- United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
caption= The USAMRIID Logo
dates= 1969 - Present
United States Army
type= Medical R&D Command
Colonel John P. Skvorak, DVM, PhD
Fort Detrick, Maryland
motto= "Biodefense Solutions to Protect Our Nation"
The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, pronounced you-SAM-rid) is the U.S Army’s main institution and facility for
infectious disease researchthat may have defensive applications against biological warfare. It is located on Fort Detrick, Marylandand is a subordinate lab of the U. S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), headquartered on the same installation.
USAMRIID is the only
U.S. Department of Defense laboratoryequipped to study highly hazardous virusesat Biosafety Level 4.
USAMRIID employs both military and civilian
scientists as well as highly specialized support personnel. In the 1950s and '60s, it pioneered unique, state-of-the-art biocontainmentfacilities which it continues to maintain and upgrade. Investigators at its facilities frequently collaborate with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and major biomedical and academic centers worldwide.
USAMRIID was the first bio-facility of its type to research the
Ames strainof anthrax, determined through genetic analysisto be the bacteriumused in the 2001 anthrax attacks. [ [http://www.usamriid.army.mil/education/index.htm Medical Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties Course (MMCBC)] ] [ [http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?no=336537&rel_no=1 America Steps-Up Biodefenses] ]
USAMRIID’s 1983 "Mission Statement" mandates that the Institute:
National and international legal status
U.S. Department of Defense(DoD) directive, as well as additional U.S. Army guidance, USAMRIID performs its “biological agent medical defense” research in support of the needs of the three military services. This mission, and all work done at USAMRIID, must remain within the spirit and letter of both President Richard Nixon's 1969 and 1970 Executive Ordersrenouncing the use of biological and toxin weapons, and the U.N. Biological Weapons Conventionof 1972.
USAMRIID traces its institutional lineage to the early 1950s, when Lt. Col. Abram S. Benenson was appointed as medical liaison officer to the U.S. Army
Biological Warfare Laboratories(BWL) at Camp (later Fort) Detrick to oversee biomedical defensive problems. Soon thereafter, a joint agreement was signed and studies on medical defense against biological weapons were conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Army Chemical Corpsand the Army Medical Department. These early days saw the beginnings of the medical volunteer program known as “ Project Whitecoat” (1954-1973). USAMRIID’s precursor, the Army Medical Unit(AMU) began operations in 1956 under the command of Col. William D. Tigertt. (One of the AMU’s first responsibilities was to oversee all aspects of Project CD-22, the exposure of volunteers to aerosols containing a highly pathogenic strain of " Coxiella burnetii", the causal agent of Q fever.)
In 1961, Col.
Dan Crozierassumed command of the AMU. Crozier oversaw the planning and construction of the present USAMRIID laboratory and office building (Building 1425) and its advanced biocontainmentsuites, which is formally known as “The Crozier Building”. Ground breaking came in 1967 (personnel moved in during 1971 and 1972). In 1969, the BWL were formally disestablished and the Institute underwent a formal name change from the AMU to the "U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases". The Institute's mission did not really change and it received additional funding and personnel authorizations to hire biomedical and laboratory scientists who were losing their jobs as a result of the termination of the United States’ offensive BW studies.
Modern principles of
biosafetyand biocontainmentwere pioneered at Fort Detrick throughout the 1960s by a number of scientists led by Arnold G. Wedum.
By the late 1970s, in addition to the work on "Coxiella burnetii" and other
rickettsiae, research priorities had expanded to include the development of vaccines and therapeutics against Argentine, Korean and Bolivian hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa feverand other exotic diseases that could pose potential BW threats. In 1978, the Institute assisted with humanitarian efforts in Egypt when a severe outbreak of Rift Valley fever(RVF) occurred there for the first time. The epidemic caused thousands of human cases and the deaths of large numbers of livestock. Diagnostics, along with much of the Institute's stock of RVF vaccine, were sent to help control the outbreak. In 1979, the Institute acquired both fixed and transportable BSL-4 containment plastic human isolators for the hospital care and safe transport of patients suffering from highly contagious and potentially lethal exotic infections. At that time a formal agreement was signed with the Centers for Disease Control(CDC) that USAMRIID would house and treat highly contageous infections in laboratory personnel should any occur.
The 1980s saw the establishment of a new program to improve the existing anthrax vaccine, and to develop new information on the pathophysiology of weaponized anthrax disease. This came in response to the
Sverdlovsk anthrax leakof 1979. Professional medical opinion differed at this period as to exactly what constituted a potential BW agent. A case in point was the establishment in 1980 of a new program focusing on Legionnaire’s diseaseat the urging of some medical authorities. Almost a year later, a panel of experts decided that this organism did not have potential as a BW agent and the program was discontinued. Of greater longevity were the new research programs initiated at this time to study the trichothecenefungal toxins, marine toxins and other small molecular weight toxins of microbial origin.
The early 1980s also saw the development at USAMRIID of new diagnostic methods for several pathogenic organisms such as
ELISAtechnology and the extensive use of monoclonal antibodies. The same year saw introduction of a new course, "Medical Defense Against Biological Agents", designed to familiarize military physicians, nurses and other medical personnel with the special problems potentially posed by medical management BW cases. This course, with some changes in format, continued into the 21st century as the “Medical Management of Chemical and Biological Casualties Course” (MCBC), still conducted jointly by USAMRIID and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense(USAMRICD).
In 1985, the General
Maxwell Thurmond, then Army Deputy Chief of Staff, reviewed the threat posed to U.S. servicemembers by biological weapons. Thurmond was particularly concerned about the application of genetic engineering technology to alter conventional microorganisms and his review resulted in a five year plan of expansion for research into medical defensive measures at USAMRIID. The 1985 in-house budget of 34 M USD was to expand to 45 M the next year and was eventually scheduled to reach 93.2 M by 1989. (The need for a physical detection system to identify an aerosol of infectious agent became apparent at this time. Lack of such a reliable system still represents one of the major technical difficulties in the field.) Within two years, however, it became apparent that this program of expansion would not materialize. A new proposed toxin laboratory was never built. The Army had experienced several budget cuts and these impacted the funding of the Institute.
By 1988, USAMRIID began to come under close scrutiny by several Congressional committees. The Senate Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, chaired by Senator
Carl Levin, issued a report quite critical in the DoD's management of biological safety issues in the CBW programs. Senator John Glenn, Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairsasked the Government Accounting Office(GAO) to investigate the validity of DoD's Biological Defense Research Program. The GAO issued a critical report concluding that the Army spent funds on R&D efforts that did not address validated BW threats and may have duplicated the research efforts of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health.
While investigating an outbreak of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) in
1989, a USAMRIID electron microscopist discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebolain tissue samples taken from a crab-eating macaqueimported from the Philippinesto the Hazleton Laboratories in Reston, Virginia. USAMRIID's role in this " Ebola Reston outbreak" became the focus of Richard Preston's bestselling 1994 book" The Hot Zone".
During the period of
Desert Shieldand Desert Storm(1990-91) USAMRIID provided the DoD with expert advice and products (vaccines and drugs) to insure an effective medical response if a medical defense were required. USAMRIID scientists trained and equipped six special laboratory teams for rapid identification of potential BW agents, which fortunately never appeared. Following the conflict, USAMRIID physicians and engineers were key members of a United Nations Special Commission(UNSCOM) Inspection Team that evaluated the BW capabilities in Iraq during the 1990s.
In late 2001, USAMRIID became the
FBI’s reference lab for forensic evidence related to the bioterror incident known as " Amerithrax" in which anthrax-laden letters were sent through the US Postal Service, killing 5 people and sickening 17 others. The response by USAMRIID as it interacted with the FBI, HHS, DOJ, CIAand the White Houseare detailed in Richard Preston's book " The Demon in the Freezer" [Preston, Richard (2002), " The Demon in the Freezer", New York: Random House.] .
An inspection by USAMRMC, conducted seven months after the Amerithrax incidents, found that Suite B-3 in Building 1425 at the Institute not only was contaminated with anthrax in three locations but the bacteria had escaped from secure areas in the building to those that were unprotected. The report stated that, "safety procedures at the facility and in individual laboratories were lax and inadequately documented; that safety supervision sometimes was carried out by junior personnel with inadequate training or survey instruments; and that exposures of dangerous bacteria at the lab, including anthrax, had not been adequately reported." [Seper, Jerry, " [http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/aug/08/lab-deemed-early-as-contaminated-rats-nest/ Lab Deemed Early As Contaminated 'Rat's Nest'] ", "
Washington Times", August 8, 2008, p. 1.]
In August of 2008, a USAMRIID scientist, Dr.
Bruce Ivins, was identified as the lone Amerithrax culprit by the FBI. Ivins had allegedly expressed homicidal thoughts and exhibited mental instability before and after the attacks occurred. He had maintained his security clearance at the Institute, and retained access to dangerous substances, until mid-July of 2008, at the end of which month he committed suicide [Hernandez, Nelson, and Philip Rucker, " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2008/08/07/ST2008080703559.html Anthrax Case Raises Doubt On Security] ", August 8, 2008, p. 1.] . Also in August of 2008, Secretary of the Army Pete Gerenordered the creation of a team of medical and military experts to review security measures at the Institute. The team is headed by a two-star general, and will include representatives from USAMRMC, the Army's Surgeon General, and Army operations. [" Associated Press", " [http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/bal-te.anthrax09aug09,0,886595.story Army Team To Probe Security At Detrick] ", August 9, 2008.] U.S. Representatives John D. Dingelland Bart Stupakhave stated that they will lead investigations into security at the Institute as part of a review of all the nation's biodefense labs. [Meyer, Josh, " [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/washingtondc/la-na-anthrax9-2008aug09,0,42787.story Anthrax Case Prompts Congressional Investigation Of Biodefense Labs] ", " Los Angeles Times", August 9, 2008.]
List of USAMRIID commanders
Notable USAMRIID scientists
C.J. Peters, physician and virologist made famous by the best-seller " The Hot Zone"
Ayaad Assaad, microbiologist and toxicologist
William C. Patrick III, microbiologist, former bioweaponeer and UNSCOMinspector
Richard O. Spertzel, microbiologist, veterinarian and UNSCOM inspector
Steven Hatfill, physician, virologist and former Amerithraxsuspect
Bruce Ivins, microbiologist and vaccinologist; identified by the FBIas the Amerithraxculprit
Philip M. Zack, microbiologist
Popular culture references
Richard Preston's bestselling 1994 book" The Hot Zone" (ISBN 0-385-47956-5) provided loose source material for the 1995biomedical movie thriller "Outbreak." Another film influenced by it was "Carriers" (1998).
*USAMRIID was prominently featured in
Tom Clancy's Jack Ryan novel " Executive Orders" (1996).
*USAMRIID was referenced in the science fiction television series "First Wave" (1998-2001).
*USAMRIID was the employer of the hero of the short-lived television series, "Strange World" (1999).
Robert Ludlum's "Covert-One" book series (2000-2007), Lt. Col. Jon Smith uses a job at USAMRIID as a cover for his assignments.
*The protagonist of
Orson Scott Card's book "Invasive Procedures" (2007) is a virologist at USAMRIID.
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center
* [http://www.usamriid.army.mil/ USAMRIID website]
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