List of monarchies


List of monarchies

There are and were a very large number of monarchies in the world. A monarchical form of government can be combined with many different kinds of political and economic systems, from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy and from a market economy to a planned economy. Some examples for certain forms of monarchy are:

"Existent monarchies are listed in bold type."

Antiquity

* Egypt (c. 3500 BC - 30 BC)
* Minoan Crete (c. 2600 BC - 1200 BC)
* Akkadian Empire (c. 23rd Century BC - c. 21st Century BC)
* Babylon (1959 BC - c. 6th Century BC; absorbed by Persian Empire)
* Mycenaean Greece (c. 1600 BC - c. 1100 BC)
* United Monarchy of Israel (c. 1050 BC- c. 930 BC); succeeded by the following two kingdoms:
* Kingdom of Israel (c. 930 BC- 722 BC; conquered by Assyria)
* Kingdom of Judah (c. 930 BC586 BC; conquered by Babylon)
* Athens (c. 1000 BC - 683 BC)
* Sparta (c. 1300 BC - 192 BC)
* Macedon (808 BC - 148 BC)
* Magadha (684 BC - 26 BC)
* Persian Empire (c. 648 BC - 334 BC; became subnational monarchy of Kingdom of Macedon)
* Persian Empire (323 BC - 1037; became subnational monarchy of Sultinate of Seljuk)
* Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 BC - 125 BC; became Kushan Empire)
* Empire of China (221 BC - 1912; ended by revolution)
* Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC - 10)
* Hasmoneans (140 BC- 37 BC; succeeded by Herodian Dynasty)
* Herodian Dynasty (37 BC- 92)
* Kushan Empire (105 BC - 270; became Kidarite Kingdom)
* Silla (57 BC - 935)
* Goguryeo (37 BC668)
* Roman Empire (31 BC - 476)
* Baekje {c. 18 BC - 660)
* Funan (c. 1st Century - c. 7th Century; absorbed into Khmer Empire)
* Gangga Negara (c. 1st Century - 1026)
* Indo-Parthian Kingdom (c. 1st Century - c. 106)
* Västergötland (c. 1st Century - c. 6th to 12 Century] ; absorbed by Sweden)
* Sri Ksetra (c. 1st Century - 656)
* Chera Kingdom (c. 3rd century BC - 1102; became Kingdom of Venad)
* Chola Kingdom (c. 3rd century BC - 1279; absorbed into Pandyan Kingdom)
* Srivijaya (c. 3rd Century - c. 1400; became Sultanate of Malacca)
* Sassanid Empire (226 - 651; absorbed into Persian Empire)
* Gupta Empire (240 - 550)
* Empire of Japan (c. 4th century - 1947; became a constitutional monarchy)
* Kedah (c. 4th century - c. 7th century; became subnational monarchy of Srivijaya)
* Kidarite Kingdom (c. 4th century - c. 5th century)
* Kingdom of Powys (c. 4th century - 1284; absorbed into England)
* Byzantine Empire (324 - 1453; absorbed into Ottoman Empire)
* Kingdom of Gwynedd (c. 5th century - 1209; absorbed into Wales)
* Suebi (410 - 584)
* Merovingians (410 - 751)
* Visigothic Kingdom (475 - 718)
* Ostrogothic Kingdom (489 - 553; absorbed into Byzantine Empire)
* Sultinate of Terengganu (c. 6th century - c. 15th century; became subnational monarchy of Malacca)
* Pattani Kingdom (c. 500 - c. 11th century; became subnational monarchy of Srivijaya)
* Frankish Empire (509 - 843; became Holy Roman Empire)
* Chenla (550 - c. 715)
* Mercia (585 - 918; absorbed into England)
* Champa (c. 7th century - 1832)
* Sultanate of Brunei (c. 7th century - 1959; became absolute monarchy with a constitution)
* First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018; absorbed into Byzantine Empire)
* Balhae (698 - 926)

Middle Ages and Renaissance

* Kingdom of Asturias (718 - 924; absorbed by Kingdom of Leon)
* Khmer Empire (802 - 1431; became Khmer Kingdom)
* Kingdom of Navarre (824 - 1512; absorbed into Kingdom of Spain)
* Murcia (825 - 1243; became subnational monarchy of the Kingdom of Castile)
* Holy Roman Empire (843 - 1806; dissolved after defeat by Napoleon)
* Kingdom of Scotland (843 - 1707; united with Kingdom of England to became United Kingdom of Great Britain)
* Pagan Kingdom (849 AD - 1364 AD)
* Kingdom of Norway (872 - 1814; became constitutional monarchy}
* Kingdom of León (913 - c. 16th Century; absorbed into Kingdom of Spain)
* Goryeo Dynasty (918 - 1392; became Joseon Dynasty)
* Kingdom of Aragon (925 - 1479; became Kingdom of Spain)
* Kingdom of England (927 - c. 1707; united with Kingdom of Scotland to became United Kingdom of Great Britain)
* Castile (930 - 1479; became Kingdom of Spain)
* Sultanate of Egypt (972 - 1517; became subnational monarchy of the Ottoman Empire)
* Kingdom of Denmark (980 - 1848; became constitutional monarchy)
* Sultanate of Seljuk (1037 - 1307)
* Kingdom of Venad (1102 - c. 1750)
* Kingdom of Portugal (1128 - 1822; became constitutional monarchy)
* Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (1168 - 1362; became Principality of Muscovy)
* Second Bulgarian Empire (1185 - 1396); absorbed into Ottoman Empire)
* Despotate of Epirus (1204 - 1479; absorbed into Ottoman Empire)
* Empire of Nicaea (1204 - 1265; absorbed into Byzantine Empire)
* Empire of Trebizond (1204 - 1461)
* Mongol Empire (1206 - 1368)
* Principality of Wales (1208 - 1283; absorbed by England)
* Serb Kingdom (1217 - 1395; regal title not succeeded)
* Aztec Empire (known to exist before 1233 Conquered by Spain 1521; Puppet monarchy through 1565)
* Sukhothai Kingdom (1238 - 1438; absorbed into Ayutthaya Kingdom)
* Lanna (1259 - 1939)
* Principality of Andorra (1278 - 1993; became constitutional monarchy)
* Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923)
* Serbian Empire (1345-1371; dynasty exinct)
* Ayutthaya Kingdom (1350 - 1767; became Kingdom of Siam)
* Kingdom of Vidin (1356 - 1396; absorbed into the Ottoman Empire)
* Principality of Muscovy (1362 - 1576; became Tsardom of Russia)
* 1st Kingdom of Ava (1364 - 1527)
* Joseon Dynasty (1392 - 1897; became Korean Empire, then Japanese occupation)
* Ashanti (c. 1400 - 1900; became subnational monarchy of Gold Coast)
* Sultanate of Malacca (1400 - 1511; became subnational monarchy of Portugal)
* Kelantan (1411 - 1499; became subnational monarchy of Malacca)
* Sultanate of Sulu (1412 - 1898; occupied by the United States)
* Ryūkyū Kingdom (1429 - 1879; annexed to Japan)
* Khmer Kingdom (1431 - 1954; became Kingdom of Cambodia)
* Kingdom of Spain (1479 - 1812; became constitutional monarchy)
* Persia (1500 - 1935; became Kingdom of Iran)
* Sultanate of Maguindanao (1505 - 1800s; occupied by Spain)
* Bunyoro (c. 1520 - 1899; became subnational monarchy of the United Kingdom)
* Pegu Kingdom (1527 - 1531)
* Sultanate of Johor (1528 - 1946; became subnational monarchy of Malayan Union)
* Sultanate of Perak (1528 - 1874; became subnational monarchy of the United Kingdom)
* Maguindanao Sultanate (1205 - 1800s; annexed by Spain)
* Sulu Sultanate (1450 - 1936; incorporated into the Commonwealth of the Philippines)
* Taungoo Kingdom (1531 - c. 1610)
* Tsardom of Russia (1576 - 1721; became Russian Empire)
* 2nd Kingdom of Ava (1613 - 1752)

Enlightenment and later

Constitutional monarchies

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state.

Unitary constitutional monarchies

Unitary constitutional monarchies are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature:

* Kingdom of England (c. 1630 - 1707; merged with Kingdom of Scotland to become Kingdom of Great Britain)
* Kingdom of Great Britain (1707 - 1800, became United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)
* United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1800-1921; became United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
* Kingdom of Bohemia (1806 - 1918; dissolved after World War I)
* Kingdom of Hungary (1806-1867; became part of Austro-Hungarian Empire)
* Kingdom of Spain (1812-1873 (First Spanish Republic, 1873-1874; Restoration, 1874-1931; Second Spanish Republic, 1931-1939; Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939; dictatorship under Franco, 1939-1976; constitutional monarchy restored 1976-present)
* Kingdom of Norway (1814 - present)
* Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - present)
* Mexican Empire (1821-1823) Restored by France (1864-1867) overthrown by Benito Juarez.
* Kingdom of Portugal (1822 - 1910; ended by revolution)
* Empire of Brazil (1824 - 1889; ended by coup)
* Kingdom of Belgium (1830 - 1980; became federal constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Hawaii (1840 - 1894; ended by coup)
* Kingdom of Greece (1843-1924; republican interregnum; 1935-1974; ended by plebiscite)
* Kingdom of Denmark (1848 - present)
* Principality of Liechtenstein (1862 - present)
* Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1867 - present)
* Principality of Romania (1859 - 1881; transformed into a Kingdom)
* Kingdom of Romania (1881 - 1947; ended by forced abdication)
* Principality of Serbia (1817 - 1882; transformed into a Kingdom)
* Kingdom of Serbia (1882 - 1918; merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
* New Zealand (1907 - present)
* Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908 - 1946); ended by referendum)
* Union of South Africa (1910 - 1961); ended by referendum)
* Princedom of Montenegro (1852 - 1910); transformed into a Kingdom
* Kingdom of Montenegro (1910 - 1918; merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
* Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918 - 1929, transformed into Yugoslavia)
* Kingdom of Finland (1918; ended by parliamentary vote)
* United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1921 - present)
* Kingdom of Jordan (1921 - present)
* Kingdom of Egypt (1922 - 1953; ended by military coup)
* Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929 - 1941; transformed into a Communist state in 1945)
* Kingdom of Thailand (1932 - present)
* Japan (1947 - present)
* Jamaica (1962 - present)
* Samoa (1962 - 2007)
* Barbados (1966 - present)
* Kingdom of Lesotho (1966- present)
* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1969 - present)
* The Bahamas (1973 - present)
* Kingdom of Bahrain (1971 - 1975; constitution abrogated; 2002 - present)
* Grenada (1974 - present)
* Papua New Guinea (1975 - present)
* Solomon Islands (1976 - present)
* Tuvalu (1978 - present)
* Saint Lucia (1979 - present)
* Antigua and Barbuda (1981 - present)
* Belize (1981 - present)
* Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983 - present)
* Kingdom of Nepal (1990-2008); transformed into a republic)
* Principality of Andorra (1993 - present)
* Kingdom of Cambodia (1993 - present)

Federal constitutional monarchies

Federal constitutional monarchies are federal states in which the administrative divisions (states or provinces) retain a degree of autonomy which is constitutionally protected, and cannot be revoked unilaterally by the national government:

* United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830)
* Dominion of Canada (1867 - present)
* Commonwealth of Australia (1901 - present)
* United Arab Emirates (1971 - present)
* Kingdom of Belgium (1980 - present)

Elected constitutional monarchies

* Malaysia (1963 - present)
* Samoa (2007 - present)

Absolute monarchies

An absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force.

Unitary absolute monarchies

Unitary absolute monarchies are unitary states which are governed as one single unit by a single hereditary or elected leader. Some had or have a single legislature, which may or may not be constitutionally created.

* Busoga (c. prior to 18th Century - 1961; became subnational monarchy of Uganda)
* Cokossian Monarchy (c. prior to 18th Century - 1884; became subnational monarchy of Germany)
* Wogodogo Monarchy (c. 1690 - 1896; became subnational monarchy of France)
* Emirate of Abu Dhabi (c. 18th Century - 1971; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Buganda (c. 18th Century - 1961; became subnational monarchy of Uganda)
* Emirate of Dubai (c. 18th Century - 1971; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Negeri Sembilan (c. 18th Century - 1873; became subnational monarchy of the United Kingdom)
* Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (c. 18th Century - 1972; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Russian Empire (1721 - 1917; ended by revolution)
* Sultanate of Terengganu (1724 - c. 19th Century; became subnational monarchy of Siam)
* Emirate of Sharjah (c. 1727 - 1971; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* 3rd Burmese Empire (c. 1760 - 1885)
* Kingdom of Siam (1768 - 1932; became constitutional monarchy, Kingdom of Thailand)
* Grand Duchy of Finland (1772 - 1809; became subnational monarchy of the Russian Empire)
* Emirate of Umm al-Quwain (1775 - 1971; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Kingdom of Nepal (1775-1990; became consititutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Bahrain (1783 - 1971; became constitutional monarchy; 1975 - 2002; became constitutional monarchy)
* Ankole (c. 1800 - 1901; became subnational monarchy of Uganda)
* Austrian Empire (1804 - 1867; became Austro-Hungarian Empire)
* Kingdom of Holland (1806 - 1810; within France; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Hungary (1806 - 1867; became Austro-Hungarian Empire)
* Principality of Liechtenstein (1806 - 1862; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Hawaii (1810 - 1840; became constitutional monarchy}
* Kingdom of Poland (1815 - 1865; within Russian Empire; absorbed by Russian Empire)
* Kingdom of Brazil (1816 - 1824; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Lesotho (1818- 1868; became subnational monarchy of the United Kingdom)
* Emirate of Ajmān (1820 - 1971; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Kingdom of Greece (1832 - 1843; became constitutional monarchy)
* Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867 - 1918; dissolved after World War I)
* Kingdom of Bhutan (1907 - present; absolute power voluntarily rescinded by king in 1969; expected to become constitutional monarchy in 2008)
* Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1932 - present)
* Kingdom of Iran (1935 - 1979; ended by revolution)
* Kingdom of Cambodia (1954 - 1970; Ended by military coup; reinstated as constitutional monarchy)
* Sultanate of Brunei (1959 - present; constitution creates Sultan as absolute ruler)
* Kuwait (1961 - present)

Elected absolute monarchies

* Vatican (c. 4th Century - present; absolute monarchy)

ubnational monarchies

A subnational monarchy is a territory governed by a hereditary leader, but which is subordinate to a higher national government, either monarchical or republican in form.

* Sultanate of Kelantan (c. 3rd Century - present; within Funan, Khmer Empire, Srivijaya, Siam, United Kingdom, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultinate of Kedah (c. 7th Century - present; within Malacca, Siam, United Kingdom, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Pahang (c. 8th Century - present; within Srivijaya, Siam, Sultanate of Malacca, Aceh, Johor, the United Kingdom, the Federated Malay States, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Penang (c. 8th Century - present; within Kedah, the United Kingdom, the Malayan Union, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Perlis (c. 8th Century - present; within Kedah, Siam, the United Kingdom, the Malayan Union, and Malaysia)
* Kingdom of Bohemia (c. 9th Century - 1806; within Holy Roman Empire; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Germany (c. 11th Century - 1806; within Holy Roman Empire; became Austrian Empire)
* Luxembourg (963 - 1867; within the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Austria, France and Belgium; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Hungary (1000 - 1806; within Holy Roman Empire; became constitutional monarchy)
* Kingdom of Pattani (c. 11th Century - 1909; within Srivijaya, Kingdom of Ayutthaya, Siam, dissolved between Thailand and Malaysia)
* Murcia (1243 - 1304; within the Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon; absorbed into Castile)
* Vaduz (1342 - 1806; within the Holy Roman Empire; became absolute monarchy of Liechtenstein)
* Sultanate of Terengganu (c. 15th century - 1724; within Malacca; became absolute monarchy)
* Sultanate of Malacca (1511 - present; became subnational monarchy of Portugal, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Selangor (1740 - present; within the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Federated Malay States, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Yogyakarta (1755 - present; within Netherlands Indies, Japanese Empire, United States of Indonesia (1945-1950), and Republic of Indonesia
* Sultanate of Terengganu (c. 19th Century - present; within Siam, the United Kingdom, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Grand Duchy of Finland (1809 - 1918; within Russian Empire; became constitutional monarchy, Kingdom of Finland)
* Māori Kingship (1865 - present; within Dominion of New Zealand)
* Kingdom of Lesotho (1868- 1966; became constitutional monarchy)
* Negeri Sembilan (1873 - present; within the United Kingdom, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Sultanate of Perak (1874 - present; within the United Kingdom, Federated Malay States, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
* Principality of Bulgaria (1879 - 1908; within the Ottoman Empire; became constitutional monarchy)
* Cokossian Monarchy (1884 - present; within Germany, France, and Togo)
* Wogodogo Monarchy (1896 - present; within France and Burkina Faso)
* Bunyoro (1899 - 1966; within the United Kingdom, and Uganda; abolished; 1993 - present; within Uganda)
* Ashanti (1900 - present; within Ghana)
* Ankole (1901 - 1966; abolished; 1993 - present; within Uganda)
* Kingdom of Egypt (1917 - 1922; within the United Kingdom, became constitutional monarchy)
* Sultanate of Johor {1946 - present; within the Malayan Union, the Federation of Malaya, Malaysia)
* Buganda (1961 - 1966; abolished; 1993 - present; within Uganda)
* Busoga (1961 - 1966; abolished; 1993 - present; within Uganda)
* Emirate of Abu Dhabi (1971 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Ajmān (1971 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Dubai (1971 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Fujairah (1971 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Sharjah (1971 - present; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Umm al-Quwain (1971 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)
* Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (1972 - present; within the United Arab Emirates)

hared monarchies

At various points throughout history one Monarch has reigned over more than one separate kingdom. These situations are commonly known as personal unions.

* Between 925 and 1035 the Kingdom of Aragon shared a monarchy with the Kingdom of Navarre.
* The Kingdoms of León and Castile were united three times under the same monarch, first between 1037 and 1065, again from 1072 to 1157, and finally between 1230 and sometime in the 16th Century.
* Between 1065 and 1072 Portugal and Galicia were united under a common monarch.
* Between 1072 and 1095 León, Castile, Portugal and Galicia were united under a common monarch, whereafter Portugal separated under a different dynasty, and the others were absorbed by Spain.
* The Kalmar Union was a period between 1397 and 1536 in which Denmark, Norway and Sweden shared the same monarch as three independent countries. Norway and Denmark continued to share a monarchy from 1536 to 1814. Norway was then united under a common monarchy with Sweden from 1814 to 1905.
* From 1490 to c. 1740 Bohemia and Hungary (themselves part of the Holy Roman Empire) shared a monarchy. This relationship expanded with the addition of Germany in c. 1560, and briefly Naples and Sardinia in 1707, and Sicily in 1714 to their departure in 1735, 1720 and 1734, respectively. After 1734 Hungary and Bohemia continued in their personal union relationship until Germany rejoined in 1790. The Empire of Austria replaced Germany in 1804. The three countries remained in this situation until the union was ended in the aftermath of World War I, in 1918. The Austro-Hungarian Empire itself was a union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary between 1867 and 1918.
* From 1541, King Henry VIII of England was declared King of Ireland, after being excommunicated by the pope and losing the title of lord of Ireland. England and Ireland were joined in a personal union until 1603, when the James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland. All three crowns remained in personal union until 1707 when England and Scotland were united by the Act of Union 1707 to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The two crowns remained under personal union until the Act of Union 1801 when the kingdoms became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This union lasted until Irish Independence in 1921 when with the departure of the 26 southern counties of Ireland, the U.K. officially became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
* From 1580 to 1640, Portugal was under a united monarchy with Spain.
* Between 1867 and 1890 Luxembourg and the Netherlands shared the same monarch.
* The Commonwealth realms are a group of independent nations who share the same monarch. This situation began when the dominions of the British Empire were granted equal status with the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since that time the number of Commonwealth realms has fluctuated as some former colonies gained independence and became realms, while others became republics. Currently there are sixteen Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


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