List of famines


List of famines

This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date.

A complete list will almost certainly never become available.

5th century BC

* 440 BC famine in Ancient Rome.

2nd century BC

* Between 108 BC and 1911 AD there were no fewer than 1828 major famines in China, or one nearly every year in one or another province; however, the famines varied greatly in severity. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1473-799X%28192705%296%3A3%3C185%3ACLOF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePag China: Land of Famine] ] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731493-1,00.html "Heaven, Observe!" - TIME] ]

5th century AD

* Famine in Western Europe associated with the Fall of Rome and its sack by Alaric I. Between 400 and 800 AD, the population of the city of Rome fell by over 90%, mainly because of famine and plague. [ [http://stutzfamily.com/mrstutz/population/pophistorymodule/history-4.htm A Brief History of Population] ] See Medieval demography.

7th century AD

* 639 AD - Famine in Arabia during the Caliphate of `Umar ibn Al-Khattab
* 650 Famine throughout India

8th century

* 750's famine in Spain [ [http://libro.uca.edu/ics/ics5.htm Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages] ]

9th century

* 800-1000 AD, severe drought killed millions of Maya people with famine and thirst and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0826327745 The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death] ]
* 809 famine in Frankish Empire [ [http://www.orlok.com/timenine.html The Ninth Century] ]
* 875-884 peasant rebellion in China inspired by famine; Huang Chao captured capital

10th century

* 927 famine in Byzantine Empire [ [http://www.doaks.org/EconHist/EHB46.pdf The Economic History of Byzantinum] ]

11th century

* 1005 Famine in England [ [http://www.enotes.com/peoples-chronology/year-1005 1005: The People's Chronology] ] There were 95 famines in the Middle Ages. [ [http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Famines+through+history-a0114325996 Famines through history.] ] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2004/08/08/do0809.xml&sSheet=/opinion/2004/08/08/ixop.html Poor studies will always be with us] ]
* 1016 Famine throughout Europe [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Famine Famine - LoveToKnow 1911] ]
* 1022,1033 Great famines in India, in which entire provinces were depopulated
* 1064-1072 Seven years' famine in Egypt
* 1051 famine forced the Toltecs to migrate from a stricken region in what is now central Mexico [ [http://www.selfempowermentacademy.com.au/pdf/L3_LIVING_on_LIGHT/Glob_Journ/2-m&f.PDF The Facts of Malnutrition and Famine] ]
* 1066 famine in England

13th century

* 1199-1202 famine in Egypt
* 1230 famine in Novgorod
* 1231-1232 famine in Japan
* 1235 famine in England. 20,000 die in London, alone
* 1255 famine in Portugal [ [http://www.portugal-info.net/history/first-dynasty.htm Portugal > History and Events] ]
* 1258 famine in Germany and Italy
* 1275-1299 collapse of Anasazi civilization, widespread famine occurred [ [http://www.learner.org/interactives/collapse/chacocanyon.html Collapse: Chaco Canyon] ]
* 1294 famine in England

14th century

* 1315-1317 Great Famine in Europe [ [http://www.vlib.us/medieval/lectures/black_death.html The Great Famine and the Black Death] ]
* 1333 famine in Portugal
* 1333-1334 famine in Spain
* 1333-1337 famine in China [ [http://www.norfolkesinet.org.uk/pages/viewpage.asp?uniqid=3358 Projects and Events: 14th Century] ]
* 1344-1345 Great famine in India
* 1387 after Timur the Lame left Asia Minor, severe famine ensued
* 1390 famine in England
* 1396-1407 The Durga Devi famine in India, lasting twelve years [ [http://bidar.nic.in/hist.htm Bidar District Important Historical Events] ]

15th century

* 1403-1404 famine in Egypt
* 1441 famine in Mayapan, Mexico [ [http://www.thamesandhudsonusa.com/web/humanpast/summaries/ch16.html Welcome to The Human Past] ]
* 1445 famine in Korea
* 1450-1454 famine in Aztec Empire
* 1460 – 1461 Kanshō famine in Japan

16th century

* 1504 famine in Spain [ [http://libro.uca.edu/vassberg/land7.htm Land and Society in Golden Age Castile] ]
* 1518 famine in Venice
* 1528 famine in Languedoc, France [ [http://www.alanmacfarlane.com/savage/A-FAM.PDF The Dimension of Famine] ]
* 1535 famine in Ethiopia
* 1540 famine in Spain
* 1555 famine in England
* 1567-1570 famine in Harar in Ethiopia, combined with plague. Emir of Harar, died.
* 1574-1576 famine in Istanbul and Anatolia
* 1586 famine in England which gave rise to the Poor Law system
* 1590s famines in Europe

17th century

* 1599-1600 famine in Spain
* 1601-1603 one of the worst famines in all of Russian history; famine killed as many as 100,000 in Moscow and up to one-third of Tsar Godunov's subjects; see Russian famine of 1601 - 1603. [ [http://www.answers.com/topic/boris-godunov?cat=entertainment Boris Feodorovich Godunov] ] [ [http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h20russ.htm Russia before Peter the Great] ] Same famine killed about half Estonian population.
* 1611 famine in Anatolia
* 1618-1648 famines in Europe caused by Thirty Years' War
* 1619 famine in Japan. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious. [ [http://www.shikokuhenrotrail.com/japanhistory/edohistory.html A Chronology of Japanese History] ]
* 1623-1624 famine in England
* 1630-1631 Deccan famine in India kills 2,000,000 (Note: There was a corresponding famine in northwestern China, eventually causing the Ming dynasty to collapse in 1644.)
* 1636 famine in Spain
* 1648-1660 Poland lost an estimated 1/3 of its population due to the wars, famine, and plague
* 1649 famine in northern England
* 1650-1652 famine in the east of France
* 1651-1653 famine throughout much of Ireland during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/ashorthistory/archive/intro99.shtml BBC - Northern Ireland - A Short History] ]
* 1661 famine in India, when not a drop of rain fell for two years [ [http://www.ayton.id.au/gary/History/H_C17.htm#Asia: The 17th Century] ]
* 1661-1662 famine in Morocco
* 1661-1662 famine in France
* 1669 famine in Bengal
* 1680 famine in Sardinia [ [http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/italian%20states.htm Italian States in the Seventeenth Century] ]
* 1680 famine in Japan
* 1680s famine in Sahel
* 1690s famine in Scotland which may have killed 15% of the population
* 1693-1694 famine in France which killed 2 million peoplecite journal |last=Appleby |first=Andrew B. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1980 |month= |title=Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age |journal=Journal of Interdisciplinary History |volume=10 |issue=4 |pages=643–663 |doi=10.2307/203063 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] cite journal |last=Ó Gráda |first=Cormac |authorlink= |coauthors=Chevet, Jean-Michel |year=2002 |month= |title=Famine And Market In "Ancient Régime" France |journal=The Journal of Economic History |volume=62 |issue= |pages=706–733 |doi=10.1017/S0022050702001055 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ]
* 1695-1697 Great Famine of Estonia killed about a fifth of Estonian population (70 000 – 75 000 people). Famine also hit Sweden (80 000 – 100 000 dead)
* 1696-1697 famine in Finland wiped out almost a third of the population [ [http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/fitimeln.htm Finland timeline] ]

18th century

* 1702-1704 famine in Deccan, India, killed 2 million people
* 1706-1707 famine in France
* 1708-1711 famine in East Prussia killed 250,000 people or 41% of its population [ [http://www.alanmacfarlane.com/savage/A-FAM.PDF The Dimension of Famine.] ]
* 1709-1710 famine in France [ [http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html The Little Ice Age in Europe] ]
* 1740-1741 famine in Ireland
* 1722 famine in Arabia [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/h42p5q207t777913/ Climatic fluctuation and natural disasters in Arabia between mid-17th and early 20th Centuries] ]
* 1727-1728 famine in England [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1953%28198021%2910%3A4%3C643%3AEAFITL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age] ]
* 1732 famine in Japan
* 1738-1739 famine in France
* 1738-1756 famine in West Africa, half the population of Timbuktu died of starvation [ [http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/desclim.html Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs ‘Natural’ Climate Trends] ]
* 1741 famine in Norway
* 1750 famine in Spain
* 1764 famine in Naples [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-27717/Italy#318781.hook Naples and Sicily -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia] ]
* 1769-1773 Bengal famine of 1770 [ [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/EUD_FAT/FAMINE_Lat_fames_hunger_.html FAMINE ()] ]
* 1770-1771 famine in Czech lands killed hundreds of thousands people
* 1771-1772 famine in Saxony and southern Germany
* 1773 famine in Sweden
* 1779 famine in Rabat, Morocco [ [http://www.ub.es/geocrit/locust.htm The locust plague] ]
* 1780s Great "Tenmei" Famine in Japan
* 1783 famine in Iceland caused by Laki (volcano) eruption killed one-fifth of Iceland's population [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-257941/Haze-Famine Haze Famine (Icelandic history)] ]
* 1783-84 "Chalisa" famine in South Asia
* 1784 widespread famine throughout Egypt [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/11/061121232204.htm ScienceDaily: Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows] ]
* 1784-1785 famine in Tunisia killed up to one-fifth of all Tunisians
* 1788 famine in France. The two years previous to the French Revolution saw bad harvests and harsh winters, possibly because of a strong El Niño cyclecite journal |last=Grove |first=Richard H. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1998 |month= |title=Global Impact of the 1789–93 El Niño |journal=Nature |volume=393 |issue=6683 |pages=318–319 |doi=10.1038/30636 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] or caused by the 1783 Laki eruption at Iceland.cite book |title=The Year Without a Summer? |chapter=The climatic effects of the 1783 Laki eruption |last=Wood |first=C. A. |authorlink= |editor=Harrington, C. R. (ed.) |year=1992 |publisher=Canadian Museum of Nature |location=Ottawa |isbn= |pages=58–77 ] cite journal |last=Neumann |first=J. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1977 |month= |title=Great Historical Events that were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 2, The Year Leading to the Revolution of 1789 in France |journal=Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society |volume=58 |issue=2 |pages=163–168 |doi=10.1175/1520-0477(1977)058<0163:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ]
* 1789 Famine in Ethiopia afflicted "all the provinces"
* 1789-92 "Doji bara" famine or Skull famine in India

19th century

* 1800-1801 famine in Ireland
* Four famines - in 1810, 1811, 1846, and 1849 - in China claimed nearly 45 million lives. [ [http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Polit/Famines.html Fearfull Famines of the Past] ]
* 1811-1812 famine devastated Madrid, taking nearly 20,000 lives
* 1815 eruption Tambora, Indonesia. Tens of thousands died of subsequent famine
* 1816-1817 famine in Europe (Year Without a Summer)
* 1830 famine killed almost half the population of Cape Verde
* 1830s Tenpo famine (Japan)
* 1835 famine in Egypt killed 200,000
* 1845-1849 Great Irish Famine killed more than 1 million people [ [http://www.ego4u.com/en/read-on/countries/ireland/great-famine The Great Famine in Ireland, 1845-1849] ]
* 1846 famine led to the peasant revolt known as “Maria da Fonte” in the north of Portugal
* 1846-1857 Highland Potato Famine in Scotland
* 1850-1873 as a result of Taiping Rebellion, drought, and famine, the population of China drop by over 60 million people [ [http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM Ch'ing China: The Taiping Rebellion] ]
* 1866 Orissa famine of 1866 in India; one million perished
* 1866-1868 Famine in Finland. About 15% of the entire population died
* 1869 Rajputana famine of 1869 in India; one million and a half perished
* 1870-1871 famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million persons [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X%281986%2949%3A1%3C183%3ATGPFO1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage The Great Persian Famine of 1870-1871] ]
* 1873-1874 famine in Anatolia
* 1879 Famine in Ireland
* All mortality avoided in Bihar famine of 1873–74 in India.
* 1876-1879 ENSO Famine in India, China, Brazil, Northern Africa (and other countries). Famine in northern China killed 13 million people. 5.25 million died in the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India.
* 1878-1880 famine in St. Lawrence Island, Alaska [ [http://aa.uwpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/1/1 The St. Lawrence Island Famine and Epidemic, 1878–80] , Arctic Anthropology]
* 1888 famine in Sudan
* 1888-1892 Ethiopian Great famine. About one-third of the population died. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966291-3,00.html Famine Hunger stalks Ethiopia once again -- and aid groups fear the worst] ] [ [http://www.ccb.ucar.edu/ijas/ijasno2/georgis.html El Niño and Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia] ] Conditions worsen with cholera outbreaks (1889-92), a typhus epidemic, and a major smallpox epidemic (1889-90).
* 1891-1892 famine in Russia caused 375,000 to 500,000 deaths [ [http://www.iupui.edu/~histwhs/h699.dir/HumanitChrono.htm The History of International Humanitarian Assistance] ]
* 1896-1897 ENSO famine in northern China leading in part to the Boxer Rebellion
* 1896-1902 ENSO famine in India [Late Victorian Holocausts]

20th century

* 1907 famine in east-central China
* 1914-1918 Mount Lebanon famine during World War I which killed about a third of the population
* 1914-1918 famine in Belgium
* 1915-1916 Armenian Genocide. Armenian deportees starved to death
* 1916-1917 famine caused by the British blockade of Germany in WWI; up to 750,000 Germans starved to death [ [http://www.uwm.edu/People/mroffers/germanfamine.htm Another Famine] ]
* 1916-1917 winter famine in Russia
* 1917-1919 famine in Persia. As much as 1/4 of the population living in the north of Iran died in the famine [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/timeline/text/qresource.html Global Connections . Timeline] ]
* 1917-1921 a series of famines in Turkestan at the time of the Bolshevik revolution killed about a sixth of the population [ [http://www.les-treilles.com/ssimages/c_2003_06_OGrada.html Famine perspectives from past and present] ]
* 1921 famine in Russia killed 5 million [ [http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/forcesofnature/natural-disasters.html World's worst natural disasters since 1900] ]
* 1921-1922 Famine in Tatarstan
* 1921-1922 famine in Volga German colonies in Russia. One-third of the entire population perished [ [http://www.volgagermans.net/volgagermans/Volga%20Famine%20Years.htm The German Colonies on the Volga River - Famine Years] ]
* 1928-1929 famine in northern China. The drought resulted in 3 million deaths
* 1928-1929 famine in Ruanda-Burundi, causing large migrations to the Congo
* 1932-1933 Soviet famine in Ukraine (Holodomor), some parts of Russia [ [http://www.lib.ndsu.nodak.edu/grhc/outreach/conventions_speeches/dr_sinner.html The NDSU Libraries: Germans From Russia] ] and North Caucasus area. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-415583/Famine-of-1932 Famine of 1932, or Ukrainian genocide (Soviet history)] ] As many as 10 million people may have died [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6179818.stm Legacy of famine divides Ukraine] ]
* 1932-1933 famine in Kazakhstan killed 1.2-1.5 million [ [http://zhe.stanford.edu/spring05/Kazakhstan2.pdf The Kazakh Catastrophe and Stalin’s Order of Priorities, 1929-1933: Evidence from the Soviet Secret Archives] ]
* 1936 famine in China, with an estimated 5 million fatalities [ [http://www.intute.ac.uk/sciences/hazards/timeline.html Natural Disasters and Hazards - Historical Events Timeline] ]
* 1940-1943 famine in Warsaw Ghetto
* 1941-44 Leningrad famine caused by a 900-day blockade by Nazi and Finnish troops. About one million Leningrad residents starved, froze, or were bombed to death in the winter of 1941-42, when supply routes to the city were cut off and temperatures dropped to -40 degrees.
* 1941-1942 famine in Greece caused by Nazi occupation. [ [http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521829328&ss=exc Famine and Death in Occupied Greece, 1941-1944] ] An estimated 300,000 people perished
* 1942-1943 famine killed one million in China
* 1943 famine in Bengal
* 1943 famine in Ruanda-Urundi, causing migrations to the Congo
* 1944 famine in the Netherlands during World War II, more than 20,000 deaths
* 1945 famine in Vietnam
* 1946-1947 famine in Soviet Union killed 1-1.5 million [ [http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/24/5/603 The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines] , Cambridge Journal of Economics]
* 1958 Famine in Tigray, Ethiopia, claimed 100,000 lives
* 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward / The Great Chinese Famine (China). The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang
* 1965-1967 drought in India responsible for 1.5 million deaths [ [http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/05/08/f-natural-disasters-history.html The world's worst natural disasters] ]
* 1966 famine in Bihar, India. [ [http://www.liberalsindia.com/freedomfirst/ff452-03.html The Architect of India's Second Liberation] ]
* 1967-1970 Biafran famine caused by Nigerian blockade
* 1968-1972 Sahel drought created a famine that killed a million people [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,908581,00.html Famine Casts Its Grim Global Shadow] , TIME]
* 1973 famine in Ethiopia; failure of the government to handle this crisis led to fall of Haile Selassie and to Derg rule
* 1974 famine in Bangladesh
* 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge. An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine
* 1980 famine in Karamoja, Uganda
* 1984 famine in Ethiopia
* 1991-1993 Somalian famine
* 1996 North Korean famine [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/august97/korea_8-26.html] [http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr990802.html]
* 1998 famine in Sudan caused by war and drought
* 1998-2000 famine in Ethiopia. The situation worsened by Eritrean-Ethiopian War
* 1998-2004 Second Congo War. 3.8 million people died, mostly from starvation and disease
* 2000-2008 Zimbabwe's food crisis caused by Mugabe's land reform policies [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2678557.stm Famine plagues Zimbabwe] ]

21st century

* 2003- famine in Sudan/Darfur (Darfur conflict)
* 2005 Malawi food crisis
* 2005-06 Niger food crisis
* 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis
* 2008- Myanmar food crisis. The Cyclone Nargis devastated Burma's major rice-producing region. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/15/asia/food.php Food crisis looms in Myanmar] , International Herald Tribune]
* 2008- North Korean food crisis [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/04/17/korea.food/ North Korea at risk of famine, says U.N.] , CNN.com] [ [http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1737780,00.html The Next Great North Korean Famine] , TIME]
* 2008- Horn of Africa food crisis [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/ethiopia/2083074/Ethiopia-facing-new-famine-with-4.5-million-children-in-danger-of-starvation.html Ethiopia facing new famine with 4.5 million children in danger of starvation ] , Telegraph] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/17/world/africa/17somalia.html?_r=1&fta=y&oref=slogin Famine Looms as Wars Rend Horn of Africa] , NYTimes.com]
* 2008- Afghanistan food crisis [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24422672/ Food crisis leaves Afghans desperate] , msnbc.com]
* 2008- Bangladesh food crisis [ [http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20080412/food-crisis-looms-in-bangladesh.htm Food Crisis Looms in Bangladesh] , International Business Times]
* 2008- East Africa food crisis [ [http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=72&ReportId=77872 In-depth | Food Crisis: Status and Impacts] , IRIN]

See also

* Famine
* Disaster
* Overpopulation
* Starvation
* Medieval demography
* Life expectancy
* World population
* Food security
* List of natural disasters by death toll
* Climate changes of 535-536
* Collapse (book)
* Late Victorian Holocausts (book on the great ENSO famines of 1876-80, 1896-1900)
* Depopulation
* List of disasters
* Agriculture and population limits
* 2007–2008 world food price crisis

References

External links

* Livy 4.13
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/aug/29/food.g2 The looming food crisis]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/apr/22/food.foodanddrink Millions face famine as crop disease rages]
* [http://www.energybulletin.net/24319.html Fuelling a Food Crisis: The impact of peak oil on food security]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/aug/31/climatechange.food Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/nov/03/food.climatechange Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite]
* [http://www.financialpost.com/story.html?id=213343 Forget oil, the new global crisis is food]
* [http://www.bookrags.com/history/worldhistory/faminechina-ema-02/ Famine in China]
* [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/F/A/Famine.htm Famines in Ukraine]
* [http://www.ennonline.net/fex/08/ms20.html One hundred years of famine]
* [http://www.uwm.edu/People/mroffers/germanfamine.htm Another Famine]
* [http://stutzfamily.com/mrstutz/population/pophistorymodule/history-4.htm A Brief History of Population]
* [http://across.co.nz/WorldsWorstDisasters.html Worlds Worst Natural Disasters]
* [http://www.estonica.org/eng/lugu.html?menyy_id=95&kateg=43&alam=61&leht=4 Great Famine (1695 – 1697)]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6179818.stm Legacy of famine divides Ukraine]
* [http://www.alanmacfarlane.com/savage/A-FAM.PDF The dimension of famine]
* [http://century.guardian.co.uk/1899-1909/Story/0,,97583,00.html The famine in China |1899-1909]
* [http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/disaster.html The worst Natural Disasters ever]
* [http://www.earth-policy.org/Books/Out/index.htm Outgrowing the Earth]
* [http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2005/Update48.htm Oil and Food: A Rising Security Challenge]
* [http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/desclim.html Drought and Desertification]
* [http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/zarticles/080902_water_shortages.htm Water Shortages May Lead to Food Shortages]
* [http://www.selfempowermentacademy.com.au/pdf/L3_LIVING_on_LIGHT/Glob_Journ/2-m&f.PDF The facts on malnutrition & famine]
* [http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/images/global.pdf Water and Climate Events of the 20th Century]
* [http://www.geocities.com/dtmcbride/hist/disasters-war.html Death Toll Disasters-War-Accidents]
* [http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/forcesofnature/natural-disasters.html World's worst natural disasters since 1900]
* [http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h20russ.htm Time of Troubles]
* [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Famine Famine - LoveToKnow 1911]
* [http://www.les-treilles.com/ssimages/c_2003_06_OGrada.html Famine perspectives from past and present]
* [http://abc.net.au/news/stories/2005/05/02/1357451.htm Famine looms in Zimbabwe, aid agency warns]


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