port Stanley, at Jackson's Harbour. South Georgia is placed under the administration of the Falkland Islands by the
Letters Patentof 1843.
*1845: In July, Stanley becomes new capital of the Falkland Islands.
*1846: Samuel Lafone is awarded a contract to exploit feral cattle on
East Falkland. He names the peninsular south of East Falkland Lafonia.
*1847: Land is made available for sale or lease in the
Falkland Islands. Ship repair trade in the islands is boosted by large number of ships rounding Cape Hornen-route to the California Gold Rush.
*1849: 30 married Chelsea Pensioners and their families arrive in the islands. Population in the islands reaches 200.
*1851: Falkland Islands Company is established by Royal Charter.
*1852: Cheviot sheep are first introduced to the islands. Sheep farming later becomes the dominant agriculture on the islands.
*1854: A defence force is formed on the islands in response to the
*1859: Establishment of Darwin
*1861: San Carlos Farm established.
*1866: Establishment of
*1875: Establishment of
*1876: The last Warrah is killed at Shallow Bay.
*1878: The first peat slide destroys several houses in Port Stanley.
*1880s: The "forest" at
Hill Coveis planted.
*1881: The Falkland Islands became financially independent.
*1884: Argentina request that the sovereignty dispute is submitted to independent arbitration, Britain refuses.
*1886: Second peat slide destroys the exchange building and two women are killed.
*1892: Consecration of Christchurch Cathedral.
*1899: St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church is consecrated.
*1903: Christ Church Cathedral is completed.
Battle of Coroneland Battle of the Falkland Islands.
Falkland Islands Defence Forceis formed following the First World War
*1921: The killing of
fur seals is banned.
*1925: The "forest" at
Hill Coveis enlarged, producing the most substantial stand of trees in the islands.
*1933: The famous whalebone arch is constructed outside of Christchurch Cathedral to celebrate the centenary of the British administration.
Battle of the River Plate. HMS Exeter shelters in the islands after suffering major damage in the battle.
*1945: Formation of the
United Nations, Argentina states its claim to the islands in its opening address.
*1947: Britain first offers to take the sovereignty dispute to the ICJ. Argentina does not accept.
*1948: Britain again offers to take the sovereignty dispute to the ICJ. Argentina declines.
*1955: Britain unilaterally refers the sovereignty dispute to the ICJ. Argentina indicates that it will not accept any judgement.
Soviet Unionexpands interests in Antarcticaand South Shetlands, and maintains "research vessels" in the South Atlantic until the 1990s.
*1960: UN resolution 1514 calls for an end to colonisation. Britains lists the islands as a colony, Argentina protests.
*1961: Antarctic Treaty comes into force, all sovereignty claims in the Antarctic region are suspended.
*1962: Britain transfers administration of the
South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islandsand Graham Landfrom the Falklands to the British Antarctic Territory.
Cessna 172piloted by Miguel Fitzgerald lands on Stanley racecourse, plants the Argentine flag and hands over a letter claiming sovereignty to bemused residents .
United NationsResolution 2065 called upon Britain and Argentina to "proceed without delay with negotiations [...] with a view to finding a peaceful solution to the problem [...] bearing in mind [...] the interests of the population of the Falkland Islands (Las Islas Malvinas)."
*1966: An Aerolineas Argentinas DC-4 hijacked by 20 terrorists calling themselves 'Condors' crash lands on Stanley race course. Islanders assuming the aircraft was in trouble rush to assist and are taken hostage. Subjected to Country and Western music for 24 hrs the terrorists surrender and are repatriated to
Argentina. Argentine tactical divers are landed by submarine ARA "Santiago del Estero" to conduct covert reconnaissance of suitable landing sites.
*1967: Britain opens negotiations with Argentina and indicates willingness to transfer sovereignty.
*1968: Falkland Islands Emergency Committee is formed to lobby on the Islanders behalf to remain British. A small private plane piloted by Miguel Fitzgerald crash lands on Eliza Cove Road during the visit of Lord Chalfont. Islanders reiterate their determination to remain British and reject suggestions of sovereignty transfer.
SS Great Britainis returned to Bristol for restoration.
*1971: Communications agreement signed between Britain and Argentina. Air links to the islands are established by
LADE, Argentina's military airline, Britain promises a supply ship from Montevideobut later reneges. Islanders travelling through Argentina are forced to carry Argentine Identity Cards rather than a British passport. Argentine Government agrees to suspend sovereignty claims whilst attempting to win the islanders over.
*1972: Work starts on a temporary airfield at Port Stanley.
*1973: Newly elected President Juan Perón renews sovereignty claim in the UN, resolution 3160 urges negotiations but Britain refuses.
*1974: YPF becomes the exlusive supplier of oil and gas company to the islands. Britain proposes a condominium solution to the sovereignty dispute but this is rejected by the islanders.
*1975: Construction of a paved runway at Port Stanley commences. Lord Shackleton is asked to undertake an economic survey of the islands. Diplomatic relations between the UK and Argentina are broken.
*1976: RRS Shackleton is fired upon by the Argentine
destroyerARA Almirante Storni during Lord Shackleton's mission. Argentina establishes a military base on Southern Thule. Britain protests but seeks a diplomatic solution.
Operation Journeyman: in response to increasing tension with Argentina, the Callaghan Government sends a Royal Navytask force to the South Atlantic. Negotiations are re-opened with Argentina over the islands. Stanley airport opens.
*1978: Falkland Islands Association opens a
Londonoffice to lobby Parliament on the islanders behalf.
*1979: Nicholas Ridley visits the
Falkland Islandsto canvass islanders views.
*1980: Nicholas Ridley proposes leaseback solution, it is rejected by the islanders.
*1981: British Nationality Act strips many islanders of British citizenship. It is announced that HMS Endurance is to be withdrawn and the
British Antarctic Surveybase in Grytvikenis to close. Argentine scrap dealer Constantino Davidoff visits South Georgia without permission, setting of a chain of events resulting in the Falklands War
*1982: Various tensions, but mainly the desire of the Argentine military junta to distract attention from domestic economic and political ills, led to an Argentine invasion. The islands were later retaken by the UK. (See
Falklands War.) In November, the United Nations General Assemblycalled on the UK and Argentina to resume sovereignty negotiations, but the UK refuses to discuss sovereignty unless it has the consent of the Islanders. An updated Shackleton report on the economic prospects for the islands is published following the conflict.
*1983: Franks Report into the causes of the
Falklands Waris published. British citizenship is restored to the islanders.
*1984: Britain and Argentina enter into talks in Berne, Britain refuses to discuss sovereignty without the consent of the islanders. The Falklands war memorial is dedicated on Liberation Day (June 14).
*1985: New Falkland Islands constitution is adopted. The Falkland Islands become a a parliamentary representative democratic dependency. Falkland Islands Government assumes responsibility for all domestic matters. Mount Pleasant Airfield opens.
*1986: UN adopts an Argentine resolution calling for Britain to resume negotiations including sovereignty.
*1987: Establishment of the Falkland Islands Fishery regime, this becomes the major source of income for the islands.
*1989: Newly elected Argentine president
Carlos Menemembarks on talks with Britain under the sovereignty umbrella.
*1990: Britain and Argentina resume diplomatic relations. A Chilean airline beings charter flights to Mount Pleasant Airfield
*1991: Argentine next of kin visit the Argentine cemetery in Darwin.
*1994: Argentina enshrines its claim to the Falkland Islands in its constitution.
*1995: British and Argentine Governments sign an agreement concerning exploitation of oil deposits surrounding the islands. The Argentine warship ARA "Granville" harasses fishing vessels in Falkland Waters and threatens RFA Dilligence. Regular visits by Argentine next of kin commences.
*1997: Constitutional amendment balances the number of elected officials between Stanley and Camp.
*1998: UK arms embargo on sales to Argentina is relaxed.
*1999: Agreement between British and Argentine Governments ends the ban on visits by Argentine nationals. Passenger flights over Argentine airspace are permitted in return.
British Antarctic Surveybase at Grytviken, South Georgia reopened.
*2001: British military garrison is withdrawn from South Georgia.
*2002: First SAMA 82 pilgrimage to the islands. 200 British veterans of the conflict return to the islands.
*2003: Several yachts competing in a solo round the world race are forced into Stanley for repairs.
*2004: A permanent memorial to Argentine war dead is dedicated in Darwin. Argentine icebreaker "Almirante Irízar" harasses shipping in Falkland waters. [http://www.falklands.info/history/timeline.html] Falkland Islands Timeline: A Chronology of events in the history of the Falkland Islands, Accessed
*2005: Falklands Gold and Minerals prospect for
*2007: 25th Anniversary of the
Falklands Waris commemorated in services in Stanley and London. Argentine president Néstor Kirchnerrenews sovereignty claim and renounces agreements over oil exploration. UK renews claims to Antarctic territory before the expiry of the deadline for territorial claims following Britains ratification of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Major General Sir John Jeremy Moore, commander of the British land forces during the Falklands War, dies.
*2008: The British Government announces that it is considering action on clearing the 20,000 mines left in the islands by Argentine forces during the
Falklands Warin 1982. Remains of an Argentine airman killed during the Falklands War were identified using DNA testing, the remains had been unidentified since discovery in 1986 [Citation
title = Falkland Islands: Weekly Penguin News Update
date = 12 September
year = 2008
url = Direct Link: http://www.mercopress.com/vernoticia.do?id=14532&formato=html
accessdate = 12-09-2008] .
History of the Falkland Islands
Origins of Falkland Islanders
History of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
* [http://history.falklands.info Falkland Islands History] "Early history adapted from the ninth edition of an encyclopedia (1879) and other sources."
* [http://www.falklands.info/history/timeline.html Falklands Islands History - timeline]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1987/CRD.htm 1987 American report] by Richard D. Chenette, Lieutenant Commander, USN, laying out the history and background of the disputed claims
* [http://www.history.horizon.co.fk/chronology.html The History of the Falkland Islands - Chronology]
* [http://www.ussduncan.org/silas_page13.htm Silas Duncan and the Falkland Islands' Incident]
* [http://www.historyofnations.net/southamerica/falklandislands.html History of Falkland Islands]
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