- Workplace democracy
Workplace democracy is the application of
democracyin all its forms (including voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal, and so on) to the workplace.
It usually involves or requires more use of lateral methods like
arbitrationwhen workplace disputes arise.
Associated with ideologies
These methods are often seen as associated with
trade unions or syndicalism(or more lately eco-syndicalismand eco-socialism), or in extreme forms anarcho-syndicalism.
Most unions have democratic structures at least for selecting the leader, and sometimes these are seen as providing the only democratic aspects of work. However, unions are not everywhere, and not every workplace that lacks a union lacks democracy, and not every workplace that has a union necessarily has a democratic way to resolve disputes.
However, some unions have historically been more committed to it than others. The
Industrial Workers of the Worldpioneered the archetypal workplace democracy model, the Wobbly Shop, in which recallable delegates were elected by workers, and other norms of grassroots democracywere applied. This is still used in some organizations, notably Semco and in the software industry.
The best known and most studied example of a successfully democratic national labor union in the United States are the
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, known throughout the labor movement as the UE. An independent trade Union, the UE was built from the bottom-up, and takes pride in its motto that "The Members Run This Union!".
Binary Economicsmovement also advocates workplace democracy and the Employee Stock Ownership Plan, which is a method by which workers can buy their way into their corporations.
Studied by management science
Industrial and organizational psychologyand even more formal management sciencehas studied themethods of workplace democracy. They are just that - methods - and do not imply any particular political movement, agenda, theory, or ideology: There are many management sciencepapers on the application of democratic structuring, in particular, to the workplace, and the benefits of it. Such benefits are usually compared to simple command hierarchyarrangements in which "the boss" can hire anyone and fire anyone, and takes absolute and total responsibility for his own well-being and also all that occurs "under" him. The command hierarchyis a preferred management style followed in many companies for its simplicity, speed and low process overheads.
20th century pioneers of workplace democracy include the early Belgian advocates of
syndicalismwho argued that workers had more knowledge but less control of the workplace than they had of major political decisions (where they at least had a vote and the right to be heard even if they knew nothing about the situation). Of these theorists the most influential, de Paepe, is often considered as a peer or competitor to Karl Marx's concept of the workplace as merely a cauldron and test for the proletariat.
Relation to political theory
However, workplace democracy theory closely follows political, especially where businesses are large or politics is small:
Spanish anarchists, Mohandas Gandhi, farm and retail co-operativemovements, all made contributions to the theory and practice of workplace democracy and often carried that into the political arena as a "more participatory democracy." The Green Parties worldwideadopted this as one of their Four Pillarsand also often mimic workplace democracy norms such as gender equity, co-leadership, deliberative democracyapplied to any major decision, and leaders who don't do policy.
In Sweden, the Socialdemocratic Party made laws and reforms 1950-70 to achieve more democratic workplaces. The unions right to balance the management and have some influential power was rather radical at that time, but still within the capitalistic society.
Salvador Allendeinspired a large number of such experiments in Chilebefore his death on September 11, 1973. The book "Brain of the Firm" by Stafford Beerdetails experiments in workplace feedback that exploited systems theoryextensively.
Limits of management
Many organizations began by the 1960s to realize that tight control by too few people was creating
groupthink, turnover in staff and a loss of moraleamong qualified people helpless to appeal what they saw as stupid decisions. Usually employees who criticise such stupid decisions of their higher management are fired from their jobs on some false pretext or other. The comic strip Dilberthas become popular satirizing this type of oblivious management, the icon for which is the Pointy Haired Boss, a nameless and clueless social climber. The Dilbert Principlehas been accepted as fact by some.
management philosophyhas focused on trying to limit manager power, differentiate leadership versus management, and so on. Henry Mintzberg, Peter Druckerand Donella Meadowswere three very notable theorists addressing these concerns in the 1980s. Mintzberg and Drucker studied how executives spent their time, Meadows how change and leverage to resist it existed at all levels in all kinds of organizations. Adhocracy, functional leadership models, and reengineeringwere all attempts to detect andremove administrative incompetence. Business processand quality managementmethods in general remove managerial flexibilitythat is often perceived as masking managerial mistakes, butalso preventing transparency and facilitating fraud, as in the case of Enron. Had managersbeen more accountable to employees, it is argued, owners and employees would not have been defrauded.
Influenced matrix management
Managerial grid models and matrix management, compromises between trueworkplace democracy and conventional top-down hierarchy, became common in the 1990s.These models cross responsibilities so that no one manager had total control of any one employee, or so that technical and marketing management were not subordinated to each other but had to argue out their concerns more mutually. A consequence of this was the rise of learning organizationtheory, in which the ontologyof definitions in common among all factions or professions becomes the main management problem. London Business Schoolchief Nigel Nicholsonin his 1998 Harvard Business Reviewpaper " How Hardwired is Human Behavior?" suggested that human naturewas just as likely to cause problems in the workplace as in larger social and political settings, and that similar methods were required to deal with stressful situations and difficult problems. He held up the workplace democracy model advanced by Ricardo Semleras the "only" one that actually took cognizance of human foibles.
Semler and Semco
Semler, in his own book "Maverick", explained how he took his family firm in
Brazil, a light manufacturing concern called Semco, and transformed it into a strictly democratic firm where managers were interviewed and then elected by workers, where all decisions were subject to democratic review, debate and vote, and where every worker was expected to justify themselves to their peers. This radical approach to total quality managementgot him and the company a great deal of attention. Semler argued that handing the company over to the workers was the only way to free timefor himself to go build up the customer, governmentand other relationships required to make the company grow. By literally giving up the fight to hold any control of internals, Semler was able to focus on marketing, positioning, and offer his advice (as a paid, elected, spokesman, though his position as major shareholder was not so negotiable) as if he were, effectively, an outside management consultant. Decentralisationof management functions, he claimed, gave him a combination of insider information and outsider credibility, plus the legitimacy of truly speaking for his workers in the same sense as an elected political leader.
The book ends with twenty pages of
cartoons that constitute Semco's only employee manual. They explain such things as the company's attitudes to women and their advancement, managers and their role, sales and operations, technology, and read somewhat like the rationale of a nonprofit or political party.
Nicholson's analysis was more academic and conventional and focused on many other detailed problems of human behaviour and
dispute resolution, which he claimed Semler had resolved.
Venezuela has instituted worker-run "co-management" initiatives in which workers' councils are the cornerstone of the management of a plant or factory. In experimental co-managed enterprises, such as the state-owned Alcasa factory, workers develop budgets and elect both managers and departmental delegates who work together with strategists on technical issues related to production [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4155936.stm] .
Workplace democracy versus Taylorism
A more political approach to workplace reforms was advocated in "Closing The Iron Cage: The Scientific Management of Work and Leisure" by Canadian
sociologist Ed Andrewbased on Max Weber's notion "that the spirit of capitalismenvelopes our activities like an iron cage, that the ubiquitous structure of technical rationalityappears as an iron cage to those who live in it."
Frederick Winslow Taylorand so-called Taylorismthat has grown up - beyond the limits that Taylor himself would have advocated - to become a "scientific management of leisure."
Andrew asks provocative questions such as:
*Are work and leisure mutually exclusive spheres?
*Can individuals condemned to alienating "scientifically managed" work environments ever really function as free players in their "free" time?
Andrew argues that both the political left and the right accept the thesis of "leisure-as-compensation" and that most issues between unions and "management" are too narrowly framed. Andrew in particular believes that scientifically managed leisure is "the closing of an iron cage of technological rationality" on all human life. In other words, a
technological escalationnot just in the workplace but also imposed by the need to use communications, transport, and other technologies to get to work, learn, do the work itself, and justify the work afterwards. New technologies take time to learn and to use, and that time is taken away from either real work, or leisure.
The growth of
scientific managementin the industrial work force, and the consequences of that growth for how workers spend their leisure time, according to Andrew, combine to create a false idea of workplace efficiency. His critique is similar to that used to justify throughput accounting: overfocus on human labour is counter-productive since more and more minute divisions of labour deny workers' intelligence and creativity at work, destroys their ability to enjoy their time away from work, and puts them always at risk of losing opportunities simply for experimenting, thinking or dreaming on the job. An undemocratic workplace cannot be substituted by "more, and more enjoyable, leisure" if "boring and denigrating work" that alienates the individual - a key concern of Marx's sociology- remains the daily norm.
He counters pseudo-"conservative claims by efficiency experts that productivity is greatest when individual initiative is minimized" which is exactly the opposite of the ideal preached for
He presents his own model, worker self-management, which he claims "would give all workers the same ability to create their jobs and to mingle leisure and work", as a radical alternative to both scientific management and technocratic socialism. His economic and organizational framework he intends to provide a unity of meaningful work and leisure.
His model parallels that of
Amartya Senwho argued in his 1999 Development as Freedomthat the goal of all sustainable developmentmust be the freeing of human time. But while Sen addresses the interface between the workplace and leisure-place, Andrew addresses freedom within the workplace.
Many of Andrew's ideas were echoed by companies during the
dotcom boomduring which many experiments in combining work and leisure were launched, but mostly applied only to higher level creative workers such as software developers, not to people doing more routine work.
Advantages and disadvantages
Workplace democracy is too complex to offer more than a general overview of its advantages and itsdisadvantages in this article. Two obvious differences are that lockouts can't happen withoutthe support of the majority of the workers, and strikes will not be motivated by lack of controlover who manages.
Centralizationand change managementtake place only by request: work teams and units mustretain at least the power to resist changes and centralization of work functions they have performed.Presumably, though, any private sectorwork team recognizes legitimate arguments to centralize orchange.
career development Employee development, job enrichment, job rotationcan be arranged ad hocby thework team itself to suit its own schedule. Job sharingis also possible and desirable if aworker wants time off and another is in a position to do overtime, without the concern thatthis will set a precedentfor management abuses or job losses. Succession planningis everyone's problem: senior managementwill be replaced by whoeveris elected to replace them. Mentoringspecific people to do those jobs may be more risky, as management developmentis uncertain: a highly effective managerwho is disliked can simply fail to achieve the position that they have been groomed for. This isalso true in representative democracy, where "groomed" leaders can fail to win an election orlose their party's support. But in organizations there is less talent ultimately to choose from,and losing people is more serious, especially if leadership developmentis more certain elsewhere.
Organizational structure and management
Office politicsin such an environment can be extreme: people might devote a lot of timeto keeping their colleagues satisfied and supporting them socially and politically, and thereis less surety of success. Performance appraisals in particular is extremely sensitive,as it's conducted by peers. Meetings and meeting systems must generally be extremelyefficient, and require strong models of chairmanship and sophisticated models of how to handleconsent and dissent. Open-space meetings and wikimethods to define their agendashave been used by some organizations, notably political partyand management consultantorganizations. One example is the Living Agendapioneered by Canadian political parties. Organizational commitmentcannot be promised without extreme consultation. This may be an edge,in some industries, but it certainly takes longer. Organizational development, metrics for same, changes in the
structure also take longer to negotiate.
Organizational cultureshouldhowever be generally more accepting of organizational learningand peer reviewof performance. Performance improvement, self-assessmentand coping with one's own resistance to changeiseasier if the rate of change or depth of assessment is negotiated with one's peers who must deal withthe same changes and challenges. However, this is not to say those skills always apply in management: Peter principleapplies if anything faster: people who are perceived as effective are elected to run things, which they promptly fail at. However, there is much more acceptance of returning to theshop as a worker if someone fails at management, which is much more difficult in organizationswhere there is a culture gap between managers and workers. Process improvementis often thoughtto be facilitated by such swaps, e.g. the CBC television show "Venture" runs a regular seriescalled Back to the Floor, a corporate reality showwhere Chief Executive Officers and alow level employee change jobs for a week. Process managementis usually reported as benefitingfrom the direct attention of the CEO, and professional developmentof the lower level employee isalso facilitated, as they discover whether they feel fit to take leadership or not.
According to proponents,
Servant leadershipis inevitable: leaders who do not serve are simply voted out of the job.
Teams, talent and careers
Talent identification and managementtake place at the same time, on the shop floor where it is easy to assess competence. Team buildingand management rely on thesame interpersonal relationships as did hiring. Termination of employmentis also by thesame people. This is a simple, perhaps even tribal, model of how human teams must work. Work stoppages are common but very short in such an environment, due mostly to interpersonalproblems that are soon worked out, because the team has the power to resolve the issue itself. Unfair dismissalclaims are impeded because any firing is due to losing the support of one'sfellow team members and the faith of the social networkof one's peers on the shop floor.In any jurisdiction, this is a legitimate criteria for dismissal, that one is not able to retainthe faith of one's colleagues.
"The co's" (
Co-determination, co-operation, coaching, collaborationand collective bargaining)may be easier in environments where consensus or consensus-seeking decision-makingis already practiced for the most important decisions: who leads. Consensus democracymethods already exist tomake very large scale decisions in social organizations.
Not always applicable
Organizations that are thought not to be able to apply workplace democracy as easily are those that already have management that is elected by
one person, one votemethods, especially:
political partyor a bureaucracycarrying out detailed orders of a political level, who must typically be quite loyal to it
co-operativewhere all workers are also owners
Union shops in general, but especially:
Closed shops in industries where specific unions are very entrenched, where such democracy would compete with trade unions already established, even if those unions are not very democratic - the argument being that only a more democratic union should be replacing a less democratic one, not some non-unionized approach
union democracyfor an article regarding the actual practice of democracy in trade unions
emergency responsefunctions such as medicinewhere there is extreme need to retain responsibility for all decisions, and where rights to do certain things depends on credentials and interpersonal trust that can't be challenged very easily.
One counter-argument however is that these organizations also require more internal harmony to work, andthat harmony is better assessed at regular intervals by elections and reviews, than only under stresses:A
dictatoris far more likely to lose control of an organization during a crisis than anyone elected.
* [http://www.iww.org Industrial Workers of the World]
* [http://socialistsusa.org/labor/ Labor Commission of the Socialist Party USA]
* [http://www.socialistresistance.net Socialist Resistance]
* [http://www.newunionism.net New Unionism network]
* [http://www.ellerman.org/Davids-Stuff/The-Firm/Firm%20T&P.htm#ESOP-Priv Articles by
David Ellermanon workplace democracy]
* [http://economicdemocracy.org/workplacedemocracy.html Articles, theory, interviews, and other workplace democracy resources]
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