Appleby (UK Parliament constituency)


Appleby (UK Parliament constituency)

UK former constituency infobox
Name = Appleby
Type = Borough
Year = 1295
Abolition = 1832
members = two
UK former constituency infobox
Name = Northern or Appleby division of Westmorland
Type = County
Year = 1885
Abolition = 1918
members = one

Appleby was the name of a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom) for two periods, as a borough represented by two Members of Parliament from 1295 until abolished by the Great Reform Act of 1832, and later as a county constituency represented by a single member from 1885 to 1918. Its best-known representative was William Pitt the Younger who became Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24.

History

The borough (1295-1832)

The parliamentary borough of Appleby consisted of the town of Appleby, the county town of Westmorland, and was consistently represented in the House of Commons from the Model Parliament of 1295 until the Reform Act.

The right to vote rested with the occupiers of around a hundred burgage tenements. By the 18th century, the majority of the burgages were owned by the Lowther and Tufton families, which enabled them to put in reliable tenants at election time and ensure their complete control of who was elected. The seats were frequently kept for members of those families, but Appleby's other representatives included William Pitt the younger, who was MP for Appleby when he became Prime Minister in 1783 (although he stood down at the following general election when he was instead elected for Cambridge University).

A later member for Appleby was Viscount Howick, subsequently (as Earl Grey) the Prime Minister whose administration passed the Great Reform Act of 1832; but Grey's history as a former MP for the town did not save it from losing both its members under the Act. Appleby was regarded as a classic example of a pocket borough, completely in the control of its owners who were also the major local landowners, and with a population of only 1,233 at the 1831 census unlikely to be freed from their influence even by widening the franchise. Nevertheless, as the only county town to be disfranchised, Appleby was one of the more controversial cases in the debates on the reform bill, the opposition making unsuccessful attempts to amend the bill so as to save at least one of its MPs.

After abolition the borough was absorbed into the Westmorland county constituency.

The county constituency (1885-1918)

The Appleby constituency created for the 1885 election was, in full, "The Appleby or Northern Division of Westmorland", and was sometimes referred to as Westmorland North. It consisted of the whole of the northern half of the county, including the towns of Ambleside, Grasmere and Kirkby Stephen. It was abolished at the 1918 general election, the whole county henceforth being united in a single Westmorland constituency.

Members of Parliament

1295-1660

* 1529-1536: Sir Thomas Wharton
* 1614: Sir George Savile, junior
* 1614: Sir Henry Wotton...

Long Parliament
* 1640-1643: Sir John Brooke (Royalist) - "disabled to sit, March 1643"
* 1640-1643: Viscount Dungarvan (Royalist) - "disabled to sit, November 1643. The Viscount Boyle (in the Irish peerage) from September 1642; Earl of Cork from September 1643"
* 1645-1651: Henry Ireton - "died November 1651"
* 1645(?)-1653: Richard Salway

"Appleby was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate

Third Protectorate Parliament
* 1659: Adam Baynes
* 1659: Nathaniel Redding

Long Parliament (restored)
* 1659-1660: ?

1660-1832

Notes

1885-1918

Election results

"Election results taken from the History of Parliament Trust series."

Elections in the 18th century

Election box begin
title=General Election 1715: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Thomas Lutwyche
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir Richard Sandford, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1722: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sackville Tufton
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir Richard Sandford, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

*"Death of Sandford"

Election box begin
title=By-Election 2 May 1723: Appleby
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = James Lowther
votes = 99
percentage = 53.80
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Trevor Hill, 1st Viscount Hillsborough
votes = 85
percentage = 46.20
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1727: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sackville Tufton
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir John Ramsden, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

*"Succession of Tufton as 7th Earl of Thanet"

Election box begin
title=By-Election 24 January 1730: Appleby
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Walter Plumer
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1734: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Walter Plumer
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir John Ramsden, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1741: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = George Bubb Dodington
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir John Ramsden, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

*"Dodington chose to sit for Bridgwater"

Election box begin
title=By-Election 1 January 1742: Appleby
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir Charles Wyndham, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1747: Appleby (2 seats)
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Randle Wilbraham
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Non Partisan
candidate = Sir John Ramsden, Bt
votes = Unopposed
percentage = "N/A"
change = "N/A"

References

*Michael Brock, "The Great Reform Act" (London: Hutchinson, 1973)
*D Brunton & D H Pennington, “Members of the Long Parliament” (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
* Maija Jansson (ed.), "Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons)" (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988) [http://books.google.com/books?id=L9GqTX0uoT8C&pg=PR9&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=0_0&sig=UkEf4ZrrR7tKn1fYUF0yU1YkPwc#PPR5,M1]
*J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
*Rayment


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