- World music
The term world music includes
Traditional music(sometimes called folk musicor roots music) of any culture that are created and played by indigenous musicians or that are "closely informed or guided by indigenous music of the regions of their origin," [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=LLzbMCxHP00C&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=%22closely+informed+or+guided+by+indigenous+music+of+the+regions+of+their+origin%22&source=web&ots=Ne9PB-Slnl&sig=tu3IPPfn-5zwkQH1vkIfNQoBDOs#PPA2,M1 Nidel 2004, p.2] ] including Western music (i.e. Celtic music). Most typically, the term "world music" has now replaced "folk music" as a shorthand description for the very broad range of recordings of traditional indigenous musicand song from around the world.
* Other non-Western music (including non-Western popular music and non-Western classical music)
music of Hawaiiand other Pacific islands, although it may be influenced by other cultures and other genres.
World music does not include
Art music(i.e. European classical music)
* Any post-
skagenre of Jamaican music Fact|date=May 2008 (i.e. reggae and its various subgenres)
The term has been credited to
ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brownwho coined it in the 1960s. [ [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20051211/news_lz1j11brown.html Robert E. Brown; brought world musicto San Diego schools | The San Diego Union-Tribune ] ] The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry, and it is generally used to classify any kind of foreign (i.e. non-Western) music.
In musical terms, world music can be roughly defined as music that uses distinctive
ethnicscales, modes and musical inflections, and which is usually (though not always) performed on or accompanied by distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora (West African harp), the steel drum, the sitaror the didgeridoo.
There are several conflicting definition for world music. One is that it consists of "all the
musicin the world", though such a broad definition renders the word virtually meaningless. [ Bohlman 2002, Nidel 2004, p.3 ] The term also is taken as a classification of music that combines western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that were previously described as " folk music" or " ethnic music". However, world music does not have to mean traditional folk music, it may refer to the indigenous classical forms of various regions of the world, and to modern, cutting edge pop musicstyles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", ["fRoots" magazine, quoted in N'Dour 2004, p.1] or "someone else's local music". [" Songlines" magazine]
Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles naturally influence one another, and in recent years world music has also been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists with which it has been associated, can be found in such disciplines as
anthropology, Folkloristics, Performance Studiesand ethnomusicology
Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto music, Indian
ragamusic, Tibetan chants), eastern European folk music (e.g. the village music of Bulgaria) and the many forms of folk and tribal music of the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Oceaniaand Central and South America.
The broad category of world music includes isolated forms of
ethnic musicfrom diverse geographical regions. These dissimilar strains of ethnic musicare commonly categorized together by virtue of their indigenous roots. Over the 20th century, the invention of sound recording, low-cost international air travel and common access to global communication among artists and the general public has given rise to a related phenomenon called "cross-over" music. Musicians from diverse cultures and locations could readily access recorded music from around the world, see and hear visiting musicians from other cultures and visit other countries to play their own music, creating a melting pot of stylistic influences.
While communication technology allows greater access to obscure forms of music, the pressures of commercialization also present the risk of increasing musical homogeny, the blurring of regional identities, and the gradual extinction of traditional local music-making practices.
Popular non-Western genres
Although it primarily describes traditional music, the world music genre also includes popular music from non-Western urban communities (e.g. South African "township" music) and non-European music forms that have been influenced by other so-called third-world musics (e.g.
Afro-Cuban music), although Western-style popular song sourced from non-English-speaking countries in Western Europe (e.g. French pop music) would not generally be considered world music.
World Music in France
Parisis one of the great European capitals for world music. For many years, the city has attracted numerous musicians from former colonies in West Africa and North Africa. This thriving scene is aided by the fact that there are many concerts and institutions that help promote the music.
Algerian and Moroccan music have an important presence in the French capital. Hundreds of thousands of Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have settled in Paris, bringing the sounds of Amazigh (Berber),
rai, and Gnawa music. Algerian raïalso found a large French audience, especially Cheb Mami. [ World Music Central, p.12 ]
The West African community is also very large, integrated by people from Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, and Guinea. They have introduced manding jeli music, mbalax and other styles.
Cultural appropriation in western music
After 1987: WOMAD and beyond
The origins of the term World Music in relation to the selling of this type of music began in 1982 when World Music Day (
Fête de la Musique) was initiated in France. World Music Day is celebrated on 21 Juneevery year since then. On Monday 29 June 1987a meeting of interested parties gathered to capitalise on the marketing of this genre. Arguably popular interest was sparked with the release in 1986 of Paul Simon's "Graceland" album. The concept behind the album was to express his own sensibilities using the sounds which he had fallen in love with listening to artists from Southern Africa, including Ladysmith Black Mambazoand Savuka. But this project and the work of Peter Gabrieland Johnny Clegg amongst others had to some degree introduced non-western music to a wider audience and this was an opportunity which could not be ignored.
Before 1987, although World Music undoubtedly had a following and with this potential market opening up, it was difficult for interested parties to sell their music to the larger music stores; although specialist music stores had been important in developing the genre over many years, the record companies, broadcasters and journalists had been finding it difficult to build a following because the music itself seemed too scarce. They were eyeing the
Jazzand Classic markets, watching them develop a cross-over audience and decided that the best way forward would be to collective strategy to bring the music to a wider audience.
At the outset of the 1987 meeting, the musician
Roger Armstrongadvised why something needed to be done; "(He) felt that the main problem in selling our kind of material lay with the UK retail outlets and specifically the fact that they did not know how to rack it coherently. This discouraged them from stocking the material in any depth and made it more difficult for the record buyers to become acquainted with our catalogues."
The first concern of the meetings was to select the umbrella name that this 'new' music would be listed under. Suggestions included 'World Beat' and prefixing words such as 'Hot' or 'Tropical' to existing genre titles, but 'World Music' won after a show of hands, but initially it was not meant to be the title for a whole new genre, rather something which all of the record labels could place on the sleeves of records in order to distinguish them during the forthcoming campaign. It only became a title for the genre after an agreement that despite the publicity campaign, this wasn't an exclusive club and that for the good of all, any label which was selling this type of music would be able to take advantage.
Another issue which needed to be addressed was the distribution methods which existed at the time. Most of the main labels were unhappy with the lack of specialist knowledge displayed by sales persons which led to poor service; there was also a reluctance amongst many of the larger outlets to carry the music, because they understandably liked larger releases which could be promoted within store. It was difficult to justify a large presentation expense if the stock going into stores was limited.
One of the marketing strategies used in the
vinylmarket at the time was the use of browser cards, which would appear in the record racks. As part of the World Music campaign it was decided that these would be a two colour affair designed to carry a special offer package; to aid the retailer a selection of labels would also be included [presumably for shelf or rack edging.]
In an unprecedented move, all of the World Music labels co-ordinated together and developed a compilation cassette for the cover of the music magazine
NME. The overall running time was ninety minutes, each package containing a mini-catalogue showing the other releases on offer. This was a smartFact|date=May 2008 move as NME readers are often seen as discerning listenersFact|date=February 2007 and it was important step to get them on board.
By the time of that second meeting it was becoming clear that in order for the campaign to be successful, it should have its own dedicated press officer. They would be able to juggle the various deadlines and also be able to sell the music as a concept to not just the national stations but also regional
DJs who were keen to expand the variety of music they could offer. They were seen as a key resource as it was important for 'World Music' to be seen as something which could be important to people outside London- most regions after all had a similarly rich folk heritage which could be tapped into. A cost effective way of achieving all this would be a leafleting campaign.
The next step was to develop a World Music chart, gathering together selling information from around fifty shops, so that it would finally be possible to see which were big sellers in the genre - allowing new listeners to see what was particularly popular. It was agreed that the NME could again be involved in printing the chart and also Music Week and the London
listings magazine City Limits. It was also suggested that Andy Kershawmight be persuaded to do a run down of this chart on his show regularly.
WOMADlogo] And so October 1987 was designated 'World Music' month. A music festival, 'Crossing the Border' was held at the Town & Country Club, London and it was the start of the winter season for both WOMADand Arts Worldwide. The main press release stressed the issues inherent in the campaign:
:"Since the early Eighties the enthusiasm for music from 'outside' Western pop culture has been steadily mounting. More and more international artists, many of whom are big stars in their own countries, are coming here on tour. They started off, like
The Bhundu Boys, playing small clubs and pubs, but now many acts are so popular that they are packing out larger venues.
:"The excitement and word-of-mouth appeal is backed up by radio -
World of Musicon Voice of America, Transpacific Sound Paradiseon WFMU, The Planeton Australia's ABC Radio National, DJ Edupresenting on BBC Radio 1Xtra, Adil Rayon the BBC Asian Network, Andy Kershaw's show on BBC Radio 3and Charlie Gillett's show [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/programmes/wmusic.shtml bbc.co.uk/worldservice/programmes/wmusic] ] on the BBC World Serviceto name but seven... and the demand for recordings of non-Western artists is surely growing. This is where the problems can start for the potential buyer of 'World Music' albums - the High Street record shop hasn't got the particular record, or even a readily identifiable section to browse through, it doesn't show in any of the published charts, and at this point all but the most tenacious give up - and who can blame them?"
Another factor to raise the profile of world music was the founding of the
Real World Recordslabel by Peter Gabrielin 1988. His well-known name brought attention of the artists whose work he released, such as Pakistani qawwalisinger Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.
Sony BmgMusic Artist,from India is well known World Music Artist.
Today, mainstream music has adopted many of the features of world music, and artists such as
Shakiraand the members of the Buena Vista Social Clubhave reached a much wider audience. At the same time world music has been influenced by hip hop, pop and jazz. Even heavy metal bands such as Tool and Nile have incorporated world music into their own. Some entertainers who cross over to recording from film and television will often start with World music; Steven Seagal is a recent example.
World music radio programs these days will often be playing
Africanhip hop or reggaeartists, crossover Bhangraand Latin Americanjazz groups, etc. Public radioand webcastingare an important way for music enthusiasts all over the world to hear the enormous diversity of sounds and styles which, collectively, amount to World Music. The BBC, NPR, and ABC ( Australian Broadcasting Corporation) are rich sources for World Music where it is possible to listen online as well as read about the artists and history of this genre.
Criticisms of the term
Some musicians and curators of music have come to dislike the term "world music". To these critics, "world music" is a parochial, catchall marketing term for non-western music of all genres. On October 3, 1999, David Byrne, the founder of the
Luaka Bopmusic label, wrote an editorial in " The New York Times" entitled "I Hate World Music" [ [http://www.luakabop.com/david_byrne/cmp/worldmusic.html "I Hate World Music" editorial by David Byrne in the "New York Times"] ] explaining his objections to the term. Byrne argued that the labeling and categorization of other cultures as "exotic" serves to attract an insincere consumership and deter other potential consumers.
BBC Awards for World Music
World music awards are awards presented by broadcasting organizations such as the
BBC(see BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music) and others to world music artists. The BBC presents awards every year. The hosts for the Awards for World Music 2005 Poll Winners' Concert were Eliza Carthyand Benjamin Zephaniah.
In 2008, they were presented by Mary Ann Kennedy in Camden, London. The award winners are listed here: [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/worldmusic/a4wm2008/winners.shtml]
United Statesnetwork LinkTVhas a show called "World Music" which airs at least ten times per calendar week. Ninety-two episodes have been aired since the beginning of 2005.
There are many World Music festivals and jazz/folk/roots/new age crossover events. A small selection is represented here:
Ariano Folkfestival[http://www.arianofolkfestival.it] is the biggest World Music festival in southern Italy, is held in middle August.
California World Music Festivalis held each July at the Nevada CountyFairgrounds.
World Sacred Music Festival[http://www.olysacredmusic.org] is held annually in Olympia, Washington State, sponsored by Interfaith Works. [ [http://www.interfaith-works.org Interfaith Works ] ]
FloydFestin Floyd, Virginia, USA. Has featured artists from a wide diversity of styles including Ani DiFranco, Geno Delafose& French Rockin' Boogie, Trumystic, Nickel Creekand Akoya Afrobeat Enemble.
Finger Lakes GrassRoots Festival of Music and Dancein Trumansburg, New York, USA. Has featured artists from a variety of world and ethnic music genres including Tinariwen, Thomas Mapfumo, Michael Franti, D'Gary, Boubacar Traore, Mamadou Diabate, and many more from around the world.
WOMADFoundation puts on festivals in different countries all around the world and which have last year included artists such as Youssou N'Dour, Robert Plantand Jaojoby. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/womad2005/index.shtml BBC - Radio 3 - WOMAD 2005 ] ]
Festival in the Deserttakes place every year at Essakane, near Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africaand has achieved international status in spite of the difficulties of reaching its location. [ [http://www.eyefortalent.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/artist.detail/artist_id/70 Festival in the Desert - Artist Detail Information ] ; BBC Four, [http://web.archive.org/web/20050323094541/http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/music/features/festival-desert.shtml "Festival in the Desert 2004"] , 5 November 2004.]
Rainforest World Music Festivalis another world music festival held in Malaysia
Stern Grove Festivalis a San Franciscocelebration of musical and cultural diversity. Examples: Lucinda Williams, John Doe, Ojos de Brujo, O-Maya, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, the Funk Brothersand also symphony orchestras and operatic stars.
Starwood Festivalhas been held in July every year since 1981. Now situated in Sherman, NY, it has featured such world music acts as Amampondo, Babatunde Olatunji, Badal Roy, Sikiru Adepoju, the Prodigals, Yaya Diallo, Merl Saundersand the Rainforest Band, Baka Beyond, Stephen Kent, Cyro Baptista, Airto Moreira, Muruga Booker, Gaelic Storm, and Halim El-Dabh.
* World Music Festival [http://www.sigbloom.it/ Lo Sguardo di Ulisse] , one of the most important music event in Campania. Born in 1997, this festival is the main appointment of all the summer programme in Naples.
* Festival Músicas do Mundo, Sines. World Music Festival born in 1998, in a beautiful village near the coast. July.
* The German World Music Festival der [http://www.klangfreunde.de Klangfreunde] takes place every first weekend of August, at Schlosspark Loshausen. Klangfreunde e. V. is a
*Wilde Töne, Karlsruhe [ [http://www.folk-music.de Homepage] ]
Spain has developed some interesting and amazing world music festivals. The most important ones are:
* Etnosur, in Alcalá la Real, Jaén (
* Pirineos Sur, in
* Festival in Getxo (Basque country)
* Festival Internacional de Música Popular Tradicional in
Vilanova i la Geltrú/ Vilanova International World Music Festival( Catalonia) [http://www.vilanova.cat/fimpt]
* Festival in Ortigueira (Galicia)
* La Mar de Músicas, in Cartagena (
Luaka Bop, David Byrne's music label
New Earth Records
Abonation Production (Malaysia)
Putumayo World Music
Real World Records, Peter Gabriel's music label
Dancing Turtle Records
Rough Guidereleases, produced by World Music Network
* Folkways series
* Nonesuch Explorer series
* Globe Style, sub-label of
Ace Records (UK)
* [http://www.piranha.de/records/ Piranha Records]
KZN (record label)
M.E.L.T. 2000(formerly Black & White Records)
Six Degrees Records
* [http://www.budamusique.com/ Buda Musique]
List of cultural and regional genres of music
New age music
Notes and sources
* Bohlman, Philip (2002). "World Music: A Very Short Introduction", "Preface". ISBN 0-19-285429-1.
* Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World: An Introductory Survey. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505342-7.
* N'Dour, Youssou. "Foreword" to Nickson, Chris (2004). "The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music". ISBN 0-399-53032-0.
* Nidel, Richard (2004). "World Music: The Basics". ISBN 0-415-96801-1.
* [http://www.worldrootsradio.com World Roots Radio] Outstanding world music radio station
* [http://www.gardensessions.co.uk gardensessions.co.uk] Free internet radio show, free folk downloads, news, reviews, lyrics and all things folk;Directories and portals
* [http://www.ywmn.org.uk Yorkshire World Music Network] For artists, promoters, managers, venues and other interested in World Music, in Yorkshire.]
;Documentaries and research
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/1xtra/tx/documentaries/index.shtml BBC 1Xtra audio documentaries]
* [http://www.drama.org.nz/ejournal_single.asp?ID=26 Thai-Maori Musical Exchange Project]
* [http://ijea.asu.edu/v8r2/ Review of Nettl's 2005 revised edition of "The Study of Ethnomusicology"]
* [http://ethnicandworldmusic.music-dictionary.org/ World Music Terms] Collection of Ethnic and World Music dictionaries ;Press
* [http://www.rootsworld.com/rw/ RootsWorld] World music news, reviews, and interviews.
* [http://worldmusiccentral.org World Music Central] World music reviews, news, wiki, artists database
;World Music Fairs
* [http://www.womex.com WOMEX - The world music expo]
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