- Fuel starvation
Fuel starvation and fuel exhaustion (sometimes referred to as fuel depletion) are problems that can affect
internal combustion engines fuelled by either diesel, kerosene, petroleumor any other combustible liquid or gas. If no fuel is available for an engine to burn, it cannot function. All modes of transportpowered by such engines can be affected by this problem, but the consequences are most significant when it occurs to aircraftin flight. The remainder of this article discusses primarily fuel starvation and exhaustion issues in aviation.
There are two main ways that an engine can run out of fuel:
*Using all of the fuel. An engine can use all available fuel due to insufficient fuel being loaded for the planned journey or the journey time extended for too long (in the case of an aircraft, due to in-flight delays or problems). Incidents of this type involving aircraft include Air Canada Flight 143,
Avianca Flight 52, and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961.
*Leaking. In some cases, the
fuel tankor the supply pipingto the engine leaks and fuel is lost. This can cause engines to starve. Cases of this nature involving aircraft include Air Transat Flight 236.
Fuel starvation is slightly different from fuel exhaustion, in that fuel is in the tank but there is a supply problem which either fully or partially prevents the fuel from reaching the engine. Causes may include a blocked
fuel filter, problems with fuel tank selection if multiple tanks are installed, or more commonly water-contaminated fuel. Fuel has a lower specific gravitythan water which means that any water in the fuel will collect in the bottom of a fuel tank. As fuel is typically drawn from the lowest part of the tank, water is delivered to the engine instead and the engine starves.
Fuel exhaustion and starvation incidents on aircraft
Many incidents have happened on aircraft where fuel exhaustion or starvation played a role. A partial list of these incidents follows:
* It is assumed that the most likely scenario surrounding the disappearance of aviation pioneers
Amelia Earhartand Charles Ulmduring the 1930s, was that they became lost in separate incidents over the Pacific Oceanand flew until their fuel ran out. No trace was ever found of either Earhart, Ulm, their crews or their aircraft.
19 June 1954, a Convair CV-240aircraft operated by Swissair registered HR-IBW ran out of fuel over the English Channelnear Folkestone. The aircraft ditched in the Channel, killing three passengers. Four crew members and two passengers were found alive after the crash. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540619-0 Aviation Safety Network HB-IRW page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
3 August 1954, a Lockheed 1049C Super Constellation of Air Franceregistered F-BGNA was diverted to Bostonafter being unable to land at New York-Idlewild Airport due to bad weather. It ran out of fuel before reaching Boston and made a belly-landing in a field. There were no fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540803-0 Aviation Safety Network F-BGNA page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
21 August 1963, a Tupolev Tu-124operated by Aeroflotregistered CCCP-45021 experienced a landing gear malfunction after taking off from Tallinn Airport. On finding that the nose gear could neither be retracted or extended, the crew diverted the flight to Leningrad where they prepared for an emergency landing by circling the city burning off fuel. While circling the city the crew made repeated attempts to get the landing gear to lock down; they possibly became over-preoccupied with this and the aircraft ran out of fuel. The crew ditched the aircraft in the Neva River. There were no fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19630821-2 Aviation Safety Network CCCP-45021 page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
British MidlandCanadair C-4 Argonaut registered G-ALHG suffered a double engine failure due to a fuel tank selector problem over Stockport, Englandon 4 June 1967. The aircraft crashed and 72 of the 84 onboard died. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19670604-0 Aviation Safety Network G-ALHG page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
ALM Flight 980was a Douglas DC-9-33CF flying from John F. Kennedy International Airportin New York Cityto Princess Juliana International Airportin St. Maarten, in the Netherlands Antilles, on 2 May 1970. Multiple diversions due to severe weather conditions and several unsuccessful landing attempts depleted the aircraft's fuel to the point where the crew believed there was insufficient remaining to reach an alternative airport and decided to ditch the DC-9 in the Caribbean Sea. There were 23 fatalities among the 63 on board. [ [http://amelia.db.erau.edu/reports/ntsb/aar/AAR71-08.pdf Report on the NTSB investigation of the crash of N935F] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
United Airlines Flight 173, a Douglas DC-8-61 en route from Denver, Coloradoto Portland, Oregonon 28 December 1978experienced a landing gear indicator light malfunction while preparing to land. The aircraft continued to circle in the vicinity of Portland while the crew investigated the problem, but it ran out of fuel and crash-landed in a sparsely populated area, killing 10 and seriously injuring 24 of the 181 on board. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19781228-1 Aviation Safety Network N8082U page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
23 July 1983, due to a chain of events and mistakes Air Canada Flight 143 was fuelled using pounds as the unit of measure instead of kilograms, resulting in only half the required amount of fuel being on board. The aircraft used up all available fuel and glided to Gimli Industrial Park Airportwhere the airliner landed safely. The aircraft is now famously known as the "Gimli Glider." [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19830723-0 Aviation Safety Network C-GAUN page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
* A Cessna 208A Caravan, used for skydiving operations at
Jenkinsburg, Georgia, crashed following a loss of engine power just after taking off on 29 September 1985. The aircraft had been refuelled with contaminated fuel; all 17 occupants died. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19850929-0 Aviation Safety Network N551CC page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
* After a string of mistakes and omissions by the pilots, a Boeing 737-200 operating
Varig Flight 254on 3 September 1989strayed hundreds of miles off-course, ran out of fuel, and crashed in Brazil's Amazon jungle killing 13 of the occupants. Due to the crew's mistake in flying the aircraft west (270°) instead of north-northeast (027°), the aircraft was not found until four survivors walked onto a farm five days later. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19890903-0 Aviation Safety Network PP-VMK page] (partly in Portuguese), Retrieved: 14 December 2007.]
25 January 1990, Avianca Flight 52was in an extended holding pattern over John F. Kennedy International Airportin New York Citydue to fog. The Boeing 707-320B was delayed many times before it was given clearance to land. By then, Flight 52 had run out of fuel and crashed into Cove Neck, New York, killing 73. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19900125-0 Aviation Safety Network HK-2016 page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
* A McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet of the
Royal Australian Air Force, serial number A21-41, was lost on 5 June 1991after the pilot became incapacitated. The aircraft flew until it ran out of fuel and crashed in a remote part of Queensland. The wreckage was not found until over three years later. [Wilson 1993] [ [http://www.adf-serials.com/3a21.shtml ADF Serials F/A-18 page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007..]
* The crew of
Indian AirlinesFlight 440, an Airbus A300B2-101, executed a missed approach procedure at Hyderabad-Begumpet Airport on 15 November 1993due to poor visibility. During the missed approach a problem developed when the flaps would not retract fully. After some time trying to solve the flap problem and find somewhere to land near Hyderabad, the crew diverted the aircraft to Madrasbut because they had to fly slower due to the extended flaps the aircraft ran out of fuel. It landed in a paddy fieldnear Tirupati; there were no fatalities among the 262 occupants but the aircraft was written-off. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19931115-1 Aviation Safety Network VT-EDV page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
23 November 1996, men hijacked Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961on a short flight segment from Addis Ababato Nairobi. The hijackers demanded that the aircraft should be flown to Australiadespite the pilot telling them that there was insufficient fuel to do so. After three hours of flying along the African coast and across part of the Indian Ocean, the aircraft ran out of fuel and the engines failed. An emergency landing at Grande Comore Island failed when the aircraft landed on the water just off the local beach, killing 125 people including the three hijackers. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19961123-0 Aviation Safety Network ET-AIZ page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
Hapag-Lloyd Flight 3378on 12 July 2000had a landing gear problem when it failed to fully retract after takeoff. The pilots decided to continue to Munichbut did not realise that their lower speed for much the same hourly fuel consumption (required because the landing gear was not up) meant that they had insufficient fuel to do so. Once the aircraft lost all fuel, the crew attempted an emergency landing at Vienna International Airportbut the aircraft landed short of the runway. There were no fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20000712-0 Aviation Safety Network D-AHLB page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
24 August 2001, Air Transat Flight 236suffered a fuel leak while crossing the Atlantic Oceanand lost its fuel. The aircraft glided safely to an air base in the Azores. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20010824-1 Aviation Safety Network C-GITS page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
* TAM Airlines Flight 3084, a
Fokker 100, suffered fuel exhaustion on 30 August 2002because of a leak. The aircraft made an emergency landing in a field with its gear up, killing a cow grazing in the field. No-one on board the aircraft was killed. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20020830-1 Aviation Safety Network PT-MQH page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
13 August 2004, a Convair CV-580 freighter operating as Air Tahoma Flight 185suffered fuel starvation due to crew mismanagement of the fuel tank system and crashed, killing one of the pilots. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20040813-0 Aviation Safety Network N586P page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
6 August 2005Sevenair (Tuninter) Flight 1153, an ATR 72en route from Bari, Italy, to Djerba, Tunisia, ditched into the Mediterranean Seaabout 18 miles from the city of Palermo. Sixteen of the 39 people on board died. The accident resulted from fuel exhaustion due to the installation of a fuel quantity indicator for an ATR 42in the ATR 72; the incorrect indicator was over-reading by over 2,000 kg, leading the crew to believe they had enough fuel for the flight. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20050806-0 Aviation Safety Network TS-LBB page] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
14 August 2005, fighter jets intercepted Helios Airways Flight 522after the Helios flight failed to respond to air traffic controllers in Greece. The pilots of the fighter jets reported that they observed no pilots in control of the aircraft, which eventually exhausted its fuel and crashed into a hill near Marathon, Greece, killing all on board. Fuel exhaustion was the final link in the accident chain, but as a consequence of cabin depressurization which had disabled the flight crew. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20050814-0 Aviation Safety Network 5B-DBY page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
Abandoned in-flight aircraft
A number of aircraft have been abandoned by their crew (both intentionally and sometimes accidentally) when the aircraft has continued on its own until fuel starvation caused it to crash:
* Some time between midnight and dawn on
5 April 1943, the crew of a Consolidated B-24D Liberator named "Lady Be Good" lost over the Sahara Desertabandoned their aircraft as it was running out of fuel. The aircraft was found in 1959, with the bodies of most of the crew located in 1960. One crew member's body has never been found. [ [http://www.qmfound.com/lady_be_good_b-24_bomber_recovery.htm Story of the discovery of the "Lady Be Good" and the recovery of the crew's remains] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.] [ [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1599 USAF Museum "Lady Be Good" web page] Retrieved: 6 December 2007. When the aircraft was found three of the four propellers were feathered, indicating that the three engines had been shut down by the crew prior to them abandoning the aircraft.]
22 October 1987, the pilot of British Aerospace Harrier GR5 serial number "ZD325" was accidentally ejected from his aircraft over Wiltshire, England; the aircraft continued on its own until fuel exhaustion caused it to crash into the Irish Sea. [ [http://www.harrierlist.co.uk/Demobbed/demobbedpt1.htm BAe Harrier attrition list] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.] [ [http://www.ejection-history.org.uk/project/YEAR_Pages/1987.htm List of live ejections from military aircraft for 1987] Retrieved: 6 December 2007.]
4 July 1989, the pilot of a Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, presuming he had engine problems, ejected from his aircraft. The aircraft continued on its own, flying out of the former East Germanyinto the West German Air Defence Zone and was then escorted by United States Air ForceF-15s until it ran out of fuel and crashed into a house in Belgium, killing the occupant of the house. [ [http://mm.iit.uni-miskolc.hu/Data/Winx/stories/accid23.html "The strange accident of the MiG-23"] .]
List of accidents and incidents involving airliners by airline
* Wilson, Stewart. "Phantom, Hornet and Skyhawk in Australian Service". Weston Creek ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd., 1993. ISBN 1-875671-03-X.
* [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:AZFiqQla4jkJ:www.bea-fr.org/etudes/fuelstudy/fuelstudy.pdf+fuel+starvation&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ca&ie=UTF-8&client=firefox-a Fuel Starvation in General Aviation]
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