Frank Jack Fletcher


Frank Jack Fletcher

Infobox Military Person
name= Frank Jack Fletcher
born= birth date|1885|4|29
died= death date and age|1973|4|25|1885|4|29
placeofbirth= Marshaltown, Iowa
placeofdeath= Bethesda, Maryland
placeofburial= Arlington National Cemetery


caption= Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed aboard USS "Saratoga", September 17, 1942. Official U.S. Navy Photograph
nickname=
allegiance=flag|United States of America
branch=
serviceyears= 1906-1947
rank= Admiral
commands=
unit=
battles= Veracruz (1914) World War I World War II –Battle of the Coral Sea –Battle of Midway –Guadalcanal campaign –Tulagi –Eastern Solomons
awards= Medal of Honor Navy Cross Navy Distinguished Service Medal
laterwork=
relations=Nephew of Frank Friday Fletcher

Frank Jack Fletcher (April 29, 1885 – April 25, 1973) was an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. Fletcher was the operational commander at the pivotal Battles of Coral Sea and of Midway. He was the nephew of Admiral Frank Friday Fletcher.

Early life and early Navy career

Fletcher was born in Marshalltown, Iowa on April 29, 1885. Appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy from his native state in 1902, he graduated from Annapolis on February 12, 1906 and commissioned an Ensign on February 13, 1908 following two years at sea.

The early years of his career were spent on the battleships "Rhode Island", "Ohio", and "Maine". He also spent time on USS "Eagle" and USS "Franklin". In November 1909 he was assigned to USS "Chauncey", a unit of the Asiatic Torpedo Flotilla. He assumed command of USS "Dale" in April 1910 and March 1912 returned to "Chauncey" as Commanding Officer. Transferred to USS "Florida" in December 1912 he was aboard that battleship during the United States occupation of Veracruz, Mexico, in April 1914. For distinguished conduct in battle at Veracruz he was awarded the Medal of Honor (see citation below).

World War I and post-War period

Fletcher became Aide and Flag Lieutenant on the staff of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet in July 1914. After a year at this post, he returned to the Naval Academy for duty in the Executive Department. Upon the outbreak of World War I he served as Gunnery Officer of USS "Kearsarge" until September 1917, after which he assumed command of USS "Margaret". He was assigned to USS "Allen" in February 1918 before taking command of USS "Benham" in May 1918. For distinguished service as Commanding Officer USS "Benham", engaged in the important, exacting, and hazardous duty of patrolling European waters and protecting vitally important convoys, he was awarded the Navy Cross.

From October 1918 to February 1919 he assisted in fitting out USS "Crane" at San Francisco. He then became Commanding Officer of USS "Gridley" upon her commissioning. Returning to Washington, he was head of the Detail Section, Enlisted Personnel Division in the Bureau of Navigation from April 1919 until September 1922.

Interwar service

He returned to the Asiatic Station, having consecutive command of the USS "Whipple", USS "Sacramento", USS "Rainbow", and Submarine Base, Cavite. He served at the Washington Navy Yards from March 1925 to 1927; became Executive Officer of USS "Colorado"; and completed the Senior Course at the Naval War College, Newport in June 1930.

Fletcher became Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet in August 1931. In the summer of 1933 he was transferred to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Following this assignment he had duty from November 1933 to May 1936 as Aide to the Secretary of the Navy, the Honorable Claude A. Swanson. He assumed command of USS "New Mexico", flagship of Battleship Division THREE in June 1936. In December 1937 he became a member of the Naval Examining Board, and became Assistant Chief of Bureau of Navigation in June 1938. Returning to the Pacific between September 1939 and December 1941 he became Commander Cruiser Division THREE; Commander Cruiser Division SIX; Commander Cruiser's Scouting Force; and Commander Cruiser Division FOUR.

World War II

Wake Island — December 8 - December 23, 1941

Responding to reports from US Marines on Wake Island of Japanese bombardment and a subsequent invasion attempt in the first week after Pearl Harbor, Fletcher was sent west with the carrier "Saratoga" (Task Force 11) to provide relief.He was one day away when plans were changed and ordered to wait for "Lexington" (Task Force 12, Vice Admiral Brown). [Morison, Samuel E. Supplement and General Index, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume 15, Cumulative Errata] The next day the Japanese successfully invaded Wake Island. The task force was recalled by Admiral Pye, who was "keeping the seat warm" until Admiral Nimitz could arrive at Pearl and take over as Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet.

Fletcher was one day away from engaging any enemy forces attacking Wake Island. He is often criticized for not arriving on station at Wake in time to defend the island. His desire to maintain "frequently refueling operations" for his destroyers to keep them ready for "high speed chase" is often cited as the critical delaying factor. [John Costello, The Pacific War: 1941-1945, Harper Perennial, December 1, 1982] Both Fletcher and Pye have been criticized as exhibiting "poor seamanship and decision making". [Morison, Samuel E., Admiral USN. The Rising Sun in the Pacific, 1931 - April 1942, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume 3.]

January - April 1942

On January 1, 1942, Rear Admiral Fletcher took command of Task Force 17 built around the carrier "USS Yorktown (CV-5)". He, a surface fleet admiral, was chosen over more senior officers to lead a carrier task force. He learned air operations on the job while escorting troops to the South Pacific. He was junior TF commander under tutelage of the experts: Vice Admiral William Halsey on raids in the Gilbert Islands in February; Vice Admiral Wilson Brown attacking the enemy landings on New Guinea in March; and had aviation expert Rear Admiral Aubrey Fitch with him during the first battle at Coral Sea.

Coral Sea — May 4 - May 8, 1942

In May 1942, he commanded the task forces during the Battle of the Coral Sea. This battle is famous as the first carrier-on-carrier battle fought between fleets that never came within sight of each other.

Fletcher with "Yorktown," Task Force 17, had been patrolling the Coral Sea and rendezvoused with Rear Admiral Aubrey Fitch with USS "Lexington", Task Force 11, and a tanker group. Fletcher finished refueling first and headed West. On hearing the enemy was occupying Tulagi, TF 17 attacked the landing beaches sinking several small ships before rejoining "Lexington" and an Australian cruiser force under Rear Admiral John Gregory Crace on May 5.

The next day intelligence reported a Japanese invasion task force headed for Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and a Carrier Strike Force was in the area, The morning of May 7 Fletcher sent the Australian cruisers to stop the transports while he sought the carriers. His combat pilots sank Japanese aircraft carrier Shōhō, escorting the enemy troop ships, -- "Scratch one flat top." radioed Lt. Commander Robert Dixon flying back to theUSS Lexington. Meanwhile, Japanese carrier planes of Rear Admiral Chuichi Hara found the American tanker, "USS Neosho (AO-23)", and severely damaged (days later sunk by USS Henley (DD-391) it after several all out attacks believing they had found a carrier and sinking her destroyer escort USS Sims (DD-409).

On May 8, at first light, "round three opened." Fletcher launched seventy-five aircraft, Hara sixty-nine. Fitch had greater experience in handling air operations, and Fletcher had him direct that function, as he was to do again later with Noyes at Guadalcanal. "Shokaku" was hit, but not damaged below waterline; it slunk away. "Zuikaku" had earlier dodged under a squall. The Japanese attack put two torpedoes into "Lexington", which was abandoned that evening. "Yorktown" was hit near her island, but survived. Hara failed to use "Zuikaku" to achieve victory and withdrew. The invasion fleet without air cover, also withdrew, thereby halting the Port Moresby invasion. Fletcher had achieved the objective of the mission at the cost a carrier, tanker, and destroyer. In addition, his Wildcats had beaten Japanese air groups, 52 to 35, and had damaged "Shokaku,"; neither Japanese carrier would be able to join the fight at Midway the following month. This was the first WWII battle in which the Imperial Japanese Navy had been stopped.In battles in Pearl Harbor, East Indies, Australia, Ceylon they had defeated the British, Dutch, and Asiatic Fleets, and had not lost a fleet ship larger than mine sweepers and submarines.

Midway — June 4 - June 7, 1942

In June 1942, he was the Officer in Tactical Command at the Battle of Midway with two task forces, his usual TF 17 with quickly repaired "Yorktown," plus TF 16 with USS "Enterprise" and USS "Hornet". Vice Admiral William Halsey normally commanded this task force, but became ill and was replaced by Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance. When aircraft from four Japanese carriers attacked Midway Island, the three U.S. carriers, warned by broken Japanese codes and waiting in ambush, attacked and sank three enemy carriers – "Akagi, Kaga, Soryu." "Enterprise" and "Hornet" lost seventy aircraft. Return attack damaged "Yorktown". Fletcher's scouts found the fourth carrier and "Enterprise" with "Yorktown" planes then sank "Hiryu." At dusk, Fletcher released Spruance to continue fighting with TF 16 the next day. During the next two days, Spruance found two damaged cruisers and sank one. The enemy transport and battle fleets got away. A Japanese submarine, "I-168", found crippled "Yorktown" and sank her and an adjacent destroyer, USS "Hammann". Japan had had seven large carriers (six at Pearl Harbor and one new construction) – four were sunk at Midway. This did not win the war, but evened the odds between Japanese and American fleet carriers.

Landing at Guadalcanal — August 7 - August 9, 1942

As the U.S. took the offensive in August 1942, Vice Admiral Fletcher commanded the Task Force 61's invasion of Tulagi and Guadalcanal by the 1st Marine Division. Close air support was provided at Tulagi. The invasion of Guadalcanal was uncontested, Fletcher withdrew his carriers from dangerous waters when they were no longer needed. Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner's offloading of supplies did not go as well as expected, he did not tell Fletcher, and then had to withdraw the transports after Fletcher left. The Marines refer to this as the 'Navy Bugout', but the 17,000 Marines were in little danger from a construction battalion. The few US carriers could not be risked against multi-engine, land based, torpedo bombers, when they were needed for combat against carriers. He chose to withdraw on the third morning to prepare for the inevitable Japanese counterattack.

A separate incident must be mentioned : the Battle of Savo Island - August 9, 1942.:: Allied warships under Rear Admiral Victor Crutchley, RN, screening the transports were surprised at midnight and defeated in 32 minutes by a Japanese force of seven cruisers and one destroyer, commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa. One Australian and three U.S. heavy cruisers were sunk, and one other U.S. cruiser and two destroyers were damaged in this lopsided Japanese victory. However, as Crutchley notes, the transports were not touched. Fletcher is sometimes criticized because his carriers were at the far end of their nightly withdrawal, steaming back for the morning, yet too far to away to seek revenge.

East Solomons - August 24 - August 25, 1942

Fletcher used the carriers he had saved two weeks later when he fought a superior Japanese fleet intent on counter-invasion in the carrier aircraft Battle of the Eastern Solomons. He started the engagement and sank his sixth carrier, "Ryujo", The ensuing battle was essentially a giant aerial dog fight interspersed with ship borne antiaircraft fire. The U.S. lost 20 planes, the Japanese lost 70. "Enterprise" was hit by three bombs and "Chitose" was nearly sunk, but survived. The enemy withdrew without landing troops on Guadalcanal. They had to resort to the Tokyo Express : overnight delivery of a few hundred troops and supplies by destroyers. Fletcher, as always, was second guessed by non-combatants, and was criticized by Admiral Ernest King, in Washington, for not pursuing the Combined Fleet as it withdrew. This criticism may have affected the decision to not return Fletcher to his command after his flagship, the carrier "Saratoga" (CV-3), was torpedoed and damaged by a Japanese submarine on August 31, 1942. Fletcher himself was slightly injured in the attack on "Saratoga", suffering a gash to his head and was given his first leave after eight months of continuous combat.

Northern

In November 1942, he became Commander, Thirteenth Naval District and Commander, Northwestern Sea Frontier to calm the public fear of invasion from the north. A year later, he was placed in charge of the whole Northern Pacific area, holding that position until after the end of World War II, when his forces occupied northern Japan.

Postwar and final days

Vice Admiral Fletcher was appointed to the Navy's General Board in 1946 and retired as Chairman of that governing board in May 1947 with the rank of full Admiral. He retired to his county estate, Araby, in Maryland.

Many of Fletcher's papers were lost in combat, he declined to reconstruct his papers from Pentagon archives and sit with Samuel Eliot Morison, who was writing the History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, and in return received no consideration by Morison, an attitude picked up by later authors.

Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher died on April 25, 1973, four days before his 88th birthday at the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Medal of Honor citation

Citation::For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. Under fire, Lt. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in performance of his duties. He was in charge of the Esperanze and succeeded in getting on board over 350 refugees, many of them after the conflict had commenced. Although the ship was under fire, being struck more than 30 times, he succeeded in getting all the refugees placed in safety. Lt. Fletcher was later placed in charge of the train conveying refugees under a flag of truce. This was hazardous duty, as it was believed that the track was mined, and a small error in dealing with the Mexican guard of soldiers might readily have caused a conflict, such a conflict at one time being narrowly averted. It was greatly due to his efforts in establishing friendly relations with the Mexican soldiers that so many refugees succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz from the interior.

Legacy

Admiral Fletcher can and should be credited with helping to stop what most would agree was a superior Japanese Navy with what was left of the battered U.S. Asiatic Fleet. Criticized for his cautious approach to command, Fletcher nonetheless played a valuable role in the stopping and eventual defeat of the Japanese Military in WWII
USS "Fletcher" (DD-992) is named in honor of Admiral Fletcher.

Notes

ee also

*List of Medal of Honor recipients

External links

*findagrave|6623703 Retrieved on 2007-10-23
*cite book
author=Layton, Edwin T. (with Roger Pineau and John Costello)
title=And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway — Breaking the Secrets
year=1985

*cite web|accessdate=
url=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-f/fj-fltr.htm
title=Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN, (1885-1973)
work=Online Library of Selected

publisher=Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy

*cite web|accessdate=
url=http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/fj-fletc.htm
title=Frank Jack Fletcher, Admiral, United States Navy
publisher=ArlingtonCemetery.net
date=March 26, 2006

*cite book
author=Lundstrom, John
title=Black Shoe Carrier Admiral: Frank Jack Fletcher at Coral Sea, Midway & Guadalcanal
publisher=Naval Institute Press
location=Annapolis
year=2006
isbn= 1-59114-475-2

*cite book
last = Lundstrom
first = John B.
year = 2005 (New edition)
title = First Team And the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942
publisher = Naval Institute Press
location = Annapolis
isbn=1-59114-472-8

*cite book
author=Regan, Stephen D.
title=In Bitter Tempest, the Biography of Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher
publisher=Iowa State University Press
year=1994
isbn=0-8136-0778-6

*cite book
author=Morison, Samuel E., Admiral USN
title=The Rising Sun in the Pacific, 1931 - April 1942, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume 3

*cite web|accessdate=
url=http://midway-divebomber.blogspot.com/
title=A Critical Revisit to the Battle of Midway
publisher=George J. Walsh, Lieutenant Cmdr. USNR
date=December 22, 2006

Persondata
NAME= Fletcher, Frank Jack
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= United States Navy Medal of Honor recipient
DATE OF BIRTH=
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=


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Look at other dictionaries:

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