- Languages of Norway
country = Norway
official = Norwegian (
Bokmåland Nynorsk), Sami and Kven
foreign = English
Norwegian Sign Language
keyboard = Norwegian
There are a large number of Languages spoken in Norway. Of these, the
Norwegian languageis the most widely spoken and the main official language of the country.
The most widely spoken language in
Norway, Norwegian, is a North Germanic language, closely related to Swedish and Danish, all linguistic descendants of Old Norse. Norwegian is used by some 95% of the population as a first language. The language has two separate written standards: Nynorsk(meaning "New Norwegian") and Bokmål("Book Language"), both of which are official.
Norwegian Language Struggle
Known as "Språkstriden" in Norwegian, the
Norwegian language struggleis a movement rooted in both Norwegian nationalism and the 400 years of Danish rule in Norway ("see Denmark-Norway"). The koiné(mixed language) known as Dano-Norwegian("Dansk-Norsk") which developed in Norwegian cities was the result of Danish replacing Norwegian as the language of the elite in that country (Danish was used in courts of law, by the cultured, and, after the Lutheran Reformationof 1536, replaced Latin a liturgical language). An adoption of Danish orthography into the Norwegian language gave rise to the written standard of Riksmål, which later became Bokmål. Nynorsk, a new standard of Norwegian based upon the spoken language, was acknowledged by the parliament in 1885, and in 1892 it was first possible to use Nynorsk as a language of primary instruction. By 1920, Nynorsk was being used widely in western Norway and the mountain valleys, where it still has its stronghold, and Bokmål was used in the more populous areas of the country. Later, attempts were made to reconcile the two standards into "Samnorsk", or "Common Norwegian", although this never came to fruition.
Bokmål, the written language of more than 85% of the Norwegian population, is based on Riksmål, although it differs in terms of genders, lexicon, counting system, a tendency to permit concrete noun endings in abstract situations and diphthongs versus single vowels. Riksmål was officially changed to Bokmål in 1929.
Nynorsk was developed by the linguist
Ivar Aasenin the 1850s, based on rural, spoken Norwegian, rather than the cultured, Danish-influenced Norwegian spoken in cities. Its first official codification was in 1901, was given the name Nynorsk in 1929, and has been used officially (alongside Bokmål) since 1938. Its usage, however has declined: in 1971, it was used by 30% of the population, today, some 15% of schoolchildren are taught Nynorsk as their written language, and is probably used by some 10-12% of the total population.
A more conservative variation of Nynorsk exists, called
Høgnorsk. It has few active users, but is supported by the Ivar Aasen-sambandetorganization, founded in 1965to promote Samnorsk.
Sami peoplewere the original inhabitants of Northern Scandinavia [Sammallahti, Pekka, 1990. The Sámi Language: Past and Present. Arctic Languages: An Awakening. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Paris. ISBN 92-3-102661-5] [Sammallahti, Pekka, 1989. A Linguist Looks at Saami Prehistory. Acta Borealia 2-1989.] , and though they mostly adopted Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, or Russian, due in no small part to official assimilation policies [Minde, Henry. 2005. Assimilation of the Sami - Implementation and Consequences. Gáldu Čála: Journal of Indigenous Peoples Rights No. 3. Kautokeino. ISBN 82-8144-012-0] , some still speak Sami languages. Sami languages, like Kven and Finnish, belong to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family. The Sami languages spoken in Norway include Lule Sami(spoken by around 500 in Norway), North Sami(spoken by around 15,000 Norwegian Sami), Pite Sami(which is nearly extinct) and South Sami(which has around 300 speakers in Norway). Sami languages are official in seven Norwegian municipalities.
Spoken by the
Kven people, the Kven languageis a Finno-Ugriclanguage, closely related to Finnish, and spoken by some five to eight thousand people in northeastern Norway, particularly in Tromsø(in the county of Troms) and Finnmark. Mirroring the situation of Meänkieliin Sweden, Kven is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Finnish, and has a large degree of mutual intelligibilitywith the language.
Roma people, commonly called gypsies, are a diaspora population originating in India, and today are spread across all of Europe. The Romani language, an Indo-European, Indo-Aryan language(related to other languages spoken in India today), is split into a great number of dialects. Two of these, Tavringer Romaniand Vlax Romani, are spoken in Norway, by populations of 6,000 and 500, respectively. Scandoromaniis another Romani dialect indigenous to Norway, as well as Sweden. Because of the wandering nature of the Roma people, there is no geographic stronghold of the Romani language in Norway.
Spoken by the Norwegian Travellers, a gypsy population in Norway which intermarried with Romani and
Yeniche(German Traveller) populations, the Norwegian Traveller language, also known as Rodi, is based on Norwegian, but has heavy borrowing from Northern Romani and Rotwelsch. There is no estimate on how many Norwegian Traveller speakers there are in Norway, but it is known that the language is alive.
* [http://www.sprakrad.no/English_and_other_languages/English/Norwegian/ The Norwegian Language Struggle]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nno Ethnologue report for Nynorsk]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nob Ethnologue report for Bokmål]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fkv Ethnologue report for Kven]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmg Ethnologue report for Rodi]
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