- Sugar Grove, West Virginia
Sugar Grove is an American government communications site located in Pendleton County,
West Virginiacoord|38.514997|N|79.28421|W|type:landmark operated by the National Security Agency. According to a [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/25/weekinreview/25bamford.html December 25, 2005 article] in the " New York Times", the site intercepts all international communications entering the Eastern United States.
The site was first developed by the
Naval Research Laboratoryin the early 1960s as the site of a 600 ft radio telescopethat would gather intelligence on Soviet radar and radio signals reflected from the moon and would gather radioastronomical data on outer space, but the project was halted in 1962 before the telescope construction was completed. [David K. van Keuren, "Cold War Science in Black and White: US Intelligence Gathering and Its Scientific Cover at the Naval Research Laboratory, 1948-62," "Social Studies of Science", vol. 31, no. 2, "Science in the Cold War", (2001): 207-229.] The site was then developed as a radio receiving station. The site was activated as "Naval Radio Station Sugar Grove" on May 10, 1969, and two WullenweberCirculary Disposed Antenna Arrays (CDAAs) were completed on November 8, 1969. Numerous other antennas, dishes, domes, and other facilities were constructed in the following years. Some of the more significant radio telescopeson site are a 60 ft dish (oldest telescope on site), a 105 ft dish featuring a special waveguide receiver and a 150 ft dish (largest telescope on site).
Though the CDAAs were decommissioned in the 1990s, the site is still active, and photographs taken between 2000 and 2004 show significant construction on the site.
The site is part of the
ECHELONcommunications network operated by the United States and its allies to intercept and process electronic telecommunications. The network operates many sites around the world including Waihopai Valley in New Zealand, Menwith Hillin the United Kingdomand Yakima, Washington.
Sugar Grove is located in an officially designated National Radio Quiet Zone that covers 13,000 square miles in
West Virginiaand Virginia. The zone was established by Congress in 1958 to facilitate its mission and that of the National Radio Astronomy Observatorylocated 30 miles away at Green Bank in Pocahontas County, West Virginia.
The small community of Sugar Grove is located several miles south of the installation. Its
ZIP Codeis 26815.
* [http://eyeball-series.org/sugar-eyeball.htm Eyeballing Sugar Grove Echelon Station] -- Many maps, diagrams and large, high-quality satellite and aerial photographs of the site
* [http://coldwar-c4i.net/Sugar_Grove/history.html Sugar Grove History And Its Two CDAAs]
* [http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB23/09-01.htm declassified Echelon file on Sugar Grove] at the GWU's [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/ National Security Archive]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=38.514997%C2%B0+N+79.28421%C2%B0+W&ll=38.514997,-79.28421&spn=0.058293,0.135956&t=k&om=1 Satellite Photograph of Sugar Grove at Google Maps]
* [http://cnrma.navy.mil/SugarGrove/ Navy Information Operations Command Sugar Grove] Official Site
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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