Deobandi


Deobandi

Deobandi movement

Key figures

Qasim Nanotvi · Rashid Gangohi
Husain Madani · Mehmud Hasan
Shabbir Usmani · Ashraf Ali Thanwi
Anwar Kashmiri · Ilyas Kandhlawi
Ubaidullah Sindhi · Taqi Usmani

Notable Institutions

Darul Uloom Deoband, India
Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur, India
Hathazari Madrassah, Bangladesh
Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama, India
Darul Uloom Karachi, Pakistan
Jamia Uloom ul Islamia, Pakistan
Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan, Iran
Darul Uloom London, England
Darul Uloom New York, United States
Darul Uloom Canada
Madrasah In'aamiyyah, South Africa

Movements

Tablighi Jamaat
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
Tehreek-e-Khatme Nabuwwat
Sipah-e-Sahaba
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Taliban

Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی, Hindi: देवबन्दी) is a movement of Sunni Islam. The movement began at Darul Uloom Deoband in Deoband, India, where its foundation was laid on 30 May 1866.[1]

Contents

History

Its six founders were Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman 'Usmani and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi.[2] They played a key role in establishing similar institutions in other parts of the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed] Meanwhile Tablighi Jamaat, founded in 1926 by Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi,[3] promoted the ideas of the Deobandi school worldwide.

Presence

In the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom a vast majority of Muslims follow Hanafi Deobandi school of Thought. According to The Times, about 900 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques are run by Deobandi affiliated scholars, and 19 of the country's 25 Islamic seminaries follow Sunni Deobandi teachings, producing 80% of all domestically trained Ulema.The majority of mosques are Sunni Deobandi ; in 2010, the affiliation of the mosques was, 65% Deobandi, 20% Barelvi, 6% Salafi, 4% Shi'a, and 3% Maudoodi-inspired.[citation needed] The majority of mosque managers are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin[4][5][6]

Beliefs

Deobandi beliefs, like those of other Muslims, are based on the Quran and Sunnah.

Fiqh

Deobandis primarily follow the Hanafi school.[7]

Movements

Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat, a Muslim missionary organisation, came forth as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement, and it now has followers in over 150 countries.[8]

Notable Institutions

Scholars

Political

Criticism

Fatwas

One particular topic which has sparked criticism are fatwas issued by Deobandi clerics regarding the behavior of women in the political and economic spheres. For example, in August, 2005, Deobandi clerics from the Darul Uloom Deoband seminary, issued a fatwa stating that, while Muslim women may contest political elections, they must observe purdah while doing so.[9] In May 2010, clerics from the same seminary issued a fatwa stating that men and women cannot work together in public offices unless the women are properly clothed.[10][11][12]

Cash for fatwas scandal

Following a sting operation, Star TV showed clerics belonging to Darul Uloom Deoband receiving cash for fatwas. The fatwas issued allegedly mandated that Muslims not use credit cards, double beds or camera-equipped cell phones; that Muslims not act in films, donate their organs or teach their children English; and that Muslim girls not wear jeans.[13] One of the clerics caught on video, Mufti Habibur Rehman, was suspended from the fatwa department on Sunday after the television report, according to a Press Trust of India news agency report. Imran of Meerut's Shahi Jama Masjid apologised to the community admitting that he took money to release fatwa. He explained that the channel people kept him in the dark and urged for a fatwa for the sake of Islam.[14] Regarding these fatwas, a member of the All-Muslim Personal Law Board stated that "Fatwas are issued on religious matters but the fatwa loses its importance once clerics start issuing it on mundane matters."[14][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Brief Introduction to Deoband at Darululoom.com
  2. ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband
  3. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=IJlamhIR7m8C&q=Muhammad+Ilyas+al-Kandhlawi#v=snippet&q=1926&f=false pg. 9
  4. ^ Hardline takeover of British mosques, The Times, 7 September 2007
  5. ^ Forked Tongues: British Muslims should recognise the threat of Deobandi extremism, The Times (London), 7 September 2007. - "Few people realise the extent to which the Deobandis have infiltrated mosques, schools and Muslim neighbourhoods across the country. The ultra-conservative movement, with modern roots in Pakistan's madrassas, now controls more than 600 mosques. It runs 17 of Britain’s 26 Islamic seminaries, and they produce 80 per cent of home-trained Muslim clerics."
  6. ^ Bunglawala, Inayat (2007-09-07). "A toxic mix of fact and nonsense". The Guardian (London). http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/inayat_bunglawala/2007/09/a_toxic_mix_of_fact_and_nonsense.html. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  7. ^ Metcalf, Barabara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present."
  8. ^ "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor. http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/tablighi_jamaat_indirect_line_terrorism. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Women in polls a religious issue: Deoband V-C
  10. ^ Young Muslim women fume at Deoband diktat
  11. ^ Deoband fatwa: It's illegal for women to work, support family
  12. ^ Insurance policy is un-Islamic: Deoband
  13. ^ Adiga, Aravind (21 September 2006). "India's Cash-for-Fatwa Scandal". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1537516,00.html. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  14. ^ a b Regulator of fatwas on the anvil
  15. ^ School in fatwas-for-cash sting: World: News: News24

Bibliography

External links


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