Islam in the United Kingdom


Islam in the United Kingdom
Shah Jahan Mosque, one of the oldest mosques in UK

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Islam has been present in the United Kingdom since its formation in 1707,[1] though it was not legally recognised until the Trinitarian Act in 1812. Today it is the second largest religion in the country with estimates suggesting that by 2010 the total Muslim population had reached 2.869 million.[2][3]

The growing number of Muslims has resulted in the establishment of more than 1,500 mosques.[4] The majority of mosques are Sunni; in 2010, the affiliation of the mosques was, 65% Deobandi, 20% Barelvi, 6% Salafi, 3% Maudoodi-inspired; of the remainder many were part of other Sunni traditions or unaffiliated, while 66 were Shi'a (4%). The majority of mosque managers are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin, with many Gujarati, and fewer Arab, Turkish and Somali managed entities.[5]

There are a number of UK-wide Islamic organisations, including; the British Muslim Forum, the Muslim Association of Britain. the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association UK, the Islamic Society of Britain, the Muslim Council of Britain, the United Kingdom Islamic Mission (UKIM), the Sufi Muslim Council, the Mosques & Imams National Advisory Board, Minhaj-ul-Quran UK, the Muslim Public Affairs Committee UK, the Muslim Parliament of Great Britain and the Muslim Educational Trust.[6]

A 2009 survey of the attitudes of British Muslims found them to identify more strongly with the UK than the rest of the population, with a much higher regard for the country's institutions, and to be more tolerant towards people of other religions.[7] However, the vast majority of them have strongly conservative views on moral issues such as homosexuality and extra-marital sex, both differing dramatically from those held by the rest of the British population.[7]

The vast majority of Muslims in the UK live in England and Wales: of 1,591,000 Muslims recorded at the 2001 Census,[8] 1,536,015 were living in England and Wales,[9] where they formed 3% of the population in 2001; 42,557 were living in Scotland, forming 0.84% of the population;[10] and 1,943 were living in Northern Ireland.[11]

The emergence of the right wing English Defence League has resulted in demonstrations in British cities with large muslim populations.[12][13][14][15][16]

See also


References

  1. ^ Acts of Union 1707 www.parliament.uk, accessed 10 February 2011
  2. ^ Muslim Networks and Movements in Western EuropePew Research Center, ANALYSIS September 15, 2010
  3. ^ "Born Abroad - Countries of birth". BBC Online. 7 September 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/overview.stm?1a_total01_des. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  4. ^ Dominic Casciani (29 November 2007) The battle over mosque reform BBC News (BBC). Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
  5. ^ UK Masjid Statistics Muslims In Britain (2010-08-18). Mehmood Naqshbandi. Retrieved on 2010-09-12.
  6. ^ ibid.
  7. ^ a b Green, Chris (8 May 2009). "Patriotic, respectful and homophobic: a portrait of British Muslims' state of mind". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/patriotic-respectful-and-homophobic-a-portrait-of-british-muslims-state-of-mind-1681062.html. 
  8. ^ Muslims in Europe: Country guide bbc.co.uk, accessed 16 January 2009
  9. ^ KS07 Religion: Key Statistics for urban areas, results by population size of urban area
  10. ^ ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS: Summary Report, Scottish Executive
  11. ^ Northern Ireland Census 2001 Key Statistics
  12. ^ Preventing violent extremism: sixth report of session 2009-10. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=XUdbVsADpfgC&pg=PA94&dq=%22English+Defence+League#v=onepage&q=%22English%20Defence%20League&f=false. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  13. ^ Allen, Chris (2010). "Fear and Loathing: the Political Discourse in Relation to Muslims and Islam in the British Contemporary Setting". Politics and Religion 4: 221–236. http://www.politicsandreligionjournal.com/images/pdf_files/srpski/godina4_broj2/8%20chris%20allen%20vol.iv%20no.2.pdf. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  14. ^ Garland, Jon; Treadwell, James (2010). "'No Surrender to the Taliban': Football Hooliganism,Islamophobia and the Rise of the English Defence League". Papers from the British Criminology Conference 10: 19–35. http://www.britsoccrim.org/volume10/2010_Garland_Treadwell.pdf. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  15. ^ 7:41AM GMT 14 Dec 2010 (14 December 2010). "Telegraph.co.uk". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/8200443/English-Defence-League-says-Pastor-Terry-Jones-will-not-speak-at-rally.html. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  16. ^ Helen Carter. "Guardian.co.uk". Guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/oct/21/inquiry-police-anti-fascist-protester. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 

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