Infobox PRC province
ChineseName = 广东省
Pinyin = Guǎngdōng Shěng
EnglishName = Guangdong Province
Name = Guangdong
AbbrevPinyin = Yuè
ISOAbbrev = 44
MapSize = 275px
OriginOfName = 广 guǎng - "Wide"
东 dōng- "East"
Lit. "The Eastern Expanse"
AdministrationType = Province
Secretary = Wang Yang
Area_km2 = 177900
AreaRank = 15th
PopYear = 2005
Pop = 83,040,000 Locals
PopRank = 1st
PopDensity_km2 = 467
PopDensityRank = 7th
GDPYear = 2007
GDP = 3.07 trillion
GDPRank = 1st
GDPperCapita = 32,713
GDPperCapitaRank = 6th
HDIYear = 2005
HDI = 0.807
HDIRank = 6th
HDICat = high
Nationalities = Han - 99%
Yao - 0.2%
Prefectures = 21
Counties = 121
Townships = 1642
Website = http://www.gd.gov.cn
Guangdong (zh-st |s=广东 |t=廣東 ;
EFEO: "Kouangtong"; pinyin"Guǎngdōng"; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the southern coast of China. It overtook Henanand Sichuanto become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months. [ [http://english.people.com.cn/200501/30/eng20050130_172366.html English people.com.cn] ] [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-01/29/content_413299.htm Chinadaily.com ] ] The provincial capital of Guangzhouand economic hub Shenzhenare among the most populous and important cities in China.
Guangdong is the country's richest province with the highest total
GDPamong all provinces. Its nominal GDPfor 2003 was US$165 billion, increased to US$265 billion in 2005 (about the same size as Denmark). In 2006 that number increased to US$329.07 billion and by 2007 its GDP has grown another 14.5% to reach 3.06 trillion yuan (US$422 billion). [ [http://www.chinadaily.net/china/2008-01/18/content_6403287.htm Guangdong sees GDP soar 14.5% ] ] Guangdong contributes approximately 12.5% of national economic output. Guangdong also hosts the largest Import and Export Fair in China called the Canton Fairwhich is hosted by the city of Guangzhou - Guangdong's capital city.
The province was the homeland and base of operations of
Sun Yat-Sen, the widely accepted founder of modern China.
"Guang" itself means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. "Guangdong" and neighboring
Guangxiliterally mean "expanse east" and "expanse west". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Dual-Guangs" (兩廣 liăng guăng). The modern abbreviation 粵/粤 (Yue) is related to the Hundred Yue (百越), a collective name for various peoples that lived in Guangdong and other areas in ancient times.
Prior to the introduction of
Hanyu Pinyin, the province was known as Canton Province based on a Portuguese-derived transliterationof "Guangdong". Canton refers to the city Romanized as Guangzhou in Pinyin, the provincial capital. The local people of Guangzhou and their language are still commonly referred to as Cantonese.
Guangdong was far away from the center of ancient Chinese civilization in the north China plain. It was populated by peoples collectively known as the Hundred Yue, who may have been
Tai-Kadaiand related to the Zhuang people in modern Guangxi.
Chinese administration in the region began with the
Qin Dynasty. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commanderyat Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. It used to be independent as Nanyuebetween the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han Dynastyadministered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiao Province. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdomsperiod, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226.
As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong slowly shifted to (Han) Chinese-dominance, especially during several periods of massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and/or nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han Dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of
An Lushanresulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between 740s-750s and 800s-810s. [ [http://www.nhyz.org/yxx/jxzy/zy/zy48.htm nhyz.org] ] As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture, [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=11836649 pubmedcentral.nih.gov] ] or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the
Tang Dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit "guǎng" nán "dōng" lù in 971 during the Song Dynasty(960-1279). "Guangnan East" is the source of "Guangdong".
Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song Dynasty retreated southwards, eventually ending up in today's Guangdong. The Battle of Yamen1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song Dynasty (960-1279).
During the Mongol
Yuan Dynasty, Guangdong was a part of Jiangxi. Its present name, "Guangdong Province" was given in early Ming Dynasty.
Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the
Straits of Malaccaand the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in China since 1557. It was the opium tradethrough Guangzhou that triggered the Opium Wars, opening an era of foreign incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kongwas ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan to the French.
In the 19th century, Guangdong was also the major port of exit for labourers to
Southeast Asiaand the West, i.e. United Statesand Canada. As a result, many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong. The Cantonese language therefore has proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than mainland Chinese. In the US, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the otherwise unremarkable Guangdong region of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect of Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).
During the 1850s, the first revolt of the
Taiping Rebellionby the Hakkapeople took place in Guangdong. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-Sen, was from Guangdong.
During the early 1920s of the
Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for Kuomintang(KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under the central government. Whampoa Military Academywas built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.
In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.
In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to
Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. HainanIsland was originally part of Guangdong but it was separated as its own province in 1988.
Guangdong faces the
South China Seato the south and has a total of 4,300 km of coastline. Leizhou Peninsulais on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoeson Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river deltais filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Southern Mountain Range (南岭). The highest point in the province is Datian Ding 1,704 meters (5587') above sea level.
Fujianprovince to the northeast, Jiangxiand Hunanprovinces to the north, Guangxiautonomous region to the west, and Hong Kongand MacauSpecial Administrative Regions to the south. Hainanprovince is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula.
Cities around the
Pearl River Deltainclude Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshanand Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Kaiping, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Xinhui, Zhanjiangand Zhaoqing.
Guangdong has a
humid subtropical climate(tropical in the far south), with short, mild, dry, winters and long, hot, wet summers. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18C (64F) and 33C (91F) respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.
This is a trend of [http://www.gd.gov.cn/GD_Info/GD_2_21_e.asp official estimates] of the gross domestic product of the Province of Guangdong with figures in millions of
communisttakeover and until the start of the Deng Xiaopingreforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly linked to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarchymade Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.Facts|date=April 2008
Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to
Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation systemwas reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.Facts|date=April 2008
Shanghaiis often cited as evidence of China's success, Guangdong's economic boom exemplifies the reality of the vast labor-intensive manufacturing powerhouse China has become, and all the rewards and shortcomings that come with it.POV-statement|date=April 2008 Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economy is based on manufacturing and export.Facts|date=April 2008
The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. Its
nominal GDPfor 2007 was 3.07 trillion yuan (US$422 billion), a rise of 14.5% on a year-on-year basis.
In 2007, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 174.62 billion yuan, 1.59 trillion yuan, and 1.3 trillion yuan respectively. [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-02/04/content_4133837.htm News.xinhuanet.com 02-04-2006] ] Its
per capita GDPreached 32,713 yuan (about US$4,300). [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-02/02/content_4128978.htm News.xinhuanet.com 02-02-2006] ] Guangdong contributes approximately 12.5% of the total national economic output. Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantouand Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very much concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.
In 2007 its foreign trade also grew 20% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for 29% of China's US$2.17 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$634 billion. [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-01/13/content_6389962.htm Guangdong reports 20% foreign trade growth ] ]
Guangdong officially became the most populous province in January 2005. [ [http://english.people.com.cn/200501/30/eng20050130_172366.html English people.com.cn] ] [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-01/29/content_413299.htm Chinadaily.com ] ] Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th most populous province of China with about 80 million people, but recently released information suggests that there are an additional 30 million migrants who reside in Guangdong for at least six months every year, making it the most populous province with a population of more than 110 million. [ [http://media.163.com/05/0201/11/1BGKCSFN0014183O.html media163] ] The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor.
Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of
overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panamain the 19th century came from Guangdong. Emigration in recent years has slowed with economic prosperity, but this province is still a major source of immigrants to North America and elsewhere in the world.
Because of the high population density and the close proximity in which humans and animals live, Guangdong has often been the source of
respiratory diseases such as influenza. In late 2002, Guangdong was suspected as the initial source of SARS.Fact|date=July 2008
During the 1980s, the Guangdong provincial government had a reputation of resisting central government directives, especially those regarding the economy. At the same time, the good economic situation of Guangdong has made it relatively quiet in the area of political and economic activism. Although some in the West assume that Guangdong's economic growth and distinctive language would give rise to
separatismFact|date=June 2008, this is not the case, and there has never been any significant support for separatism.Fact|date=June 2008
Relations with Hong Kong and Macau
Hong Kongand Macauhave historically been part of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdomand Portugalrespectively, they became special administrative regions, a first-order administrative division, when their sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China.
Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou Province is served by several
Guangdong Radiostations and Guangdong TV. There is an international station Radio Guangdongwhich broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the World Radio Network.
Guangdong is a multicultural province. The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Cantonese-speakers. This region is associated with
Cantonese cuisine(simplified Chinese: 粤菜; traditional Chinese: 粵菜). Cantonese opera(simplified Chinese: 粤剧; traditional Chinese: 粵劇) is a form of Chinese operapopular in Cantonese speaking areas.
The SARS virus is thought to have originated in Guangdong, due to the cuisine of the region, which famously includes "anything that walks, crawls or flies".Fact|date=February 2008
Hakkapeople live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguanand other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine(客家菜), Han opera (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇), Hakka "Hanyue" and "sixian" (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).
The area composed of the cities of
Chaozhou, Shantouand Jieyangin eastern Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. Here, the Teochew peopleand the people in Hailufengspeak Teochew (simplified Chinese: 潮语, traditional Chinese: 潮語), which is closely related to Min-nanand their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera(simplified Chinese: 潮剧, traditional Chinese: 潮劇) is also very famous and has a unique form.
In addition to their mother tongue, most people also speak "
Putonghua" (Mandarin Chinese).
Colleges and universities
Foshan University(Guangzhou, Foshan)
Jinan University(Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen)
South China University of Technology(Guangzhou)
Sun Yat-sen University(Guangzhou, Zhuhai)
Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences
South China Normal University(Guangzhou)
Dongguan University of Technology(Dongguan)
South China Agricultural University(Guangzhou)
Guangdong University of Foreign Studies(广东外语外贸大学)
South China Agricultural University(华南农业大学) (founded 1909)
Zhongkai Agrotechnical College(仲恺农业技术学院) (founded 1927)
South China Normal University(华南师范大学)
Guangzhou Medical College(广州医学院)
Guangzhou University of TCM(广州中医药大学) [http://www.acupuncture.edu/guangzhou/index.htm (English-language site)]
Guangdong College of Pharmacy(广东药学院)
Guangdong Commercial College
Guangdong University of Technology(广东工业大学)
Guangzhou Normal University
Guangdong Institute of Science and Technology(广东省科技干部学院)
Guangdong Business College(广东商学院)
Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts(广州美术学院)
Xinghai Conservatory of Music(星海音乐学院)
GuangDong Polytechnic Normal University(广东技术师范学院)
Guangzhou Physical Education Institute(广州体育学院)
Guangdong Education and Research Network
Guangzhou Education College
Dongguan Institute of Technology
Guangdong Petrochemical Academy
Zhanjiang Normal College
First Military Medical University
Zhanjiang Ocean University
Hanshan Teachers College
Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Guangdong Polytechnical Normal University
Guangdong Radio & TV. University
Shenzhen Party School
Guangdong Education Institute
Professional sports teams based in Guangdong include:
Chinese Super League
** Guangzhou Pharmaceutical
Shenzhen Xiangxue Eisiti
* China League Division 2
** Guangdong Sunraycave
Zhanjiang Tiandi No.1
Hong Kong First Division League
** Guangdong Winnerway
** Dongguan New Century
Notable attractions include
Danxia Mountain, Yuexiu Hillin Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-senin Zhongshan.
The current immediate administrative divisions of Guangdong consist of 21
The prefecture-level cities:
Chaozhou(潮州) ( Teochew)
The above division govern, in total, 49 districts, 30 county-level cities, 42 counties, and three autonomous counties. For county-level divisions, see the
list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.
Governors of Guangdong
* [http://www.gd.gov.cn/ Guangdong provincial government official website]
* [http://www.gdstats.gov.cn/tjnj/ml_e.htm Guangdong Statistical Yearbook]
* [http://www.newsgd.com/ News Guangdong]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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