- Ubykh language
extinct=October 1992 when
fam1=North Caucasian (disputed)
Ubykh or Ubyx is a
languageof the Northwestern Caucasian group, spoken by the Ubykh peopleup until the early 1990s.
The word is derived from IPA|/wəbəx/, its name in the Abdzakh Adyghe (Circassian) language. It is known in linguistic literature by many names: variants of Ubykh, such as Ubikh, Ubıh (Turkish) and Oubykh (French); and Pekhi (from Ubykh IPA|/tʷaχə/) and its Germanicised variant Päkhy.
Ubykh is distinguished by the following features, some of which are shared with other Northwest Caucasian languages:
* It is ergative, making no syntactic distinction between the subject of an intransitive sentence and the
direct objectof a transitive sentence. Split ergativityplays only a small part, if at all.
* It is highly
agglutinative, using mainly monosyllabic or bisyllabic roots, but with single morphological words sometimes reaching nine or more syllables in length: IPA|/aχʲazbatɕʾaʁawdətʷaajlafaqʾajtʾmadaχ/ "if only you had not been able to make him take (it) all out from under me again for them". Affixes rarely fuse in any way.
* It has a simple nominal system, contrasting just four
noun cases, and not always marking grammatical numberin the direct case.
* Its system of
verbal agreementis quite complex. English verbs must agree only with the subject; Ubykh verbs must agree with the subject, the direct object and the indirect object, and benefactiveobjects must also be marked in the verb.
* It is phonologically complex as well, with 84 distinct
consonants (four of which, however, appear only in loan words). According to some linguistic analyses, it only has two phonological vowels, but these vowels have a large range of allophones because the range of consonants which surround them is so large.
Ubykh phonologyfor information on the phonetics of Ubykh.
Ubykh is agglutinative and polysynthetic: IPA|/ʃəkʲʼaajəfanamət/ "we shall not be able to go back", IPA|/awqʼaqʼajtʼba/ "if you had said it". Ubykh is often extremely concise in its word forms.
The boundaries between nouns and verbs in Ubykh is somewhat blurred. Any noun can be used as the root of a stative verb (IPA|/məzə/ "child", IPA|/səməzəjtʼ/ "I was a child"), and many verb roots can become nouns simply by the use of noun affixes (IPA|/qʼa/ "to say", IPA|/səqʼa/ "my speech, what I say"). [Dumézil, G. 1975 Le verbe oubykh: études descriptives et comparatives. Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.] [Hewitt, B. G. 2005 North-West Caucasian. Lingua 115: 91-145.]
The noun system in Ubykh is quite simple. Ubykh has three noun cases (the oblique-ergative case may be two homophonous cases with differing function, thus presenting four cases in total):
* direct or
absolutive case, marked with the bare root; this indicates the subject of an intransitive sentence and the direct objectof a transitive sentence (IPA|/tət/ "a man")
ergative case, marked in -IPA|/n/; this indicates either the subject of a transitive sentence, targets of preverbs, or indirect objects which do not take any other suffixes (IPA|/məzən/ "(to) a child")
locativecase, marked in -IPA|/ʁa/, which is the equivalent of English "in", "on" or "at".
instrumental(-IPA|/awn(ə)/ "by means of", "by using") was also treated as a case in Dumézil (1975). Another pair of postpositions, -IPA|/laaq/ "to(wards)" and -IPA|/ʁaafa/ "for", have been noted as synthetic datives (IPA|/aχʲəlaaq astʷadaw/ "I will send it to the prince"), but their status as cases is also best discounted.
Nouns do not distinguish
grammatical gender. The definite articleis IPA|/a/- "the": IPA|/atət/ "the man". There is no indefinite articledirectly equivalent to the English "a" or "an", but IPA|/za/-(root)-IPA|/gʷara/ (literally "one"-(root)-"certain") translates French "un" and Turkish "bir": IPA|/zanaynʃʷgʷara/ "a certain young man". Numberis only marked on the noun in the ergative case, with -IPA|/na/. The number marking of the absolutive argument is either by suppletive verb roots (e.g. IPA|/akʷən blas/ "he is in the car" vs IPA|/akʷən blaʒʷa/ "they are in the car") or by verb suffixes: IPA|/akʲʼan/ "he goes", IPA|/akʲʼaan/ "they go". Interestingly, the second person pluralprefix IPA|/ɕʷ/- triggers this plural suffix regardless of whether that prefix represents the ergative, the absolutive or the oblique argument:
*IPA|/ɕʷastʷaan/ "I give you all to him" (abs.)
*IPA|/səɕʷəntʷaan/ "he gives me to you all" (obl.)
*IPA|/asəɕʷtʷaan/ "you all give it/them to me" (erg.)Note that in this last sentence, the plurality of "it" (IPA|/a/-) is obscured; the meaning can be either "I give it to you all" or "I give them to you all".
Adjectives, in most cases, are simply suffixed to the noun: IPA|/tʃəbʒəja/ "pepper" with IPA|/pɬə/ "red" becomes IPA|/tʃəbʒəjapɬə/ "red pepper". Adjectives do not decline. Postpositions are rare; most locative semantic functions, as well as some non-local ones, are provided with preverbal elements: IPA|/asχʲawtxqʼa/ "you wrote it for me". However, there are a few postpositions: IPA|/səʁʷa səgʲaatɕʼ/ "like me"; IPA|/aχʲəlaaq/ "near the prince".
(Dumézil 1975 "passim")A past-present-future distinction of verb
tenseexists (the suffixes -IPA|/qʼa/ and -IPA|/awt/ represent past and future) and an imperfective aspect suffix is also found (-IPA|/jtʼ/, which can combine with tense suffixes). Dynamic and stative verbs are contrasted, as in Arabic, and verbs have several nominal forms. Morphological causatives are not uncommon. The conjunctions "and" and "but" are usually given with verb suffixes, but there is also a free particle for each:
*-IPA|/gʲə/ "and" (free particle IPA|/ve/, borrowed from Turkish);
*-IPA|/gʲəla/ "but, nevertheless, even so, however, although" (free particle IPA|/aʁʷa/)
benefactives are also part of the verbal complex, marked with the preverb IPA|/χʲa/-, but a benefactive cannot normally appear on a verb that has three agreement prefixes already. Genderonly appears as part of the second person paradigm, and then only at the speaker's discretion. The feminine second person index is IPA|/χa/-, which behaves like other pronominal prefixes: IPA|/wəsχʲantʷən/ "he gives (it) to you" (normal; gender-neutral) "for me", but compare IPA|/χasχʲantʷən/ "he gives (it) to you" (feminine) "for me".
A few meanings covered in English by
adverbs or auxiliary verbs are given in Ubykh by verb suffixes:
*IPA|/asfəpχa/ "I need to eat it"
*IPA|/asfəfan/ "I can eat it"
*IPA|/asfəgʲan/ "I eat it all the time"
*IPA|/asfəlan/ "I am eating it all up"
*IPA|/asfətɕʷan/ "I eat it too much"
*IPA|/asfaajən/ "I eat it again"
Questions may be marked grammatically, using verb suffixes or prefixes:
*Yes-no questions with -IPA|/ɕ/: IPA|/wana awbjaqʼaɕ/? "did you see that?"
*Complex questions with -IPA|/j/: IPA|/saakʲʼa wəpʼtsʼaj/? "what is your name?"
Other types of questions, involving the pronouns "where" and "what", may also be marked only in the verbal complex: IPA|/maawkʲʼanəj/ "where are you going?", IPA|/saawqʼaqʼajtʼəj/ "what had you said?"
Preverbs and determinants
Many local, prepositional, and other functions are provided by
preverbal elements providing a large series of applicatives, and it is in this that Ubykh is hideously complex. Two main types of preverbal elements exist in Ubykh: "determinants" and "preverbs". The number of preverbs is limited, and mainly show location and direction. The number of determinants is also limited, but the class is more open; some determinant prefixes include IPA|/tʃa/- "with regard to a horse" and IPA|/ɬa/- "with regard to the foot or base of an object".
For simple locations, there are a number of possibilities that can be encoded with preverbs, including (but not limited to):
* above and touching
* above and not touching
* below and touching
* below and not touching
* at the side of
* through a space
* through solid matter
* on a flat horizontal surface
* on a non-horizontal or vertical surface
* in a homogeneous mass
* in an upward direction
* in a downward direction
* into a tubular space
* into an enclosed spaceThere is also a separate directional preverb meaning "towards the speaker": j-, which occupies a separate slot in the verbal complex. However, preverbs can have meanings that would take up entire phrases in English. The preverb IPA|/jtɕʷʼaa/- signifies "on the earth" or "in the earth", for instance: IPA|/ʁadja ajtɕʷʼaanaaɬqʼa/ "they buried his body" (lit. "they put his body in the earth"). Even more narrowly, the preverb IPA|/faa/- signifies that an action is done out of, into or with regard to a fire: IPA|/amdʒan zatʃətʃaqʲa faastχʷən/ "I take a brand out of the fire".
syllables have a strong tendency to be CV, although VC and CVC also exist. Consonant clusters are not as large as in Abzhui Abkhaz or in Georgian, rarely being larger than two terms. Three-term clusters exist in two words - IPA|/ndʁa/ "sun" and IPA|/psta/ "to swell up", but the latter is a loan from Adyghe, and the former more often pronounced IPA|/nədʁa/ when it appears alone.
Compounding plays a large part in Ubykh and, indeed, in all Northwest Caucasian
semantics. There is no verb "to love", for instance; one says "I love you" as IPA|/tʂʼanə wəzbjan/ "I see you well". Reduplicationoccurs in some roots, often those with onomatopoeic values (IPA|/χˁaχˁa/ "to curry(comb)" from IPA|/χˁa/ "to scrape"; IPA|/kʼərkʼər/, "to cluck like a chicken" (a loan from Adyghe); IPA|/warqwarq/, "to croak like a frog").
Roots and affixes can be as small as one phoneme. The word IPA|/wantʷaan/ "they give you to him", for instance, contains six phonemes, and each is a separate morpheme:
*IPA|/w/ - 2nd singular absolutive
*IPA|/a/ - 3rd singular dative
*IPA|/n/ - 3rd ergative
*IPA|/tʷ/ - to give
*IPA|/aa/ - ergative plural
*IPA|/n/ - present tense
However, some words may be as long as seven
syllables (although these are usually compounds): IPA|/ʂəqʷʼawəɕaɬaadətʃa/ "staircase".
Slang and idioms
As with all other languages, Ubykh is replete with
idioms. The word IPA|/ntʷa/ "door", for instance, is an idiom meaning either "magistrate", "court" or "government". However, idiomatic constructions are even more common in Ubykh than in most other languages; the representation of abstract ideas with series of concrete elements is a characteristic of the Northwest Caucasian family. "I love you" translates literally as "I see you well"; "you please me" is literally "you cut my heart". The term IPA|/wərəs/ "Russian", a Turkish loan, has come to be a slang term meaning "infidel", "non-Muslim" or "enemy" (see section History).
The majority of loanwords in Ubykh are derived from either Adyghe or Turkish, with smaller numbers from Persian, Abkhaz and the
South Caucasian languages. Towards the end of Ubykh's life, a large influx of Adyghe words was noted; Vogt (1963) notes a few hundred examples. The phonemes IPA|/g/ /k/ /kʼ/ were borrowed from Turkish and Adyghe. IPA|/ɬʼ/ also appears to be an Adyghe loan, although at a greater time depth. It is possible, too, that IPA|/ɣ/ is a loan from Adyghe, since most of the few words with this phoneme are obvious Adyghe loans: IPA|/paaɣa/ "proud", IPA|/ɣa/ "testis".
Many loanwords have Ubykh equivalents, but were dwindling in usage under the influence of Turkish, Circassian and Russian equivalents:
* "to make a hole in, to perforate" (Turkish) = IPA|/pɕaatχʷ/
* "tea" (Turkish) = IPA|/bzəpʂə/
* "enemy" (Turkish) = IPA|/bˁaqˁʼa/
Some words, usually much older ones, are borrowed from less influential stock: Colarusso (1994) sees IPA|/χˁʷa/ "pig" as a borrowing from a proto-Semitic *huka, and IPA|/agʲarə/ "slave" from an Iranian root.
In the scheme of Northwest Caucasian evolution, despite its parallels with Abkhaz, Ubykh forms a separate third branch of the family. It has fossilised palatal class markers where all other Northwest Caucasian languages preserve traces of an original labial class: the Ubykh word for "heart", IPA|/gʲə/, corresponds to the reflex IPA|/gʷə/ in Abkhaz, Abaza, Kabardian and Adyghe. Ubykh also possesses groups of pharyngealised consonants otherwise found in the Northwest Caucasian family only in some dialects of Abkhaz and Abaza. All other NWC languages possess true pharyngeal consonants, but Ubykh is the only language to use pharyngealisation as a feature of secondary articulation.
With regard to the other languages of the family, Ubykh is closer to Abkhaz than to any other member, but shares many features with Adyghe due to geographic and cultural influence; many Ubykh speakers were bilingual in Ubykh and Adyghe.
While not many dialects of Ubykh existed, one divergent
dialectof Ubykh has been noted (in Dumézil 1965:266-269). Grammatically, it is similar to standard Ubykh, but has a very different sound system, which had collapsed into just 62-odd phonemes:
* have collapsed into IPA|/b/ /p/ /pʼ/.
* are indistinguishable from IPA|/ʃʷ/ /ʒʷ/.
* seems to have disappeared.
* Pharyngealisation is no longer distinctive, having been replaced in many cases by
* Palatalisation of the uvular consonants is no longer phonemic.
Ubykh was spoken in the eastern coast of the
Black Seaaround Sochiuntil 1864, when the Ubykhs were driven out of the region by the Russians. They eventually came to settle in Turkey, founding the villages of Hacı Osman, Kırkpınar, Masukiye and Hacı Yakup. Turkish and Circassian eventually became the preferred languages for everyday communication, and many words from these languages entered Ubykh in that period.
The Ubykh language died out on
October 7 1992, when its last fluent speaker ( Tevfik Esenç) died in his sleep. Fortunately, before that time thousands of pages of material and many audio recordings had been collected and collated by a number of linguists, including Georges Charachidzé, Georges Dumézil, Hans Vogtand George Hewitt, with the help of some of its last speakers, particularly Tevfik Esenç and Huseyin Kozan. Ubykh was never written by its speech community, but a few phrases were transcribed by Evliya Celebiin his Seyahatname, and a substantial portion of the oral literature, along with some cycles of the Nart saga, was transcribed. Tevfik Esenç also eventually learned to write Ubykh in the transcription that Dumézil devised. Julius von Mészáros, a Hungarian linguist, visited Turkey in 1930 and took down some notes on Ubykh. His work " Die Päkhy-Sprache" was extensive and accurate to the extent allowed by his transcription system (which could not represent all the phonemes of Ubykh), and marked the foundation of Ubykh linguistics.
Georges Dumézilalso visited Turkey in 1930 to record some Ubykh, and would eventually become the most celebrated Ubykh linguist of all time. He published a collection of Ubykh folktales in the late 1950s, and the language soon attracted the attention of linguists for its small number (two) of phonemic vowels. Hans Vogt, a Norwegian, produced a monumental dictionarythat, in spite of its many errors (later corrected by Dumézil), is still one of the masterpieces and essential tools of Ubykh linguistics.
Later in the 1960s and into the early 1970s, Dumézil published a series of papers on Ubykh
etymologyin particular and Northwest Caucasian etymology in general. Dumézil's book "Le Verbe Oubykh" (1975), a comprehensive account of the verbal and nominal morphology of the language, is another cornerstone of Ubykh linguistics.
Since the 1980s, Ubykh
linguisticshas slowed drastically. No other major treatises have been published; however, the Dutch linguist Rieks Smeetsis currently trying to compile a new Ubykh dictionary based on Vogt's 1963 book, and a similar project is also underway in Australia. The Ubykh themselves have shown interest in relearning their language.
People who have published literature on Ubykh include
* Brian George Hewitt
* Catherine Paris
* Christine Leroy
* Georg Bossong
* Georges Dumézil
* Hans Vogt
* John Colarusso
* Julius von Mészáros
* Rieks Smeets
* Tevfik Esenç
* Wim Lucassen
* Ubykh has been cited in the "Guinness Book of Records" (1996 ed.) as the language with the most consonants, although it may have been overtaken by some of the
* Ubykh has 20 uvular and 27 pure
fricativephonemes, more than any other known language.
* Ubykh may be related to Hattic, a language spoken in
Anatoliabefore 2000 BC and written in a cuneiform script.
amples of Ubykh
All examples from Dumézil 1968. See external link below for audio.
IPA|/faaχʲa tʼqʷʼa.kʷabʒa kʲʼaʁə.n a.za.χʲa.ʃə.na.n a.mʁʲa.n gʲə.kʲa.qʼa.n./
once two.man friend.ADV they.each-other.BEN.become.PL.ADV the.road.OBL on.enter(PL).past.PL
"Once, two men set out together on the road."
IPA|/a.f.awtə.nə mʁʲawəf a.χʷad(a).awtə.n a.kʲa.na.n, a.za.n fatɕʼ.aala ɕʷəbˁ(a).aala χʷada.qʼa,/
they.eat.FUT.ADV provisions they.buy.FUT.ADV they.enter(PL).PL.ADV the.one.ERG cheese.and bread.and buy.PAST
"They went to buy some provisions for the journey; the one bought cheese and bread,"
IPA|/ajdə.χə.n.gʲə ɕʷəbˁ(a).aala ps(a).aala χʷada.n a.j.nə.w.qʼa./
other.of.ERG.and bread.and fish.and buy.ADV it.hither.he.bring.past
"and the other bought bread and fish."
"While they were on the road,"
IPA|/wa.fatɕʼ.də.χʷada.qʼajtʼ.ə ʁa.kʲʼaʁ.ʁaafa "ɕʷəʁʷaɬa psa jada ɕʷ.f.aa.n;"/
that.cheese.REL.buy.PLUP.GER his.friend.towards you-all fish much you-all.eat.PL.PRES
"the one who had bought the cheese asked the other, "You people eat a lot of fish;"
IPA|/"saaba wana.n.gʲaafə psa ɕʷ.f.aa.nə.j?" qʼa.n ʁ(a).aa.dzʁa.qʼa./
why that.OBL.as-much-as fish you-all.eat.PL.PRES.QU say.ADV him.to.ask.past
"why do you eat fish as much as that?"
IPA|/"psa wə.fə.ba wə.tɕʼa jada ʃ.awt,"/
fish you.eat.if your.knowledge much become.FUT
"If you eat fish, you get smarter,"
IPA|/"wana.ʁaafa ʃəʁʷaɬa psa jada ʃ.fə.n," qʼa.qʼa./
that.for we fish much we.eat.PRES say.PAST
"so we eat a lot of fish," he answered."
* Colarusso, J. 1994 "Proto-Northwest Caucasian, or, How to Crack a Very Hard Nut". Journal of Indo-European Studies 22: 1-17.
* Dumézil, G. 1961 "Etudes oubykhs". Librairie A. Maisonneuve: Paris.
* Dumézil, G. 1965 "Documents anatoliens sur les langues et les traditions du Caucase, III: Nouvelles études oubykhs". Librairie A. Maisonneuve: Paris.
* Dumézil, G. 1968 "Eating fish makes you clever". Annotated recording available via [http://lacito.vjf.cnrs.fr/archivage/oubykh.htm] .
* Dumézil, G. 1975 "Le verbe oubykh: études descriptives et comparatives". Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.
* Hewitt, B. G. 2005 "North-West Caucasian". Lingua 115: 91-145.
* Mészáros, J. von. 1930 "Die Päkhy-Sprache". University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
* Vogt, H. 1963 "Dictionnaire de la langue oubykh". Universitetsforlaget: Oslo.
* [http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ubykh.htm Two proposals for a practical orthography for Ubykh]
* YouTube: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRj-8oCmnkU Tevfik Esenç narrating the story of the two travellers and the fish in Ubykh]
* [http://lacito.vjf.cnrs.fr/archivage/tools/list_rsc.php?lg=Ubykh A number of narrations by Tevfik Esenç, WAV format]
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