Client state


Client state

Client state is one of several terms used to describe the economic, political and/or military subordination of one state to a more powerful state in international affairs.[1][2] Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state and tributary state.[3]

Ancient states such as Persia and Greek city-states would create client states by making the leaders of that state subservient.[4] One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome[5][6] (e.g., Demetrius of Pharos) which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated, a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BC when imperial power took over. The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages as the feudal system began to take hold.

In the 13th century, Korea was overrun by the powerful Mongols. After the treaty in 1260 and invasion of 1270's, Goryeo became a dependency of the Yuan Dynasty.

In the British empire the Indian Princely States were technically independent (and were technically given their separate independence in 1947, although the Nizam of Hyderabad did not retain his independence from India), and the independence of Egypt from 1922 technically ended a British protectorate. Iraq was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a status where the local rulers were British clients. Similarly in Africa eg Northern Nigeria under Lord Lugard, and Malaya with the Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States; the policy of indirect rule.

After 1945 the term was often applied to nations ruled by dictatorships backed openly by either the United States or the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, many Latin American nations such as Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua until 1979, Cuba until 1959, and Chile under the regime of General Pinochet were seen as U.S. client states, as the U.S. government had significant influence over the policies of those dictatorships. The term also applied to other authoritarian regimes with close ties to the United States during the Cold War, more appropriately referred to as U.S. proxy states, such as South Vietnam, Iran until 1979, Cambodia under the regime of Lon Nol, the Philippines, and Saudi Arabia. A good case study of client state building is the U.S. - Iran relations under the Shah.[7]

The term might also arguably be used for those states extremely economically dependent on a more powerful nation. The three Pacific countries associated with the United States under the Compact of Free Association may fall somewhat in this category.

Soviet proxy or "client" states included much of the Warsaw Pact nations whose policies were heavily influenced by Soviet military power and economic aid. Other third world nations with Marxist-Leninist governments were routinely criticized as being Soviet proxies as well, among them Cuba following the Cuban Revolution, the People's Republic of Angola, the People's Republic of Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Within the Soviet Union itself, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR had seats at the United Nations, but were actually proper Soviet territory.

References

  1. ^ Michael Graham Fry, Erik Goldstein, Richard Langhorne. Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing, 2002. Pp. 9.
  2. ^ M. A. Chaudhary, Gautam Chaudhary. Global encyclopaedia of political geography. Daryaganj, New Delhi, India: Global Vision Publishing House, 2009. Pp. 42.
  3. ^ M. A. Chaudhary, Gautam Chaudhary. Global encyclopaedia of political geography. Daryaganj, New Delhi, India: Global Vision Publishing House, 2009. Pp. 42.
  4. ^ M. A. Chaudhary, Gautam Chaudhary. Global encyclopaedia of political geography. Daryaganj, New Delhi, India: Global Vision Publishing House, 2009. Pp. 42.
  5. ^ Herod's Judaea
  6. ^ Collected studies: Alexander and his successors in Macedonia‎, by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,1994,page 257,"to Demetrius of Pharos, whom she set up as a client king
  7. ^ Gasiorowski, Mark US Foreign Policy and the Shah, Cornell University Press, 1991

See also


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