- Intermodal passenger transport
Intermodal passenger transport involves more than one
mode of transportof passengers. Some modes of transportationhave always been intermodal; for example, most major airports have extensive facilities for automobile parking and have good rail or bus connections to the cities nearby. Urban bus systems generally serve train and subway stations and often extend to the local airport. A major goal of modern intermodal passenger transport, at least in developed countries, is to reduce dependence on the automobileas the major mode of ground transportation and increase use of public transport. To encourage them to do this, Intermodal Journey planners are used to make users aware of possible services and to facilitate their use.
Passenger transport has always been intermodal. People switched from carriages to ferries at the edge of a river too deep to ford. In the 19th century, people who lived inland switched from
trainto shipfor overseas voyages. Hoboken Terminalin Hoboken, New Jerseywas built to let commuters to New York Cityfrom New Jersey switch to ferries to cross the Hudson Riverin order to get to Manhattan. A massive ferry slip, now in ruins, was incorporated into the terminal building. Later, when a subway was built through tunnels under the Hudson, now called the PATH, a station stop was added to Hoboken Terminal. More recently, the New Jersey Transit's Hudson-Bergen Light Railsystem has included a stop there, but it is a relatively long walk from the terminal building. Ferry service has recently been revived, but passengers must exit the terminal and walk across the pier to the more modest ferry slip.
Park and ride
Intermodal planners try to encourage automobile commuters to make much of their journey by public transport. One of the more successful ways of doing this is to provide parking places in the suburbs near major highways where commuters can leave their cars for the day and take a train or bus into an urban downtown area.
Between bus and train
Many large cities with intracity rail link the rail network with the bus network. This enables riders to get to places that are not serviced directly by rail or would be too far for walking. In
Chicago, for instance, to travel from the Loop to the Museum of Science and Industry, one must take the 'L' to Garfield Boulevard then transfer to a bus to the museum.
Train to the plane
Another increasingly popular tool for intermodalism is to extend subway and rail service to major urban airports. This provides travelers with an often less expensive and more reliable way to get to their flights than driving, and contending with full up parking, or taking taxis and getting caught in traffic jams on the way to the airport. Many airports now have some mass transit link, including
Heathrow Airport, London
Ben Gurion International Airportnear Tel Aviv, Israel
Vancouver International Airport, Vancouver, Canada. See Canada Line
San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, California
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia
O'Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois
Midway Airport, Chicago, Illinois
Baltimore-Washington International Airportnear Baltimore, Marylandand Washington, DC
Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts
*Greater New York City's JFK and
Newark Liberty International Airports. See AirTrain JFK and AirTrain Newark
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, Ohio
Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, in Arlington County, Virginia
Hong Kong International Airport, ferryservices to various piers in the Pearl River Deltais provided. Passengers from Guangdongcan use these piers to take a flightat the Airport, without passing through customsand immigrationcontrol, effectively like having a transitfrom one flight to another. The Airport is well-connected with expressways and an Airport Express train service. A seaportand logisticsfacilities will be added in the near future.
Automobiles on trains
Several passenger rail systems offer services that allow travelers to bring their automobiles with them. These usually consist of automobile carrying wagons attached to normal passenger trains, but some special trains operate solely to transport automobiles.
Trains on boats
train ferryis a ship designed to carry railway vehicles. While usually used to carry freight vehicles, passenger cars can also be carried. In other places passengers move between passenger cars to a passenger ferry.
Taxicabsand Rental cars continue to play a major role in providing door to door service between Airportor Train stationand other points of travel throughout urban, suburban, and ruralcommunities.
Bicycles are often a good way for peopleto get to a public transportation station, but they need safe place to leave the bike if it's not a folding bicycle. Some public transportation systems have provisions for cyclists to take their regular-sized bicycles on board trains and buses, often at off peak times. "See utility cyclingand portable bicycle"
In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on designing facilities that make such transfers easier and more seamless. These are intended to help passengers move from one mode (or form) of transportation to another. An intermodal station may service air, rail, and highway transportation for example.
In some cases, facilities were merged or transferred into a new facility, as at the
William F. Walsh Regional Transportation Centerin Syracuse, New Yorkor South Station in Boston, Massachusetts. In other cases new facilities, such as the Alewife Station In Cambridge, Massachusettswere built from the start to emphasize intermodalism.
Intermodal Journey Planner
*The notion of
co-modalityintroduced by the European Commission
Flying car (aircraft)
* [http://www.airportrailwaysoftheworld.com List of International airports with adjoining rail links]
* [http://www.iaro.com International Air Rail Organization]
* [http://www.eltis.org European Local Transport Information Service] (
ELTIS) provides case studies concerning passenger intermodality as a local transport concept
* [http://www.linkforum.eu LINK - The European Forum on Intermodal Passenger Travel]
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