Nikel


Nikel

Coordinates: 69°24′50″N 30°13′55″E / 69.41389°N 30.23194°E / 69.41389; 30.23194

View of Nikel
Pechenga nickel plant at Nikel

Nikel (Russian: Ни́кель, lit. nickel; Finnish: Kolosjoki) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lake Kuets-Yarvi 196 kilometers (122 mi) northwest of Murmansk and 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) from the Norwegian border. Population: 12,771 (2010 Census preliminary results);[1] 16,534 (2002 Census);[2] 21,838 (1989 Census);[3] 18,000 (1973).

Contents

History

In the 1920 Treaty of Tartu, Soviet Russia ceded the area of Petsamo to Finland.[4] In the 1930s huge reserves of nickel were found on fells nearby. The amount was estimated to be five million tons. In 1934, the Finnish Government awarded the mining right to the British Mond Nickel Co, subsidiary of International Nickel Co (Inco), that founded the Petsamon Nikkeli Oy mining company. The company began building a railway, as well as other infrastructure, between the town, then known as Kolosjoki, and Liinahamari harbor.

In the Winter War of 1939–1940, the Soviet Union occupied Petsamo. In the following peace agreement only the Finnish part of the Rybachy Peninsula was ceded to the Soviet Union, although the Soviets had occupied all of Petsamo during the war. In summer 1940, the Finnish government took over the mines from the British company. The first mining operations began in the same year. During World War II, the ore was mainly sold to Germany. The hydro power plant in Jäniskoski started operations in 1942, making it possible to smelt the ore locally. In 1944, the Red Army occupied Petsamo, and Finland had to cede it to the Soviet Union as part of the Moscow Armistice signed on September 19, 1944.[4] Retreating German forces destroyed the power plant and partially the smelter. On July 21, 1945, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union decreed to establish Pechengsky District with the administrative center in Nikel on the ceded territory and to include this district as a part of Murmansk Oblast.[4]

Grave pollution concerns

The town is linked to the Norilsk Nickel plant nearby where many of its citizens are employed and which causes grave environmental and health concerns for the population. The nickel smelter which has been an eyesore in Norway–Russia relations for decades due to its extreme pollution levels, usually deposits its sulfur dioxide fumes to the south of the town where the countryside is a brown moonscape of bald hills, barren of plant life for kilometers around.[5] In the summertime, the toxic fumes which for the rest of the year rarely blow northwards towards the town, occasionally do just that, making breathing difficult and even burning holes in people's umbrellas.[5]

Recent events

The video of English alternative rock band White Lies, "Farewell to the Fairground" was filmed there in early 2009.

Sister cities

References

Notes

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  2. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  3. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  4. ^ a b c Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 54
  5. ^ a b "Balancing Growth and Environment". The Moscow Times. July 25, 2008. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/article/600/42/369177.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  6. ^ a b The model of twin cities Barents Institute Reprint (2008) no. 2

Sources

  • Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области. (1995). Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области (1920-1993 гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север". 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Nikël —   Municipality   …   Wikipedia

  • Nikel — Siedlung städtischen Typs Nikel Никель Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Níkel — Para la localidad de la república de Adiguesia, véase Níkel (Adiguesia). Fábrica situada en Nikel, Rusia. Nikel (en ruso: Никель, lit. níquel; en finés: Kolosjoki) es una ciudad de Rusia que cuenta c …   Wikipedia Español

  • Nikel' — Original name in latin Nikel’ Name in other language Kolosjoki, Kolosjokki, NIKEL , Nikel, Nikel , Nikel’, НИКЕЛЬ, Никель State code RU Continent/City Europe/Moscow longitude 69.41285 latitude 30.22198 altitude 98 Population 15596 Date 2012 01 17 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • nikel — <alm. Nickel> 1. Gümüşü ağ rəngli, parıltılı, çətin əriyən metal – kimyəvi element. 2. Üzərinə nikel sürtülmüş; nikelli, nikellənmiş. Nikel çaynik. – Kəllə pəncərələrin qabağında iki nikel çarpayı, küncdə yazı stolu qoyulmuşdu. Ə. Vəl …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • Nikel — Original name in latin Nikl Name in other language Menga, Menikll, Meniklli, Monikelj, Monikle, Monikl Mnikll, Mniklli, Nikel, Nikla, Niklla, Niklle, Nikll Nikl State code AL Continent/City Europe/Tirane longitude 41.44417 latitude 19.74833… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • nikel — is., kim., Fr. nickel Atom numarası 28, atom ağırlığı 58,71, yoğunluğu 8,9 olan, gümüş parlaklığında, demir sertliğinde, kolay işlenebilen ve kolayca tel durumuna getirilebilen bir element (simgesi Ni) Birleşik Sözler nikel kaplama …   Çağatay Osmanlı Sözlük

  • Nikel — Nịkel,   Ort im Gebiet Murmansk, Russland, 10 km vor der Grenze zu Norwegen, etwa 20 000 Einwohner; Abbau und wegen der hohen Luftschadstoffe stark umweltschädigende Verhüttung von Nickelerz (großes Metallurgiewerk »Petschenganikel«) …   Universal-Lexikon

  • NIKEL, LEA — (1918–2005), Israeli painter. Nikel was born in Zhitomir, Ukraine, the daughter of Bat Sheva and Haim Nikelshperg, who immigrated to Ereẓ Israel two years after she was born because of the pogroms. Although she lived in many cities during her… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


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