- 1998 Sudan famine
faminein Sudanin 1998was a humanitariandisaster caused mainly by human rightsabuses, as well as droughtand the failure of the international communityto react to the famine riskwith adequate speed. [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/SUDAWEB2.htm#P374_19682 Famine In Sudan, 1998] Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25 2006 ] The worst affected area was Bahr El Ghazalin southwestern Sudan. In this region over 70,000Fact|date=February 2007 people diedFact|date=February 2007 during the famine.
The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan. [http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/9807/31/sudan.famine/ Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily] CNN, Accessed May 25 2006 ] Despite the Sudanese government's claims that only the rebel groups were to blame, [http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/980803/1998080337.html 70 Sudanese dying daily due to famine] Arabicnews.com Accessed May 25 2006]
Human Rights Watchblamed the following groups:
* The government of Sudan
Sudan People's Liberation Army
Dinkawarlord Kerubino Kuanyin Bol
The government and Kuanyin Bol are blamed for their role in destroying the local agriculture during their attempt to take the city of Wau. [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/SUDAWEB2-10.htm#P488_51738 The 1998 Famine In Bahr El Ghazal] Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25 2006 ] The SPLA are blamed for their maintenance of
slaveryand pilfering of aid.
This was worsened by the late arrival of the rainy season and a failure to respond to the situation by the international community. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/11/newsid_2510000/2510999.stm 1998: UN warns of famine in Sudan] BBC Accessed May 25 2006 ]
The effects on the region were massive, with the excess mortality estimated at about 70 000 people. [http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/dp/dp369.pdf Famine in the Sudan: Causes, Preparedness and Response] Luka Biong Deng, Institute of Development Studies, 1999, accessed August 29 2006] ] Many more are thought to have been displaced, with over 72 000 people reported as migrating from the threatened rural zones to Wau alone from May 1998 to August 1998. [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/SUDAWEB2-01.htm Bahr El Ghazal and the Famine of 1998] Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25 2006] ]
A ceasefire was signed on
July 15 1998, some eight months after the Sudanese government had first warned of a possible famine. After numerous extensions, this ceasefire lasted nearly a year, until April 1999. However, the Baggara militia continued to ignore the ceasefire, reducing the ability of aid agencies to help. [ [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/SUDAWEB2-47.htm#P1714_319942 Cease-fire Brought Relief] Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25 2006 ] Thanks to a good crop and this ceasefire, however, the situation was brought under control by the end of 1998. [ [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/SUDAWEB2-49.htm#P1735_324735 Political Complications Boding Ill For Future Relief: The 1998 Famine in Bahr El Ghazal is Brought Under Control] Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25 2006 ] However, the area has remained in trouble and a number of famine warnings have come since the end of 1998.
Second Sudanese Civil War
Notes and references
* [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sudan/index.htm#TopOfPage Human Rights Watch Report on the Famine]
* [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40C1EF83C5D0C7A8EDDAE0894DC494D81&showabstract=1#TopOfPage Report of the Pullitzer-winning photographer's death who shot the NY Times cover about the Sudan Femine- baby toddler crawling for food with the vulture waiting around for him/her to die to eat it]
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