name = Fuzhou
other_name = Hók-ciŭ
native_name = 福州
imagesize = 250px
image_caption =The main hall of
Hualin Temple, Fuzhou
mapsize = 275px
map_caption = Location of Fuzhou Prefecture within
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within China
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_type3 = County-level divisions
subdivision_name3 = 13
area_total_km2 = 12000
population_total = 6608000
population_density_km2 = auto
population_blank2_title =Major nationalities
China Standard Time
utc_offset = +8
latd=26 |lath=04 |latm=16 |latNS=N
longd=119 |longh=18 |longm=13 |longEW=E
postal_code_type =Postal code
blank_name =License plate prefixes
blank1_name =GDP (2007)
blank1_info =CNY 197.5 billion
blank2_name = - per capita
blank2_info =CNY 29,318
website = [http://www.fuzhou.gov.cn www.fuzhou.gov.cn] (Chinese)
Foochow Romanized: Hók-ciŭ; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow, Fuchow, Fuh-chau or Hokchew in earlier Western documents) is the capital and the largest prefecture-level cityof Fujian(福建) province, People's Republic of China. It is also referred to as Rongcheng (linktext|榕|城) which means "city of banyantrees."
It is the capital of the province, and is situated on the north bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River, which gives access to the interior and to the neighboring provinces of
The exact foundation date of this city is not known. When Yue to the north of Fujian was annexed by Chu in
306 BC, a branch of the royal family of the defeated Yue fled Fujian and became the Minyue(闽越) tribe.
The first city wall of Fuzhou was built in
202 BCwhen Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han Dynasty, gave permission to Wuzhu (无诸), the king of Minyue, to set up his capital in Fuzhou. The city was named Ye (冶), meaning "The Beautiful". The name has changed many times, but the city has been continuously occupied since 202 BC and has never suffered major destruction by wars or natural disasters.
The Minyue was annexed by Han in
110 BCand became a part of China, and Fuzhou became Ye County. During the Jin Dynasty, West Lake, East Lake (now silted up) and numerous canals in the city were constructed (282 AD).
When the Jin Dynasty collapsed, the first wave of immigrants of the gentile class arrived in Fujian (308 AD). During the
Tang Dynasty(725 AD), it started to be called Fuzhou.
More immigrants arrived from the north starting from 892 as the Tang Dynasty was collapsing. After the Tang Dynasty fell in 907, the Wang family managed to establish a kingdom called Min (909 – 945) with its capital in Fuzhou, then known as Changle. Min is still used as another name for the province of
Fujian, in names of region such as minnan, and the river that runs through Fuzhou is called Min Jiang.
New city walls were built in 282 AD, 901 AD, 905 AD, and 974 AD, so the city had many layers of walls — more than the Chinese capital.
Emperor Taizong of the
Song Dynasty(宋) ordered destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 AD but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371 AD.
Southern Song Dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came here to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi(朱熹), the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji(辛弃疾), the greatest composer of ci(a specialized form of poem). After them came Marco Polo, who transcribed the placenamein Italian as "Fugiu" according to Mandarin Chinese.
Hualin Temple in the original Ye city, which has been declared a national heritage site, was built in 964 AD according to documentation, but was carbon-dated to the 4th or 5th century AD. It is probably the oldest existing wooden structure in China.
Between 1405 and 1433 AD, the Chinese (Ming) navy fleet, led by
Zheng He, sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Oceanseven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stelededicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport.
In the 19th century,
Lin Zexu, a native of Fuzhou, led an unsuccessful attempt to resist the British fleet at Canton Bay, and Lin was exiled to the Russian border. At the end of the First Opium War, Fuzhou became one of the five Chinese " treaty ports" opened by the Treaty of Nanjing(signed in 1842). Lin Zexudied on November 22, 1850 at age of 66.
On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing (Manchu) army surrendered. On November 22, 1933, the leaders of the
19th Armyset up a short-lived Republic of China (中華共和國) in Fuzhou (compare the name to Chiang’s “ Republic of China” (中華民國), which literally means “People’s State of China”); it collapsed in two months.
Around 1940, the Japanese army decided to invade Fuzhou. Surrounded by hills on 3 sides, the Japanese army quickly bombed and invaded the city. Japanese planes quickly bombed the only escape route for Chinese civilians- the bridges across the neighbouring river, leaving many civilians dangerously crossing the river on foot. The Japanese soon took the city and held it until Japan's surrender in 1945.
Battle of Foochow
On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a
textilefactory in Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers. [ [http://www.mac.gov.tw/english/english/chronology/sce.htm Major Events Across The Taiwan Straits ] ]
On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from
Typhoon Longwangswept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitaryofficers. [ [http://www.mac.gov.tw/english/english/chronology/sce.htm Major Events Across The Taiwan Straits ] ]
Districts and counties
The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have changed frequently in history. In 1983, Fuzhou administered 5 districts and 8 counties, whose territory has not changed since then. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities. Despite this change, the old statement of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still popular among the local people.
* Districts: Gulou (鼓楼, Gū-làu), Taijiang (台江, Dài-gĕ̤ng), Cangshan (仓山, Chŏng-săng), Mawei(马尾, Mā-muōi), Jin'an(晋安, Céng-ăng).
* County-level cities:
* Counties: Minhou (闽侯，Mìng-âu), Minqing (闽清，Mìng-chiăng), Yongtai (永泰，Īng-tái), Lianjiang (连江，Lièng-gŏng), Luoyuan (罗源，Lò̤-nguòng), Pingtan (平潭，Bìng-tàng).
Economy and transportation
Fuzhou Changle International Airport
In 1867 the port was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard was established; a
shipyardand an arsenalwere built under French guidance, and a naval schoolwas opened. A naval academywas also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu(1854–1921).
The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the trading conflict known as the
second Opium War(1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucianeducation, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard; it had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during 1940–45.
Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably; its communications have been improved by the clearing of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to
Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese railway system was opened. The port, too, has been improved; Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and another outer harbor at Guantouon the coast of the East China Seahave been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.
Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the
Gutian hydroelectricscheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for industrial chemicalsand has food-processing, timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policyinviting foreign investments. Handicraftsremain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquerand wood products.
GDPwas ¥29,318 (ca. US$3,850) per capita in 2007, ranked no. 21 among 659 Chinese cities.
Fuzhou, also known as the City of Banyan after the many Banyan trees that dot the city landscape, may not be as rich in history as some other ancient Chinese cities but still boasts a fair number of historical sights.
*Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) (a cluster of ancient resident buildings dated from late Jin Dynasty)
*West Lake (福州西湖) (an artificial lake built in 282 AD)
*Hualin Temple (华林寺) (founding date uncertain)
*Dizang Temple (founded in 527 AD)
*Xichan Temple (西禅寺) (founded in 867 AD)
*Wu Ta (乌塔) (Black Pagoda) (originally built in 799 AD, rebuilt in 936 AD)
*Bai Ta (白塔) (White Pagoda) (originally built in 905 AD, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534 AD, rebuilt in 1548 AD, 41 m in height)
*Yongquan Temple (涌泉寺) (founded in 915 AD)
*Gu Shan (鼓山) (Drum Mountain)
*Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州国家森林公园)
Colleges and universities
Fujian Normal University(福建师范大学) (founded in 1907)
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University(福建农林大学)
Fujian Medical University(福建医科大学)
Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine(福建中医学院)
Fujian University of Technology(福建工程学院)Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
*flagicon|Japan Nagasaki, Japan
*flagicon|Japan Naha, Japan
*flagicon|South Korea Gunsan, South Korea
George, South Africa
Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia
Ayer Tawar, Sitiawan, Perak, Malaysia
*Min Dong language
List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
* [http://www.fuzhou.gov.cn Fuzhou Government website]
* [http://www.fjsen.com/aboutfj/fjgs.htm An early history of Fujian and Fuzhou]
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Look at other dictionaries:
FUZHOU — [FOU TCHEOU] Capitale de la province chinoise du Fujian, la ville de Fuzhou, dont le nom signifie «riche cité» (874 809 hab. en 1990) est située sur l’embouchure du Minjiang. Elle se compose de trois parties: la vieille ville murée, à 3… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Fuzhou — [fudʒɔu], Futschou, Foochow, Hauptstadt der Provinz Fujian, Südostchina, in Küstennähe am Min Jiang, 5,70 Mio. Einwohner; Universitäten; Maschinenbau, chemische, Holz , Nahrungsmittelindustrie, Kunsthandwerk (bekannt für seine Lackarbeiten).… … Universal-Lexikon
Fuzhou — (chino: 福州, pinyin: Fúzhōu, forma tradicional: Foochow) es la capital de la provincia de Fujian en la República Popular China. Es, además, la mayor ciudad de la provincia y la más industrializada. Está situada en la costa del Mar de China, a… … Enciclopedia Universal
Fuzhou — [fo͞o′jō′] city in SE China; capital of Fujian province: pop. 1,290,000 … English World dictionary
Fuzhou — 福州市 Fúzhōu … Deutsch Wikipedia
Fuzhou — /fyuu joh /, n. Pinyin. a seaport in and the capital of Fujian province, in SE China, opposite Taiwan. 900,000. Also, Foochow. Formerly, Minhow. * * * or Fu chou conventional Foochow formerly Minchow City (pop., 1999 est.: 1,057,372), capital of… … Universalium
Fuzhou — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar al autor princi … Wikipedia Español
Fuzhou — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Fuzhou (homonymie). Fúzhōu · 福州 … Wikipédia en Français
Fuzhou — Original name in latin Fuzhou Name in other language FOC, Foochow, Fu chou, Fu chou shih, Fu cou, Fu ou, Fuchau, Fucheu, Fuchzhou, Fudzhou, Fudzou, Fudou, Fugouo, Fuk chiu su, Fuk chiu s Futsjou, Fuzhou, Fuoo, Hok ciu, Hk ci Lin sen, Lin sen… … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Fuzhou — or Foochow or Fu chou or formerly Minhow geographical name city & port SE China capital of Fujian on Min River population 874,809 … New Collegiate Dictionary