- Pechengsky District
Pechenga District ( _ru. Пече́нгский район; Finnish and _sv. Petsamo; _no. Petsjenga; _se. Beahcán; _sm. Peäccam) is an administrative subdivision ("
raion") in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Its capital is Nikelsettlement.
It is located on the
Kola Peninsulaand borders with Finland(southwest, west) and Norway(west, northwest, north) and shares the shore of the Barents Seaby the Rybachi Peninsula, which is included into the district.
Pechenga District is important for its ice-free
harbor, Liinakhamari, and deposits of nickel.
The Pechenga area was indigenously inhabited by Samis. In 1533 it became part of Russia (
Archangelsk kraiand guberniya), in 1920 part of Finland and part of the Soviet Unionfrom 1944.
The Pechenga settlement was founded as the
Pechenga Monasteryin 1533 at the influx of the Pechenga Riverinto the Barents Sea, 135 km west of modern Murmansk, by St. Tryphon, a monk from Novgorod. Inspired by the model of the Solovki, Tryphon wished to convert the local Skolt Sami population to Christianity and to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands.
The area was resettled by the
Pomorsand other Russians; its development considerably accelerated in the late 19th century, when the monastery was reestablished there. The harbour of Liinakhamari in Petsamo was important for the Russian economy during World War Ias the Baltic Seawas blocked by the Germans. In the Treaty of Tartu (1920), Soviet Russia ceded Petsamo to Finland.
nickelwere found in 1921, after Petsamo became a part of Finland, and in 1934 it was estimated that the deposits contained over five million tonnes of nickel. Mining operations were started in 1935 by Canadian and French corporations.
Construction of a road from
Sodankyläthrough Ivaloto Liinakhamaristarted in 1916 and was completed in 1931. This made Petsamo a popular tourist attraction, as it was the only port by the Barents Seathat could be reached by automobile.
Winter Warthe Soviet Unionoccupied Petsamo. In the following peace agreement only the Finnish part of the Rybachiy Peninsula ( _fi. Kalastajasaarento) was ceded to the Soviet Union, although the Soviet Union had occupied all of Petsamo during the Winter War.
In 1941, during the
Continuation War, Petsamo was used by Nazi Germanyas a staging areafor the attack towards Murmansk. In 1944 the Red Armyoccupied Petsamo again. Petsamo was ceded to the Soviet Union as part of the Paris Peace Treatyof 1946. In 1947 Finland in addition sold the Jäniskoski(Rayakovski) area, with its hydroelectric plant, in exchange for Soviet confiscated German investments in Finland.
Following the Paris Peace Treaty the local Skolt Sami were given the choice of staying in Soviet Russia or moving to Finland. Most opted to resettle in Finland.
* [http://www.siida.fi/saamjiellem/english/historia.html Skolt Sámi History]
* [http://petsamo.brim.ru Website of Pechengsky District]
* [http://blog.i-balans.ru News of Pechengsky District]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pechenga — ( ru. Печенга; Finnish and sv. Petsamo; no. Petsjenga; se. Beahcán; sm. Peäccam) is an urban type settlement in Pechengsky District, Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As of 2002 Census, its population was 2,959 people, composing 6.4% of Pechengsky… … Wikipedia
Administrative divisions of Murmansk Oblast — Murmansk Oblast, Russia Administrative center: Murmansk As of 2010: Districts[1 … Wikipedia
Nikel — This article is about an urban type settlement in Murmansk Oblast. A rural locality by this name also existed in the Republic of Adygea until 2002. Coordinates: 69°24′50″N 30°13′55″E / 69.41389°N 30.23194°E … Wikipedia
Сельское поселение Корзуново — Сельское поселение России (АЕ 3 го уровня) Страна … Википедия
Øvre Pasvik National Park — IUCN Category II (National Park) … Wikipedia
Continuation War — Part of Eastern Front of World War II Finnish StuG III Ausf. G assault guns on parade … Wikipedia
List of World War II convoys — For an alphabetical listing of convoy codes, see List of World War II convoy codes. This is a list of World War II convoys grouped regionally. This transport related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Contents 1 European Coastal… … Wikipedia
Petsamo — may refer to one of the following*A former area of Finland, which is now Pechengsky District of Russia *Finnish name for the Pechenga settlement … Wikipedia
Luostari — Infobox Airport name = Luostari Pechenga nativename = nativename a = nativename r = image width = caption = IATA = ICAO = type = Military owner = operator = Russian Air Force city served = location = Zapolyarnyj elevation f = 249 elevation m = 76 … Wikipedia
Zapolyarny, Murmansk Oblast — Zapolyarny ( ru. Заполярный) is a town in Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. The area of the town belonged to Finland in 1920 ndash;1944. It was founded in 1956 as Zhdanovsk ( ru. Ждановск) and was granted town status and renamed in… … Wikipedia