- John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport USGS aerial image as of April 8, 1994 IATA: JFK – ICAO: KJFK – FAA LID: JFK
– WMO: 74486
Summary Airport type Public Owner City of New York Operator Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Serves New York City Location Jamaica, NY Hub for Elevation AMSL 13 ft / 4 m Coordinates Coordinates: Website Maps Runways Direction Length Surface ft m 4L/22R 11,351 3,460 Asphalt 4R/22L 8,400 2,560 Asphalt 13L/31R 10,000 3,048 Asphalt 13R/31L 14,572 4,423 Concrete Helipads Number Length Surface ft m H1 60 18 Asphalt H2 60 18 Asphalt H3 60 18 Asphalt H4 60 18 Asphalt Statistics (2010) Aircraft operations (ACI) 399,626 Passengers (ACI) 46,514,154 Source: Federal Aviation Administration
John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK, FAA LID: JFK) is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North America It is also the leading freight gateway to the country by value of shipments. In 2010, the airport handled 46,514,154 passengers, making it the 16th busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic.
Over ninety airlines operate out of JFK. It is the base of operations for JetBlue Airways and is a major international gateway hub for American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. The airport is the fourth largest hub for American Airlines and is the fifth largest hub for Delta Air Lines. In the past, it has been a hub for Eastern Air Lines, National Airlines, Pan American World Airways and Trans World Airlines. The airport was renamed after John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. From 1964-1968, the airport code was KIA.
The airport is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which also manages the two other major airports in the New York metropolitan area, Newark Liberty International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. With the three airports combined New York City has the world's second busiest city airport system after London.
- 1 History
- 2 Runways and operational infrastructure
- 3 Terminals
- 4 Other facilities
- 5 Information services
- 6 Traffic and statistics
- 7 Ground transportation
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 In popular culture
- 10 References
- 11 External links
John F. Kennedy International Airport was originally known as Idlewild Airport (IATA: IDL, ICAO: KIDL, FAA LID: IDL) after the Idlewild Golf Course that it displaced. The airport was originally envisioned as a reliever for LaGuardia Airport, which had insufficient capacity in the late 1930s. Construction began in 1943 by local firms such as the Edenwald Group headed by the late Charles Follini Sr., a decorated former FDNY fireman; about $60 million was initially spent, but only 1,000 acres (400 ha) of land on the site of the Idlewild golf course were earmarked for use.
The project was renamed Major General Alexander E. Anderson Airport in 1943 after a Queens resident who had commanded a Federalized National Guard unit in the southern United States and who had died in late 1942. In March 1948 the New York City Council again changed the name to New York International Airport, Anderson Field, but the airport was commonly known as "Idlewild" until 1963.
The Port Authority leased the airport property from the City of New York in 1947 and maintains this lease as of the late 2000s. The first commercial flight at the airport was on July 1, 1948; the opening ceremony was attended by President Harry Truman. The Port Authority cancelled foreign airlines' permits to use LaGuardia, effectively forcing them to move to the new airport during the next couple of years.
The airport opened with six runways and a seventh under construction; runways 1L and 7L were held in reserve and never came into use as runways. Runway 31R (originally 8000 ft) is still in use; runway 31L (originally 9500 ft) opened soon after the rest of the airport and is still in use; runway 1R closed in the 1950s and runway 7R closed around 1966. Runway 4 (originally 8,000 ft (2,400 m), now runway 4L) opened June 1949 and runway 4R was added ten years later.
The Avro Jetliner landed at Idlewild on April 18, 1950 and maybe in January 1951; a Caravelle prototype was the next jet airliner to land at Idlewild, on May 2, 1957. Later in 1957 the USSR sought approval for two Tu-104 flights carrying Soviet diplomats to Idlewild; the Port Authority did not allow them, saying noise tests had to be done first. (The Caravelle had been tested at Paris.)
The airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport on December 24, 1963, one month after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
The Port Authority originally envisioned a single 55-gate terminal for the airport, but the major airlines of the time did not agree with this plan, arguing that the terminal would be far too small for future traffic. Architect Wallace Harrison then designed a master plan under which each major airline at the airport would be given its own space to develop its own terminal design. This scheme made construction more practical, made terminals more navigable and introduced incentives for airlines to compete with each other for the best design. The revised master plan met airline approval in 1955.
- The International Arrivals Building, or IAB, was the first new terminal project at the airport, opening in December 1957. Stretching nearly 700 meters parallel to runway 7R where Terminal 4 is now, it was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and featured "finger" piers constructed at right-angles to the main building. These allowed a greater number of aircraft to park, a major innovation at the time.
- United Airlines opened Terminal 7 (later renumbered Terminal 9), a Skidmore design similar to that of the IAB, in October 1959. Eastern Airlines opened its Chester L. Churchill-designed Terminal 1 one month later.
- American Airlines opened its Terminal 8 in 1960. The terminal was designed by Kahn and Jacobs and became known for its 317 feet (97 m) stained glass facade designed by Robert Sowers, which was the largest stained glass installation in the world until 1979. The facade was removed in 2007 as the terminal was demolished to make room for the new Terminal 8; American cited the prohibitive cost of removing the enormous installation.
- Pan American World Airways opened the Worldport (now Terminal 3) in 1960. It featured a large, elliptical roof suspended by 32 sets of radial posts and cables; the roof extended 114 feet (35 m) beyond the base of the terminal to cover the passenger loading area. It was one of the first airline terminals in the world to feature Jetways that connected to the terminal and that could be moved to provide an easy walkway for passengers from the terminal to a docked aircraft, rather than having to board the plane outside via airstairs, which descend from an aircraft, via truck-mounted mobile stairs, or via wheeled stairs.
- Trans World Airlines opened the TWA Flight Center in 1962, designed by Eero Saarinen with a distinctive winged-bird shape. With the demise of TWA in 2001, the terminal remained vacant until 2005 when JetBlue Airways and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) financed the construction of a new 26-gate terminal partly encircling the Saarinen building. Called now Terminal 5 (or simply T5), the new terminal opened October 22, 2008. T5 is connected to the Saarinen central building through the original passenger departure-arrival tubes which connected the building to the outlying gates; the Port Authority is working on renovations of the remaining original Saarinen terminal, also known as the head house.
- Northwest Airlines, Braniff International and Northeast Airlines opened a joint terminal in 1962.
- National Airlines opened the Sundrome (now Terminal 6) in 1970. The terminal was designed by I.M.Pei. It was unique for its use of all-glass mullions dividing the window sections, unprecedented at the time. In 2001, United Airlines planned to redevelop this terminal and the TWA Flight Center as a new United terminal, but the airline later reduced its operation at JFK and abandoned plans for a future JFK hub. Terminal 6 was used by JetBlue Airways from 2001 through 2008 and vacated when JetBlue moved to Terminal 5.
In 1951 Idlewild averaged 73 daily airline operations (takeoffs plus landings); the October 1951 Airline Guide shows nine domestic departures a day, on National and Northwest. (Some of TWA's transatlantic flights had domestic segments but carried no domestic passengers.) When Newark closed in February 1952 much of its traffic moved to Idlewild, which averaged 242 daily airline operations in 1952. L-1049 Constellations and DC-7s appeared in 1951-53 and didn't use LGA for their first several years, bringing more traffic to IDL. The April 1957 OAG shows two departures a week on Aerolineas Argentinas, 24 on Air France, 164 American, 6 Avianca, 42 BOAC and BWIA, 35 Capital, 7 Cubana, 252 Eastern, 2 El Al, 2 Iberia, 7 Icelandic, 17 KLM, 2 LAI, 6 LAV, 9 Lufthansa, 156 National, 75 Northwest, 131 Pan American, 9 Sabena, 26 SAS, 6 Swissair, 95 Trans-Canada, 115 TWA, 90 United and 3 Varig. (For most airlines the counts are for the beginning of April, but some transatlantic airlines only show their expanded schedules starting later in the month.)
Airlines began scheduling jets into Idlewild in 1958-59; LaGuardia didn't get jet airliners until 1964, so Idlewild soon became New York's busiest airline airport. In 1962-67 it had more airline takeoffs and landings than LGA and EWR combined and was the second-busiest airline airport in the country, peaking at 403,981 airline operations in 1967. During 1960-66 LaGuardia got a new terminal and longer runways, and by the middle 1970s the two airports had roughly equal passenger airline traffic (by flight count, not passenger count). (Until the 1980s Newark was always third place, except during LGA's reconstruction.) The supersonic Concorde, operated by Air France and British Airways, provided scheduled trans-Atlantic supersonic service to JFK from November 22, 1977 until October 24, 2003, when Concorde was retired by both carriers. JFK had the most Concorde operations annually of any airport in the world.
JFK is currently undergoing a $10.3 billion redevelopment. The airport began construction of the AirTrain JFK rapid transit system in 1998; completed in December 2003, the rail network links each airport terminal to New York City subways and regional commuter trains at Howard Beach and Jamaica, Queens. The airport opened a new Terminal 1 on May 28, 1998, and the $1.4 billion replacement for the International Arrivals Building, Terminal 4, opened on May 24, 2001. Construction has been completed on JetBlue Airways's new Terminal 5, which incorporates the historic landmark TWA FlightCenter terminal, while Terminals 8 and 9 were recently demolished and rebuilt as a unified Terminal 8 for the American Airlines hub. In 2008 the Port Authority Board of Commissioners approved a $20 million planning study for the much needed redevelopment of Terminals 2 and 3, the hub of Delta Air Lines.
On March 19, 2007, JFK became the first airport in the United States to receive the Airbus A380 with passengers aboard. The route-proving flight with more than 500 passengers was operated jointly by Lufthansa and Airbus and arrived at Terminal 1. On August 1, 2008, JFK received the first regularly scheduled commercial A380 flight to the United States, operated by Emirates on its New York–Dubai route using Terminal 4. This service was suspended in 2009, due to poor passenger demand. Re-introduced in November 2010, Emirates operate their A380 aircraft to JFK.
Runways and operational infrastructure
Four runways (two pairs of parallel runways) surround the airport's central terminal area.
Number Length Width ILS Notes 13R-31L 14,572 feet (4,442 m) 200 feet (61 m) Cat. I (31L) Second-longest commercial runway in North America (the longest is a 16,000 feet (4,900 m) runway at Denver International Airport). Adjacent to Terminals 1, 2 and 3. Handled approximately one half of the airport's scheduled departures. It was a backup runway for space shuttle missions. It was closed on March 1, 2010 for four months. The reconstruction of the runway widened it from 150 feet (46 m) to 200 feet (61 m) with a concrete base instead of asphalt. It reopened on June 29, 2010. 4R-22L 8,400 feet (2,600 m) 200 feet (61 m) Cat. III (both directions) Equipped at both ends with Approach Lighting Systems (ALS) with sequenced flashers, and touchdown zone (TDZ) lighting. The first Engineered Materials Arresting System (EMAS) in North America was installed at the northeast end of the runway in 1996. The bed consists of cellular cement material, which can safely decelerate and stop an aircraft that overruns the runway. The arrestor bed concept was originated and developed by the Port Authority and installed at JFK Airport as a joint research and development project with the FAA and industry. 4L-22R 11,351 feet (3,460 m) 150 feet (46 m) Cat. I (both directions) Adjacent to Terminals 4 and 5. Both ends allow instrument landings down to three-quarters of a mile visibility. Takeoffs can be conducted with one-eighth of a mile visibility. 13L-31R 10,000 feet (3,000 m) 150 feet (46 m) Cat. II (13L); Cat. I (31R) Equipped at both ends with ILS and ALS systems. Runway 13L has two additional visual aids for landing aircraft, a Visual Approach Slope Indicator System (VASI) and a Lead-In Lighting System (LDIN). The ILS on 13L, along with TDZ lighting, allows landings down to half a mile visibility. Takeoffs can be made with visibility of one-eighth of a mile.
JFK has over 25 miles (40 km) of taxiways to move aircraft in and around the airfield. The standard width of these taxiways is 75 feet (23 m), with 25-foot (7.6 m) heavy-duty shoulders and 25-foot (7.6 m) erosion control pavements on each side. The taxiways have centerline lights and are generally of asphalt concrete composition 15 to 18 inches (460 mm) thick. An illuminated sign system provides directional information for taxiing aircraft.
The Air Traffic Control Tower, designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners and constructed on the ramp-side of Terminal 4, began full FAA operations in October 1994. An Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE) radar unit sits atop the tower. A gas-fired electric cogeneration plant generates electricity for the airport, with an output of about 90 megawatts. It uses thermal energy from the capture of waste heat to heat and cool all of the passenger terminals and other facilities in the central terminal area.
Aircraft service facilities include seven aircraft hangars, an engine overhaul building, a 32-million-US-gallon (120,000 m3) aircraft fuel storage facility, and a truck garage.
JFK has eight terminals (nine until the early 2000s) containing 151 gates, seven of which are currently in use (Terminals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8). Terminal 3 will be demolished after the terminal 4 expansion is completed. Terminal 6 is being demolished following the completion of terminal 5 expansion.
The terminal buildings are arranged in a deformed U-shaped wavy pattern around a central area containing parking, hotels, a power plant, and other airport facilities. The terminals are connected by the AirTrain system and access roads. Wayfinding signage throughout the terminals was designed by Paul Mijksenaar. A 2006 survey by J.D. Power and Associates in conjunction with Aviation Week found JFK ranked second in overall traveller satisfaction among large airports in the United States, behind McCarran International Airport which serves the Las Vegas metropolitan area.
The original Terminal 1, built for Eastern Airlines, was demolished circa 1995.
The current Terminal 1 was opened in 1998, 50 years after the opening of JFK, at the direction of the Terminal One Group, a consortium of four key operating carriers: Air France, Japan Airlines, Korean Air and Lufthansa. This partnership was founded after the four airlines reached agreement that existing international carrier facilities were inadequate for their needs. Terminal 1 has the capability to handle Airbus A380 aircraft from Air France on the route from Paris Charles De Gaulle ,Lufthansa on the route from Frankfurt Airport and Korean Air on the route from Incheon Airport; it is one of two terminals (along with Terminal 4) capable to carry the superjumbo aircraft. Terminal 1 has 11 gates.
Terminal 2 was opened in 1962 as the home of Northeast Airlines, Braniff and Northwest Airlines. After the demise of Northeast Airlines and Braniff the building was taken over by Pan American World Airways and subsequently by Delta Air Lines. It has 7 jetway-equipped gates (20–22, 26–29) and 17 stands for Delta Connection carriers (23A-H, 23J, 25K-N, 25P-S). Delta is currently in the progress of connecting T2 with T4. It is also currently moving its international operations into T4 and demolishing T3. The project was approved by the Port Authority on August 5, 2010.
Terminal 3 was built as the Worldport in 1960 for Pan American, and substantially expanded for the introduction of the 747 in 1970. Delta Air Lines currently uses the entire terminal, and has a connector to Terminal 2, its other terminal at JFK. Terminal 3 has 16 jetway equipped gates: 1–10, 12, 14–18 with two hardstand gates (Gate 11) and a helipad on Taxiway 'KK'.
A 1.2 billion dollar project is under construction which would expand T4 into which Delta moved its current T3 operations, demolishing T3 following Terminal 4's expansion in 2013 to provide additional aircraft parking stands to speed up ground handling, and construct a connector between T2 and T4 for Delta transfers. T3 would be entirely demolished in 2015, including the 'flying saucer' roof, after the T4 expansion is completed.
Terminal 4, the international terminal, is able to handle the Airbus A380 and was developed by LCOR, Inc and is managed by the Schiphol Group. It was the first airport terminal in the United States to be managed by a foreign airport operator. Terminal 4 is the major gateway for international arrivals at JFK. Opened in 2001, the new 1,500,000-square-foot (140,000 m2) building was built at a cost of $1.4 billion and replaced JFK's old International Arrivals Building, or simply IAB, which opened in 1957. Terminal 4 has 17 gates in two concourses: A2-A7, B20, B22-B31. The number of gates will be expanded for all of Delta Air Lines international flights to be operated from Terminal 4 in the future. A photo was released which shows additional expansion of T4 to include "regional jet" gates, although this phase has not yet been officially confirmed.
Concourse A has six gates, numbered A2-A7. Concourse B has eleven gates, numbered B20-B31, with the exclusion of B21. As Terminal 4 was built during the construction of the AirTrain, the AirTrain station was built inside the terminal building. Other AirTrain stations are built across from terminal buildings. Terminal 4’s expansive shopping mall offers a wide range of retail options before security so passengers and their families can enjoy shopping and dining together. Four chapels are located on the fourth floor (departure level). Delta Air Lines has also moved its operations to T4, as it expands operations beyond T2.
The terminal is currently being expanded, including nine new international gates, additional baggage space, customs and border-security facilities.
Terminal 5 is the new home of JetBlue Airways. The recently completed terminal is known for its many gift shops and gourmet restaurants, including a steak house and a sushi restaurant. It sits behind the preserved Eero Saarinen-designed terminal originally known as the TWA Flight Center, which is now connected to the new structure and is considered part of T5. The Saarinen building is currently closed for refurbishment; it is unclear when the building will re-open or what purpose it will have. The active T5 building has 26 gates: 1–12, 14–27.
Terminal 6 had 14 gates. Designed by I. M. Pei, it was built in 1970 as the National Airlines Sundrome. Later, Trans World Airlines used it. On June 1, 2006, JetBlue Airways began service from Terminal 6, opening a temporary complex that increased its capacity by adding seven gates. After JetBlue vacated the terminal, these were demolished. The original building is currently being demolished to allow for greater expansion of JetBlue's operations.
Terminal 7 was built for BOAC and Air Canada in the early 1970s. It is currently owned and operated by British Airways. This terminal was special among all airport terminals in the world as it was the only terminal owned and operated by a foreign carrier on US soil ever, anywhere. A variety of Oneworld alliance carriers operate out of Terminal 7 at this time, including British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Iberia (now merged with British Airways) and Qantas. Star Alliance carriers United Airlines, US Airways and ANA also use the terminal. In 1997, the Port Authority entered an agreement with British Airways to expand the terminal. The renovated terminal has 12 gates. On May 21, 2008, British Airways announced that it would undertake a $30 million, 18-month-long project to enhance its premium ground facilities at the terminal. British Airways is currently evaluating the future of Terminal 7, as its lease with the Port Authority ends in 2015.
Management has indicated a desire to relocate British Airways/Iberia's operations to a new pier located east and connected to Terminal 8, pending approval of an alliance with American Airlines.
In 1999, American Airlines began an eight-year program to build the largest passenger terminal at JFK, designed to replace both Terminal 8 and Terminal 9. The new terminal was built in four phases, which involved the construction of a new midfield concourse, demolition of the old Terminal 9, and finally demolition of the old Terminal 8. It opened in stages between 2005 and had its "official" opening in August 2007. It is a major Oneworld hub, and American Airlines is the major Oneworld carrier at Terminal 8. In addition to operations at Terminal 7, some Oneworld airlines including Finnair operate out of Terminal 8. Qatar Airways also operates its flights out of Terminal 8.
The terminal is twice the size of Madison Square Garden. It offers dozens of retail and food outlets, 84 ticket counters, 44 self-service kiosks, 10 security checkpoint lanes and a U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility that can process more than 1,600 people an hour. Terminal 8 has an annual capacity of 12.8M passengers. It has two American Airlines Admirals Clubs and a Flagship Lounge for premium class passengers.
Terminal 8 has 29 gates: 12 gates in Concourse B (1–8, 10, 12, 14, and 16) and 17 gates in Concourse C (31–47). Gate 31 is further subdivided into 5 regional service gates for small jets, 31A-31E. Gate 32 is subdivided into 4 regional service gates for small jets, 32F-32I. The total number of jetbridges is, therefore, 36. Passenger access to Concourse C is by an underground tunnel which includes moving walkways. Of interest are a history of American Airlines logos on display between the security checkpoint and the concourses.
Airlines and destinations
International arrivals can be handled at any terminal except Terminals 2 and 5.
Airlines Destinations Terminal(s) Aer Lingus Dublin
4 Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo 1 Aerogal Guayaquil, Quito 4 Aeroméxico Mexico City, Puerto Vallarta 1 Aerosvit Airlines Kiev-Boryspil 4 Air Berlin Berlin-Tegel, Düsseldorf 8 Air China Beijing-Capital 1 Air Europa Madrid 4 Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 1 Air India Delhi, Mumbai 4 Alitalia Milan-Malpensa, Rome-Fiumicino 1 All Nippon Airways Tokyo-Narita 7 American Airlines Antigua [begins November 17], Aruba, Austin, Barbados, Barcelona, Bermuda, Boston [begins November 17], Brussels, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cancún, Caracas, Chicago-O'Hare [begins November 17], Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Manchester (UK), Miami, Milan-Malpensa, Orlando, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Port-au-Prince, Providenciales, Punta Cana, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, St. Kitts, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Tokyo-Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Budapest, Eagle/Vail, Rome-Fiumicino, San José (CR), Tokyo-Haneda
8 American Eagle Baltimore, Boston [ends November 16], Chicago-O'Hare [ends November 16], Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Halifax, Indianapolis, Montréal-Trudeau, Nashville, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis [ends November 16], Toronto-Pearson, Washington-National 8 Arik Air Lagos 4 Asiana Airlines Seoul-Incheon 4 Austrian Airlines Vienna 1 Avianca Bogotá, Cali, Medellín-Córdova 4 British Airways London-City, London-Heathrow 7 Caribbean Airlines Antigua, Grenada, Georgetown, Kingston, Montego Bay, Port of Spain, Tobago 4 Cathay Pacific Hong Kong, Vancouver 7 Cayman Airways Grand Cayman 1 China Airlines Osaka-Kansai, Taipei-Taoyuan 1 China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong 1 Copa Airlines Panama City 4 Delta Air Lines Accra, Amsterdam, Antigua, Aruba, Athens, Atlanta, Barcelona, Bogotá, Boston, Brussels, Dakar, Denver, Detroit, Dublin, Fort Lauderdale, Frankfurt, Georgetown, Grand Cayman, Grenada, Istanbul-Atatürk, Las Vegas, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Mexico City, Miami, Milan-Malpensa, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Orlando, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Port-au-Prince, Portland (OR), Prague, Puerto Vallarta, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, St. Thomas, Tampa, Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion, Tokyo-Narita, Venice-Marco Polo
Seasonal: Berlin-Tegel, Budapest, Copenhagen, Málaga, Manchester (UK), Nice, Pisa, Punta Cana, Reykjavík-Keflavík, Rome-Fiumicino, Shannon, Stockholm-Arlanda, Valencia, Zürich
2,3,4 Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charlotte, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Syracuse, Washington-Dulles 2 Delta Connection operated by Comair Baltimore, Boston, Burlington (VT), Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Houston-Hobby, Nashville, Pittsburgh, Richmond, St. Louis, Washington-National
Seasonal: Charlottetown, Nantucket
2 Delta Connection operated by Mesaba Airlines Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington, (VT), Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Washington-National 2 Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines Albany (NY), Baltimore, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charlotte, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Halifax, Hartford, Indianapolis, Lewisburg (WV), Montréal-Trudeau, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson, Washington-Dulles, Washington-National
Seasonal: Martha's Vineyard
2 EgyptAir Cairo 4 El Al Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion 4 Emirates Dubai 4 Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 4 EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan1 1 Finnair Helsinki 8 Hellenic Imperial Airways Athens [resumes December 31] 1 Iberia Madrid 7 Icelandair Reykjavík-Keflavík 7 Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita 1 Jet Airways Brussels, Chennai 8 JetBlue Airways Aguadilla, Aruba, Austin, Barbados, Bermuda, Boston, Buffalo, Burbank, Burlington (VT), Cancún, Charlotte, Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston-Hobby, Jacksonville (FL), Kingston, La Romana [begins November 16], Las Vegas, Liberia (Costa Rica) [begins November 17], Long Beach, Los Angeles, Montego Bay, Nassau, New Orleans, Oakland, Orlando, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Ponce, Portland (ME), Portland (OR), Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sarasota, Seattle/Tacoma, Syracuse, Tampa, Washington-Dulles, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket
4,5 KLM Amsterdam 4 Korean Air Seoul-Incheon 1 Kuwait Airways Kuwait, London-Heathrow 4 LAN Airlines Lima, Santiago de Chile 4 LAN Ecuador Guayaquil 4 LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw 4 Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich 1 Meridiana Fly Seasonal: Naples, Palermo 1 Pakistan International Airlines Karachi, Lahore 4 Qantas Sydney2 7 Qatar Airways Doha 8 Royal Air Maroc Casablanca 1 Royal Jordanian Amman-Queen Alia 4 Saudi Arabian Airlines Jeddah, Riyadh 1 Singapore Airlines Frankfurt, Singapore 4 Sky King, Inc. Havana 7 South African Airways Johannesburg 4 Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul 4 Swiss International Air Lines Geneva, Zürich 4 TACA Airlines San Pedro Sula, San Salvador 4 TACA Airlines operated by Lacsa San José de Costa Rica 4 TAM Airlines Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, São Paulo-Guarulhos 4 Transaero Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo 4 Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Ataturk 1 United Airlines Los Angeles, San Francisco 7 United Express operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines Washington-Dulles 7 US Airways Charlotte, Phoenix 7 Uzbekistan Airways Riga, Tashkent 4 Virgin America Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Francisco 4 Virgin Atlantic Airways London-Heathrow 4 XL Airways France Seasonal: Paris-Charles de Gaulle 4
^1 EVA Air Flights to Taipei-Taoyuan Airport makes an intermediate stop at Anchorage; however EVA Air does not have traffic rights to carry passengers solely between New York and Anchorage.
^2 Qantas flights to Sydney make an intermediate stop at Los Angeles; however Qantas does not have traffic rights to carry passengers solely between New York and Los Angeles. Passengers may also transfer onto flights to Melbourne, Brisbane and Auckland.
North American Airlines has its headquarters in Building 141 along Federal Circle, on the airport property. North American Airlines is one of the building's tenants; the building also has Globe Ground and VOA as tenants and Port Authority storage. Building 141 was originally a Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) administration building. In the 1990s it served as the PANYNJ police headquarters. In 2000 an $800,000, 5,000 square feet (460 m2) annex of the building opened to serve students of Aviation High School in Long Island City. In 2003 Building 141 was dedicated in honor of Morris Sloane, a PANYNJ aviation employee.
In the immediate vicinity of the airport, parking and other information can be obtained by tuning to a highway advisory radio station at 1630 AM. A second station at 1700 AM provides information on traffic concerns for drivers leaving the airport.
Kennedy Airport, along with LaGuardia and Newark airports, uses a uniform style of signage throughout the airport properties. Yellow signs direct passengers to airline gates, ticketing and other flight services; green signs direct passengers to ground transportation services, and black signs lead to restrooms, telephones and other passenger amenities.
Traffic and statistics
In 2010, JFK handled 46,514,154 passengers.
The airport contributes about $30.1 billion in economic activity to the New York City region, generating 229,000 jobs and about $9.8 billion in wages and salaries. About 35,000 people are employed at the airport.
In 2010, the five carriers with the largest percentage of domestic passengers flying into, out of, or through JFK are as follows:
- JetBlue Airways 9,561,000 passengers (41.25%)
- Delta Air Lines* 5,018,000 passengers (21.65%)
- American Airlines* 3,518,000 (15.18%)
- Comair 1,317,000 (5.68%)
- United Airlines 888,000 (3.83%)
- Note that the totals for Delta do not include those of the carriers flying as Delta Connection; likewise American Eagle is not included in the total for American.
Nearly 100 airlines from over 50 countries operate regularly scheduled flights from JFK. The JFK-London Heathrow route is the leading U.S. international airport pair with over 2.9 million passengers in 2008. Domestic travel also accounts for a large share of airport traffic, particularly transcontinental and Florida service.
Busiest International Routes from JFK (2009)  Rank Airport Passengers Top Carriers 1 London-Heathrow, United Kingdom 2,969,530 American, British Airways, Delta, Kuwait Airways, Virgin Atlantic 2 Paris-Charles de Gaulle, France 1,196,259 Air France, American, Delta, XL Airways France 3 Frankfurt, Germany 671,527 Delta, Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines 5 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 624,141 American, Delta, JetBlue 6 Tokyo-Narita, Japan 561,227 American, ANA, Delta, JAL 7 Istanbul Ataturk Airport 548,402 Delta, Turkish Airlines 8 Tel Aviv, Israel 530,810 Delta, El Al 9 Rome-Fiumicino, Italy 520,152 Alitalia, American, Delta 10 Seoul-Incheon, South Korea 493,496 Asiana, Korean Air 11 Amsterdam, Netherlands 483,916 Delta, KLM 11 Singapore 462,916 Singapore Airlines 12 Milan Malpensa Airport 455,310 Alitalia, American, Delta Busiest Domestic Routes from JFK (June 2010 - May 2011) Rank Airport Passengers Top Carriers 1 Los Angeles, California 1,476,000 American, Delta, JetBlue, United, Virgin America 2 San Francisco, California 1,016,000 American, Delta, JetBlue, United, Virgin America 3 Orlando, Florida 690,000 American, Delta, JetBlue 4 Miami, Florida 589,000 American, Delta 5 Las Vegas, Nevada 534,000 American, Delta, JetBlue, Virgin America 6 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 525,000 American, Delta, JetBlue 7 San Juan, Puerto Rico 517,000 American, Delta, JetBlue 8 Boston, Massachusetts 424,000 American, Delta, JetBlue, United 9 Buffalo, New York 333,000 JetBlue 10 Atlanta, Georgia 308,000 Delta
JFK is the nation’s busiest international air freight gateway by value of shipments and the second busiest overall by value including all air, land and sea U.S. freight gateways. Over 21% of all U.S. international air freight by value and 11% by tonnage moved through JFK in 2003.
The JFK air cargo complex is a Foreign Trade Zone which legally lies outside the customs area of the United States. JFK is a major hub for air cargo between the United States and Europe. London, Brussels and Frankfurt are JFK's three top trade routes. The European airports are mostly a link in a global supply chain, however. The top destination markets for cargo flying out of JFK in 2003 were Tokyo, Seoul and London. Similarly, the top origin markets for imports at JFK were Seoul, Hong Kong, and Taipei, with London taking the fourth spot.
Nearly 100 cargo air carriers operate out of JFK, among them: Air China Cargo, ABX Air, Asiana, Atlas Air, CAL Cargo Air Lines, Cargolux, Cargoitalia, Cathay Pacific Cargo, China Airlines, EVA Air, Emirates SkyCargo, Evergreen International Airlines, Nippon Cargo Airlines, FedEx Express, DHL Air UK, Kalitta Air, Korean Air, Lufthansa Cargo, United Cargo, UPS, Southern Air, World Airways. Top 5 carriers together transported 33.1% of all “revenue” freight in 2005: American Airlines (10.9% of the total), FedEx Express (8.8%), Lufthansa Cargo (5.2%), Korean Air Cargo (4.9%), China Airlines (3.8%).
Most cargo and maintenance facilities at JFK are located north and west of the main terminal area. DHL, FedEx Express, Japan Airlines, Lufthansa, Nippon Cargo Airlines and United Airlines have cargo facilities at JFK. In 2000, Korean Air Cargo opened a new $102 million cargo terminal at JFK with total floor area of 81,124 square feet (7,536.7 m2) and capability of handling 200,000 tons annually. In 2007, American Airlines opened a new priority parcel service facility at their Terminal 8, featuring 30-minute drop-offs and pick-ups for priority parcel shipments within the US.
Scheduled cargo airlines and destinations
Airlines Destinations ABX Air Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Air China Cargo Beijing-Capital, Shanghai-Pudong Air Transport International Liège, Reykjavik-Keflavik Asiana Airlines Cargo Brussels, Seoul-Incheon CAL Cargo Air Lines Liège Cargoitalia Milan-Malpensa Cargolux Luxembourg, Mexico City Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong DHL Air UK East Midlands, Leipzig/Halle El Al Cargo Liège, Tel Aviv EVA Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan Evergreen International Airlines Hahn, Hong Kong, Shanghai-Pudong FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis Finnair Cargo operated by World Airways Helsinki, Shanghai-Pudong Icelandair Cargo Rekjavík, Liege Kalitta Air Brussels, Bahrain, Leipzig/Halle, Liège Korean Air Cargo Brussels, Miami, Seoul-Incheon Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Manchester (UK) Nippon Cargo Airlines Tokyo-Narita Saudi Arabian Airlines Brussels, Dammam, Riyadh SkyLink Aviation Hamilton Southern Air Liège UPS Airlines Baltimore, Chicago-Rockford, Louisville, Philadelphia
JFK is connected to New York's subway and commuter rail system by AirTrain JFK. AirTrain stops at all terminals, parking lots, hotel shuttle areas, car rental lots, 2 subway stations & the Long Island Rail Road. It is free within the airport. Travel time between JFK and Midtown Manhattan is approximately 30–40 minutes (depending on the originating/terminating terminal at JFK) using AirTrain and the Long Island Rail Road at Jamaica Station; or approximately 75 minutes between JFK and Downtown Manhattan using AirTrain and the New York City Subway A train at Howard Beach – JFK Airport station or the E (to Midtown Manhattan), J and Z (to Downtown Manhattan) trains at Sutphin Boulevard station.
A Lower Manhattan – Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project has been proposed to connect the AirTrain to Lower Manhattan.
Several city bus lines link JFK to the New York City Subway and Long Island Rail Road, including the Q3, Q6, Q7, Q10 (Local/Limited), and B15, with free transfers provided for subway connections. The buses are handicapped accessible. There are also many private bus lines operating express buses to Manhattan, the Hudson Valley, and Long Island.
New York City's yellow cabs, licensed by the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission, offer a flat rate service of $45 from JFK airport to Manhattan, excluding tips and tolls. Since November 30, 2006, this flat rate fare (excluding tips and tolls) applies to travel from Manhattan to JFK as well. Depending on the time of day, taxi travel from JFK to Midtown Manhattan can be as quick as 35 minutes. Door-to-door Car Service is another popular transportation option.
JFK Airport is easily accessible by car and is located in southern Queens on the Van Wyck Expressway (I-678), which can be accessed from the Belt Parkway, the Grand Central Parkway and Queens Boulevard. A ring road connects the airport terminals to the Belt Parkway and the Van Wyck Expressway. The airport offers customers over 17,000 parking spaces, included in multi-level parking garages, surface spaces in the Central Terminal Area, a long-term parking lot and valet parking. There are also private off-site parking operators near the airport.
Van Wyck Expressway twists through the terminal nucleus and turns into the JFK Expressway. This four-lane expressway allows for more convenient access to the airport for Long Island users via the westbound Belt Parkway. Because it lies almost entirely within Kennedy Airport, the JFK Expressway was constructed, and is maintained by the Port Authority. The JFK Expressway was built as part of an ongoing, multi-billion overhaul of Kennedy Airport that began in the late 1980s. It was designed to relieve up to 30 percent of the traffic volume from the Van Wyck Expressway. Approximately 6 major rental car companies serve JFK Airport, with rental locations located on and off the airport. Each terminal's arrivals level (usually near the baggage carousel) has either a rental car counter or courtesy telephone for each of the car rental companies.
US Helicopter operated regularly scheduled flights every hour between Terminal 3 and the East 34th Street Heliport. Passengers traveling by helicopter to the airport passed through a security checkpoint at the heliport, not at JFK. On May 14, 2007, US Helicopter moved its operations from Terminal 9 to Terminal 3. US Helicopter announced that it was temporarily suspending operations on September 25, 2009 due to financial difficulties.
New York Airways provided helicopter service from JFK to other area airports and heliports from 1955 to 1979, and Pan American World Airways continued Manhattan helicopter service during the 1980s in order to feed its JFK flights. During the 1970s, New York Helicopter offered JFK flights from the top of the Pan Am Building in midtown Manhattan, but this service was cancelled after a major accident in 1977.
Accidents and incidents
JFK has been the site of several notable aviation accidents and incidents.
- On 19 October 1953, an Eastern Airlines flight from Idlewild International Airport (the former name of JFK) to San Juan, Puerto Rico, operated by Lockheed L-749A Constellation N119A crashed on take-off. Two passengers were killed.
- December 18, 1954 – a Linee Aeree Italiane Douglas DC-6 crashed on its fourth approach attempt to land at Idlewild, after circling for 2.5 hours. 26 of the 32 passengers on board were killed.
- November 10, 1958 – Vickers Viscount, CF-TGL of Trans-Canada Air Lines was destroyed by fire after it was struck by Lockheed L-749 Super Constellation N6503C of Seaboard & Western Airlines which had crashed on take-off.
- December 16, 1960 – a United Airlines Douglas DC-8 bound for Idlewild collided with a TWA Super Constellation bound for La Guardia; the United jet crashed in Park Slope, Brooklyn, the TWA plane on Staten Island, killing 127 people on board and five on the ground.
- March 1, 1962 – American Airlines Flight 1, a Boeing 707 crashed on takeoff from Idlewild after its rudder separated from the tail. All 95 passengers and 12 crew members were killed.
- November 30, 1962 – an Eastern Air Lines Douglas DC-7 crashed into the ground during a missed approach.
- February 8, 1965 – an Eastern Air Lines Douglas DC-7 crashed off Jones Beach after takeoff when the pilots found themselves on an apparent collision course with an inbound Pan Am Boeing 707 and made evasive maneuvers.
- 1967 – The Air France Robbery targeted $420,000 in cash brought in as Air France cargo, Lucchese crime family associates Henry Hill, Robert McMahon, Tommy DeSimone and Montague Montemurro carried out the robbery.
- September 8, 1970 – a Trans International Airlines DC-8-63CF ferry flight to Dulles International Airport crashed on takeoff from runway 13R, killing all 11 crewmembers on board. The DC-8 freighter started rotating in a nose-high attitude 1,500 feet (460 m) into the take-off. After becoming airborne at 2,800 feet (850 m) down the runway, the aircraft climbed to about 300–500 feet, rolled 20 degrees to the left, crashed and caught fire. The loss of pitch control was caused by the entrapment of a pointed, asphalt-covered object between the leading edge of the right elevator and the right horizontal spar web access door in the aft part of the stabilizer.
- December 1, 1974 – Northwest Orient Flight 6231 a Boeing 727 chartered to pick up the Baltimore Colts in Buffalo crashed near Thiells, New York. The flight departed John F. Kennedy International Airport with only the cockpit crew on board. The pitot heat was not turned on and the tube iced over during climb out making the airspeed readings unreliable. The plane stalled passing 23,000' and the crew was unable to regain control. All 3 crewmembers on board were killed.
- June 24, 1975 – Eastern Air Lines Flight 66, a Boeing 727 on final approach from New Orleans, crashed into the runway lights short of runway 22L, killing 112 passengers and crew. The cause of the crash was wind shear during a heavy thunderstorm.
- June 23rd, 1976 - Two vehicles were firebombed near the Pan Am cargo terminal at Kennedy Airport. An anonymous call told the New York Post that the Jewish Armed Resistance was responsible.
- December 11, 1978 – The Lufthansa heist targeted over $5 million in cash and jewels on a Lufthansa flight arriving from Germany. The crime was planned by Jimmy Burke, an associate of the Lucchese crime family, and carried out by several of his associates; at the time, it was the largest cash robbery ever committed on American soil.
- April 28th, 1986 - A member of the Jewish Defense League placed a firebomb under a loading dock at a Pan Am building at Kennedy International Airport in protest of the airline's flights to Russia.
- January 25, 1990 – Avianca Flight 52, a Boeing 707-321B arriving from Bogotá and Medellin, crashed at Cove Neck, Long Island, after a missed approach to runway 22L at JFK and subsequently running out of fuel. 73 passengers and crew perished. 85 survived.
- July 30, 1992 – TWA Flight 843, a Lockheed L-1011 departing for San Francisco, aborted takeoff shortly after liftoff. There were no fatalities among the 280 passengers, although the aircraft was destroyed.
- November 12, 2001 – American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 crashed while en route to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. During climb, the aircraft lost most of its vertical fin due to the co-pilot's overcontrol of the rudder while encountering wake turbulence, and crashed into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens. The crash killed all 260 people on the plane and five people on the ground.
- On September 6, 2007, TAM Airlines Flight 8080 suffered a heavy landing due to the elevators not responding in the landing flare. An investigation revealed that #2 flight control primary computer did not match #1 and #3 computers, sending erroneous messages to the actuators for the elevators.
- January 16, 2010 – Terminal 8 was evacuated and passengers rescreened after a person bypassed security. According to a spokesman for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operates the airport, the evacuation was triggered when a man left an American Airlines first-class lounge through a restricted door.
- February 16–17, 2010 – Air Traffic Controller Glenn Duffy brought his seven-year-old son to work and allowed the boy to direct two airliners. The following day, he brought in his eight-year-old daughter and also allowed her to direct several airliners. These incidents prompted Duffy and his supervisor to be suspended from their jobs without pay, and an FAA investigation.
- August 9, 2010 - Upon landing at JFK, Jet Blue Flight 1052 Flight Attendant Steven Slater became very angry at a passenger, shouted a number of swears at everyone on the plane via the public-address system in his frustration, and told them that he was going to quit his job. He opened the door of the parked plane, and the emergency slide deployed. He took a couple cans of beer from the galley in his hand and exited the plane via the emergency slide. He then got into his jeep and drove to his house, where he was subsequently arrested for criminal mischief and reckless endangerment. He reported to authorities that he was having a bad day. The next day, he was released on a $1,500 bond. If convicted of the pending charges, the former flight attendant could serve 7 years in prison.
- September 25, 2010 - Delta Air Lines Flight 4951 crash-landed after its right-side landing gear failed to deploy.
Other accidents and incidents involving JFK include:
- Sabena Flight 548 (1961), outbound from JFK, crashed while trying to land in Brussels, Belgium
- Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (1972), outbound from JFK, crashed while trying to land in Miami, Florida
- Pan Am Flight 1736 (1977), originated from LAX and stopped at JFK, collided with another 747 at Tenerife
- LOT Polish Airlines Flight 007 (1980), outbound from JFK, crashed while trying to land in Warsaw, Poland
- Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (1983), originated from JFK, shot down by Soviet jet interceptors off the coast of Sakhalin after it strayed into prohibited Soviet airspace because of a navigational error
- Pan Am Flight 103 (1988), bound for JFK, with continued service to Detroit, exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland
- TWA Flight 800 (1996), outbound from JFK, bound for Paris, exploded soon after takeoff, and crashed off the coast of Long Island
- Swissair Flight 111 (1998), outbound from JFK, bound for Geneva, crashed off the coast of Nova Scotia
- EgyptAir Flight 990 (1999), outbound from JFK, bound for Cairo, crashed off the coast of Nantucket
- Air France Flight 4590 (2000), a Concorde bound for JFK, crashed in Gonesse, France
- Korean Air Flight 85 (2001), bound for JFK on September 11, was escorted by fighter jets to Whitehorse International Airport during Operation Yellow Ribbon on fears it may have been hijacked. This was not the case; the plane was low on fuel, and according to a public affairs official at the airport, there was also a communication problem with the air crew. When the plane landed, witnesses reported that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police ordered the crew out at gunpoint. The entire incident was a misunderstanding caused by a malfunctioning transponder.
- JetBlue Airways Flight 292 (2005), was bound for JFK when the nose landing gear twisted 90 degrees to the right, perpendicular to the way the wheels normally face. The Airbus A320 had taken off from Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, California, and then made a successful emergency landing at Los Angeles International Airport. Of the 140 passengers and 5 crewmembers on board, no one was injured.
- On June 2, 2007, federal authorities announced that four people had been arrested in connection with an alleged terror plot to attack the JFK Airport. FBI officials say the men, one of whom was a former air cargo employee at the airport, planned to blow up terminal buildings and jet fuel infrastructure.
In popular culture
As one of the major international gateways in the United States, JFK possesses a high profile in popular culture.
Many films have used JFK as a setting.
- The 2008 video game, Grand Theft Auto IV, the TWA terminal exterior was used in the game's fictional Francis International Airport
- The British Invasion began with the arrival of The Beatles at JFK in 1964, who held their first American press conference at the airport.
Songs and albums
- JFK is mentioned in songs by U2, Joe Purdy, Pet Shop Boys, Prefuse 73, Paul Simon Barry Manilow, and rapper Notorious B.I.G..
- In his one-man show Red diaper baby, Josh Kornbluth's eccentric communist father insists on referring to JFK as the "Bay of Pigs Memorial Airport".
- The theme song of the 1960s comedy TV series Car 54, Where Are You? contained the line: "There's a scout troop short a child, [Nikita] Khrushchev's due at Idlewild," referencing the airport's previous name.
- In I Love Lucy, Lucy misses the SS Constitution bound for Europe and is forced to take a helicopter out of Idlewild Airport.
- In Twilight Zone, episode The Odyssey of Flight 33 a Boeing 707 jet airliner of the fictional "Global Airlines" bound for Idlewild from London is caught in a mysterious "tailwind" and winds up in the past.
- The British television series, The Saint, season 1, episode 4 (1962), begins its story with a shot of the terminal 3 building and a superimposed title, "Idlewild International Airport", a long pan of the area, and then an announcement for Pan Am flight 114 to Paris
- Friends (2004) (series finale)
- JFK is used frequently in the Law & Order franchise.
- JFK (then known as Idlewild) is used frequently in the ABC show Pan Am. The Worldport serves as one of the main settings in the series.
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- ^ "JFK Expressway – Historic Overview". Eastern Roads Website. http://www.nycroads.com/roads/jfk/.
- ^ "Delta Cuts Travel Time between Manhattan and JFK to Just Eight Minutes with US Helicopter’s Airport Shuttle Service" (PDF). US Helicopter. 2007-05-10. http://flyush.com/pdfs/USH-Delta-Announcement.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- ^ McGeehan, Patrick (September 25, 2009). "U.S. Helicopter Halts Shuttle Service to J.F.K. and Newark". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/26/nyregion/26heli.html. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- ^ McGeehan, Patrick (February 6, 2006). "New Helicopter Service Promises Wall St. to J.F.K., in 9 Minutes". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E07E3DC173EF935A35751C0A9609C8B63. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19531019-0. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19581110-1. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- ^ "Accident Database: Accident Synopsis 03011962". Airdisaster.com. 1962-03-01. http://www.airdisaster.com/cgi-bin/view_details.cgi?date=03011962®=N7506A&airline=American+Airlines. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- ^ McQuiston, John T. (January 26, 1990). "Plane Crashes on L.I. With 149 Aboard". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/26/nyregion/plane-crashes-li-with-149-aboard-least-9-killed-boeing-707-colombia.html. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- ^ McFadden, Robert D. (July 31, 1992). "Escape from Flight 843". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/07/31/nyregion/escape-from-flight-843-291-escape-burning-jetliner-at-kennedy-airport.html. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- ^ "Accident: TAM A332 at New York on Sep 6th 2008, hard landing due to unresponsive controls during flare". Aviation Herald. http://avherald.com/h?article=411013f5&opt=0. Retrieved 2008-12-04.
- ^ Healy, Jack; Baker, Al (January 16, 2010). "J.F.K. Terminal Evacuated After Security Breach". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/16/nyregion/17jfk.html. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- ^ Kid Directs Planes at JFK airport
- ^ Audiotape Reveals 2nd Kid Controller
- ^ AP. "Sparks flying, wing aground, flight lands in NYC"[dead link]. Google News, September 26, 2010.
- ^ Connor, Tracy (2007-06-03). "Inner workings of twisted plan: How gang of fanatics hatched mission code-named 'The Chicken Farm'". New York Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime_file/2007/06/03/2007-06-03_inner_workings_of_twisted_plan-8.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- John F. Kennedy International Airport (official site)
- Terminal4 JFK International Airport (official site)
- (PDF), effective 20 October 2011
- FAA Terminal Procedures for JFK, effective 20 October 2011
- Resources for this airport:
- John F. Kennedy International Airport travel guide from Wikitravel
- JFK Airport Monitor (from Passur.com)
- How to get to JFK Airport via the Subway and other mass transit
- JFK WiFi Service Guide
- JFK Airport Plane Spotting Guide
- JFK Airport Reviews on LateDeparture.com
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John F. Kennedy International Airport — John F. Kennedy International Airport … Deutsch Wikipedia
John F. Kennedy International Airport — [ dʒɔn ef kenɪdi ɪntə næʃnl eəpɔːt], bis 1963 New York International Airport [njuː jɔːk ɪntə næʃnəl eəpɔːt], auch Idlewild [ aɪdlwaɪld], einer der Flughäfen von New York. Das TWA Terminal wurde 1956 62 von Eero Saarinen errichtet … Universal-Lexikon
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John F. Kennedy International Airport — international airport in New York City, on SW Long Island. Formerly, Idlewild … Useful english dictionary
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Kennedy International Airport — [ kenɪdi ɪntə næʃnl eəpɔːt], offizieller Name John F. Kennedy International Airport … Universal-Lexikon
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