Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge


Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge

Infobox British Royalty|royal
name =Prince Adolphus
title =Duke of Cambridge


imgw =187
succession = Duke of Cambridge
successor =Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
spouse =Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel
issue =Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Augusta of Cambridge
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
titles ="HRH" The Duke of Cambridge
"HRH" The Prince Adolphus
full name =Adolphus Frederick
royal house =House of Hanover
father =George III
mother =Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
date of birth =birth date|1774|2|24|df=y
place of birth =Buckingham Palace, London
date of death =Death date and age|1850|7|8|1774|2|24|df=yes
place of death =Cambridge House, Piccadilly
place of burial =Kew, London
occupation =Military|

Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850), was the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV. His granddaughter, Mary of Teck was the Queen consort of George V.

Early life

Prince Adolphus was born at Buckingham Palace. He was tutored at home before being sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany in summer 1786, along with his brothers Prince Ernest (created Duke of Cumberland in 1799) and Prince Augustus (created Duke of Sussex in 1801).

Military career

In 1791, he and Prince Ernest went to Hanover to receive military training under the supervision of the Hannoverian commander Field Marshal von Freytag. He rose to the ranks of colonel in 1794, to lieutenant general in 1798. In 1803 he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the new founded King's German Legion and in 1813 he became field marshal . George III appointed Prince Adolphus a Knight of the Garter on 6 June 1786 and created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron Culloden on 17 November 1801.

The Duke served as colonel-in-chief of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards (Coldstream Guards after 1855) from September 1805 and as colonel-in-chief of the 60th (The Duke of York's Own Rifle Corps) Regiment of Foot from January 1824.

Marriage

After the death of Princess Charlotte in 1817, the Duke was set the task of finding a bride for his eldest unmarried brother, the Duke of Clarence (later William IV) in the hope of securing heirs to the throne -- Charlotte had been the only legitimate grandchild of George III, despite the fact that the King had twelve surviving children. After several false starts, the Duke of Cambridge settled on Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. The Duke of Clarence agreed with alacrity, and the way was cleared for the Duke of Cambridge to find a bride for himself.

The Duke of Cambridge was married first at Kassel, Hesse on 7 May and then at Buckingham Palace on 1 June 1818 to his second cousin Augusta (25 July 1797-6 April 1889), the third daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse.

He was, as is shown in the list of issue below, the maternal grandfather of Mary of Teck, consort of George V. This makes Adolphus the great-great-grandfather of the present British monarch, Elizabeth II

Viceroy

From 1816 to 1837, the Duke of Cambridge served as viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his elder brothers, George IV and later William IV. When his niece, Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne on 20 June 1837, the 123-year union of the crowns of Great Britain (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801) and Hanover ended. The Duke of Cumberland became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover and the Duke of Cambridge returned to Britain.

Later life

The Duke of Cambridge died on 8 July 1850 at Cambridge House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried at Kew. His remains were later removed to St. George's Chapel, Windsor. His only son, Prince George, succeeded to his peerages.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

*24 February 177417 November 1801: "His Royal Highness" The Prince Adolphus
*17 November 1801–8 July 1850: "His Royal Highness" The Duke of Cambridge

His full style at death was "Field Marshal His Royal Highness The Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, Baron Culloden, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order"

Honours

British Honours
*PC: Privy Council, "1802"
*KG: Knight of the Garter, "6 June 1786"
*KB: Knight Companion of the Bath
**GCB: Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, "2 January 1815"
*GCMG: Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George
*GCH: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order

Arms

The Duke's arms were the Royal Arms of the House of Hanover, with a three point label of difference. The first and third labels containing two hearts, and the centre label bearing a red cross. His arms were adopted by his youngest daughter, Princess Mary Adelaide and her heirs included them in their arms impaled with the arms of the Duke of Teck.

Issue

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge had three children:

Ancestors

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boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;
boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;
boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;
boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;
1= 1. Prince Adolphus,
Duke of Cambridge

2= 2. George III of the United Kingdom
3= 3. Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
4= 4. Frederick, Prince of Wales
5= 5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
6= 6. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow
7= 7. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
8= 8. George II of Great Britain
9= 9. Caroline of Ansbach
10= 10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
11= 11. Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
12= 12. Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
13= 13. Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
14= 14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
15= 15. Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
16= 16. George I of Great Britain
17= 17. Sophia Dorothea of Celle
18= 18. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
19= 19. Eleanor Erdmuthe Louise of Saxe-Eisenach
20= 20. Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
21= 21. Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
22= 22. Charles, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst
23= 23. Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels
24= 24. Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
25= 25. Maria Katharina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
26= 26. Christian William I of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
27= 27. Antoine Sybille of Barby-Muhlingen
28= 28. Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
29= 29. Sofie of Waldeck
30= 30. George Louis I of Erbach-Erbach
31= 31. Amelie Katherine of Waldeck-Eisenberg

ee also

*British Royal Family
*House of Hanover
*Duke of Cambridge
*Cambridge Bay, Nunavut


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